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Endocrinology


Hopefully made easy!
Introduction/General
           Info
 Endocrine glands- secrete hormones.
 Exocrine glands- produce secretions
  that are released via ducts.
 Hormones- chemical messengers carried
  by plasma.
    Regulates the activity of the target
     organ.
 Not all hormones are secreted by
  endocrine glands, some are produced in
  tissue from another organ.
    Like EPO – produced by kidney
Introduction/General
           Info
 Major Endocrine Glands-
   Pituitary
   Thyroid glands
   Parathyroids
   Pancreas
   Ovaries
   Testes
   Adrenal glands
The Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland
 Divided into 2 lobes, each of which
  acts as a separate gland.
   Anterior
   Posterior
 Mainly influenced by the
  Hypothalamus.
Anterior Pituitary Gland
 “Master Endocrine Gland”
 Develops from glandular tissue.

 Hormones-
1. Growth Hormone (GH)-
    Promotes body growth
    Regulates metabolism
    Encourages protein synthesis
Anterior Pituitary
          Gland…
2. Prolactin (PRL)-
    Triggers and maintains
     lactation.
3. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
  (TSH)-
    Stimulates the growth and
     development of the thyroid
     gland.
4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Anterior Pituitary
           Gland…
5. Follicle-stimulating Hormone
  (FSH)-
    Stimulates the growth &
     development of the ovarian
     follicles.
    Stimulates the follicle lining to
     produce & secrete ESTROGEN.
    Stimulates spermatogenesis.
Anterior Pituitary
           Gland…
6. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)-
    Completes the follicle development
     process.
    Can cause OVULATION.
    Can cause the development of the
     CORPUS LUTEUM-
       Which produces PROGESTERONE,
        which maintains pregnancy.
    Can stimulate the testes to develop &
     produce TESTOSTERONE.
Posterior Pituitary Gland
 Develops from the nervous system.
 Does not produce any hormones.
 Stores ADH & Oxytocin
Posterior Pituitary
         Gland…
1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)-
   Prevents diuresis-
     Conserves water
     Urine is more concentrated
   The release of ADH is inhibited
     by alcohol and caffeine.
Posterior Pituitary
          Gland…
2. Oxytocin-
   Has 2 targets-
      The uterus & mammary glands
   Can cause uterine contractions
    to:
      Aid in the transport of sperm
       to the oviducts.
      Aid in the delivery of the fetus.
The Thyroid Gland
The Thyroid Gland
 Produces:
   Thyroid hormones
      T3- has 3 iodine atoms
     T4- has 4 iodine atoms
   Calcitonin
Parathyroid Glands
 Produces parathyroid hormone
  (PTH)
 Works opposite to calcitonin to
  maintain blood calcium levels.
 Mobilizes calcium from bones to
  the bloodstream.
    Negative feedback loop.
The Adrenal Glands
The Adrenal Glands…
 Actually 2
  glands-
    Adrenal
     cortex
    Adrenal
     medulla
The Adrenal Glands…
 Adrenal Cortex-
   Develops from glandular tissue.
   Under the influence of ACTH, it
    produces steroids:
      Glucocorticoids
      Mineralocorticoids
      Sex hormones
         Chemicals derived from
          cholesterol.
The Adrenal Glands…
     Adrenal Cortex…
1.    Glucocorticoids-
      Cortisone, Cortisol, & Corticosterone
        a. Cortisol- aka hydrocortisone, influences
           the metabolism of sugars and has a
           anti-inflammatory effect.
        b. Cortisone- similar to Cortisol, and can
           be prepared synthetically. Useful in
           treating inflammatory conditions.
      Causes a hyperglycemic effect.
      Causes blood glucose levels to rise.
The Adrenal Glands…
 Adrenal Cortex…
2. Mineralocorticoids-
    Regulates electrolyte levels.
    The primary one is ALDOSTERONE.
       Reabsorbs sodium, excretes
        potassium.
3. Sex Hormones-
    Androgens- male
    Estrogens- female
       Maintain secondary sex
        characteristics (beard & breast
        development)
       These hormones are also produced in
The Adrenal Glands…
 Adrenal Medulla-
   Develops from nervous tissue.
   Produces (catecholamines):
      Epinepherine
      Norepinepherine
         Chemicals derived from amino
          acids
   Along with the sympathetic nervous
    system, these catecholamines
    stimulate the “Fight or Flight”
The Adrenal Glands…
  Adrenal Medulla…
1. Epinepherine-
    heart rate, dilates
    bronchioles, and stimulates the
    production of glucose for
    energy.
1. Norepinepherine-
   Constricts blood vessels and
    raises blood pressure.
The Pancreas
The Pancreas…
 Controls metabolism
 Secretes:
  1. Somatostatin- inhibits the
    secretion of insulin & glucagon.
  2. Insulin-  glucose
  3. Glucagon-  glucose
Pathology
Hyperthyroidism
 The most commonly seen
  endocrine disorder in cats.
 Very rare in dogs except as a
  result of neoplasia.
 Bilateral thyroid gland
  enlargement occurs in 70% of
  cases.
Hyperthyroidism…
 Signs include:
   Weight loss
   Polyphagia
   Vomiting
   Increased appetite
   Tachycardia (with or without
    murmurs)
Hyperthyroidism…
 Treatment options include:
   Surgical removal of the thyroid
    gland
   Radioactive iodine treatment
   Antithyroid drug therapy
Hypothyroidism
 Commonly seen in the dog.
 Clinical signs include:
   Weight gain with no change in
    diet.
   Bilateral symmetric alopecia &
    loss of hair on the tail (“rat
    tail”).
   66-75% of dogs will have an
    increased cholesterol level.
Parathyroid
 Hyperparathyroidism-
    production of parathormone.
   Causes hypercalcemia.
   Etiology is often a parathyroid tumor.
 Hypoparathyroidism-
    production of parathormone.
   Causes hypocalcemia.
      This leads to a condition called
       tetany-
         Constant muscle contraction.
Adrenal Cortex
 Hyperadrenocorticoidism-
   “Cushing’s Disease”
   Produced by excess cortisol from
    the adrenal cortex.
 Hypoadrenocorticoidism-
   “Addison’s Disease”
   Hypofunctioning of the adrenal
    cortex.
Pancreas
 Hyperinsulinism-
   Excess secretion of insulin
    causing hypoglycemia.
   A problem of ferrets.
   Etiology may be a pancreatic
    tumor or an overdose of insulin.
Pancreas
 Diabetes mellitus-
   Lack of insulin secretion or
    resistance of insulin to promote
    sugar, starch, and fat metabolism
    in cells.
   Symptoms include: PU/PD,
    glucosuria, and +/- ketoacidosis.
      Ketoacidosis- fats are improperly
       burned leading to an
       accumulation of ketones in the
Pancreas
 Type I Diabetes-
    Insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
    Onset is usually in young animals.
    A complete deficiency of insulin.
    Patients require injections of insulin for
     treatment.
 Type II Diabetes-
    Non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus
     (NIDDM)
    A separate disease from type I.
    Still has a deficiency of insulin.
    Usually in older, obese animals.
    Treatment is with diet and oral medications.
Laboratory Analysis
Lab Analysis…
 Glucose tolerance
 Thyroid tests- T3, T4, Free T4,
  TSH
 ACTH Stim.
 Dexamethasone Suppression-
   LDDS
   HDDS
 Urine Cortisol : Creatinine
THE END!

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Lp 17 endocrinology 2009

  • 2.
  • 3. Introduction/General Info  Endocrine glands- secrete hormones.  Exocrine glands- produce secretions that are released via ducts.  Hormones- chemical messengers carried by plasma.  Regulates the activity of the target organ.  Not all hormones are secreted by endocrine glands, some are produced in tissue from another organ.  Like EPO – produced by kidney
  • 4. Introduction/General Info  Major Endocrine Glands-  Pituitary  Thyroid glands  Parathyroids  Pancreas  Ovaries  Testes  Adrenal glands
  • 6. Pituitary Gland  Divided into 2 lobes, each of which acts as a separate gland.  Anterior  Posterior  Mainly influenced by the Hypothalamus.
  • 7. Anterior Pituitary Gland  “Master Endocrine Gland”  Develops from glandular tissue.  Hormones- 1. Growth Hormone (GH)-  Promotes body growth  Regulates metabolism  Encourages protein synthesis
  • 8. Anterior Pituitary Gland… 2. Prolactin (PRL)-  Triggers and maintains lactation. 3. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)-  Stimulates the growth and development of the thyroid gland. 4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • 9. Anterior Pituitary Gland… 5. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)-  Stimulates the growth & development of the ovarian follicles.  Stimulates the follicle lining to produce & secrete ESTROGEN.  Stimulates spermatogenesis.
  • 10. Anterior Pituitary Gland… 6. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)-  Completes the follicle development process.  Can cause OVULATION.  Can cause the development of the CORPUS LUTEUM-  Which produces PROGESTERONE, which maintains pregnancy.  Can stimulate the testes to develop & produce TESTOSTERONE.
  • 11. Posterior Pituitary Gland  Develops from the nervous system.  Does not produce any hormones.  Stores ADH & Oxytocin
  • 12. Posterior Pituitary Gland… 1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)-  Prevents diuresis-  Conserves water  Urine is more concentrated  The release of ADH is inhibited by alcohol and caffeine.
  • 13. Posterior Pituitary Gland… 2. Oxytocin-  Has 2 targets-  The uterus & mammary glands  Can cause uterine contractions to:  Aid in the transport of sperm to the oviducts.  Aid in the delivery of the fetus.
  • 15. The Thyroid Gland  Produces:  Thyroid hormones  T3- has 3 iodine atoms  T4- has 4 iodine atoms  Calcitonin
  • 16. Parathyroid Glands  Produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)  Works opposite to calcitonin to maintain blood calcium levels.  Mobilizes calcium from bones to the bloodstream.  Negative feedback loop.
  • 18. The Adrenal Glands…  Actually 2 glands-  Adrenal cortex  Adrenal medulla
  • 19. The Adrenal Glands…  Adrenal Cortex-  Develops from glandular tissue.  Under the influence of ACTH, it produces steroids:  Glucocorticoids  Mineralocorticoids  Sex hormones  Chemicals derived from cholesterol.
  • 20. The Adrenal Glands…  Adrenal Cortex… 1. Glucocorticoids-  Cortisone, Cortisol, & Corticosterone a. Cortisol- aka hydrocortisone, influences the metabolism of sugars and has a anti-inflammatory effect. b. Cortisone- similar to Cortisol, and can be prepared synthetically. Useful in treating inflammatory conditions.  Causes a hyperglycemic effect.  Causes blood glucose levels to rise.
  • 21. The Adrenal Glands…  Adrenal Cortex… 2. Mineralocorticoids-  Regulates electrolyte levels.  The primary one is ALDOSTERONE.  Reabsorbs sodium, excretes potassium. 3. Sex Hormones-  Androgens- male  Estrogens- female  Maintain secondary sex characteristics (beard & breast development)  These hormones are also produced in
  • 22. The Adrenal Glands…  Adrenal Medulla-  Develops from nervous tissue.  Produces (catecholamines):  Epinepherine  Norepinepherine  Chemicals derived from amino acids  Along with the sympathetic nervous system, these catecholamines stimulate the “Fight or Flight”
  • 23. The Adrenal Glands…  Adrenal Medulla… 1. Epinepherine-   heart rate, dilates bronchioles, and stimulates the production of glucose for energy. 1. Norepinepherine-  Constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure.
  • 25. The Pancreas…  Controls metabolism  Secretes: 1. Somatostatin- inhibits the secretion of insulin & glucagon. 2. Insulin-  glucose 3. Glucagon-  glucose
  • 27. Hyperthyroidism  The most commonly seen endocrine disorder in cats.  Very rare in dogs except as a result of neoplasia.  Bilateral thyroid gland enlargement occurs in 70% of cases.
  • 28. Hyperthyroidism…  Signs include:  Weight loss  Polyphagia  Vomiting  Increased appetite  Tachycardia (with or without murmurs)
  • 29. Hyperthyroidism…  Treatment options include:  Surgical removal of the thyroid gland  Radioactive iodine treatment  Antithyroid drug therapy
  • 30. Hypothyroidism  Commonly seen in the dog.  Clinical signs include:  Weight gain with no change in diet.  Bilateral symmetric alopecia & loss of hair on the tail (“rat tail”).  66-75% of dogs will have an increased cholesterol level.
  • 31. Parathyroid  Hyperparathyroidism-   production of parathormone.  Causes hypercalcemia.  Etiology is often a parathyroid tumor.  Hypoparathyroidism-   production of parathormone.  Causes hypocalcemia.  This leads to a condition called tetany-  Constant muscle contraction.
  • 32. Adrenal Cortex  Hyperadrenocorticoidism-  “Cushing’s Disease”  Produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex.  Hypoadrenocorticoidism-  “Addison’s Disease”  Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex.
  • 33. Pancreas  Hyperinsulinism-  Excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia.  A problem of ferrets.  Etiology may be a pancreatic tumor or an overdose of insulin.
  • 34. Pancreas  Diabetes mellitus-  Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin to promote sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells.  Symptoms include: PU/PD, glucosuria, and +/- ketoacidosis.  Ketoacidosis- fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones in the
  • 35. Pancreas  Type I Diabetes-  Insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (IDDM)  Onset is usually in young animals.  A complete deficiency of insulin.  Patients require injections of insulin for treatment.  Type II Diabetes-  Non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)  A separate disease from type I.  Still has a deficiency of insulin.  Usually in older, obese animals.  Treatment is with diet and oral medications.
  • 37. Lab Analysis…  Glucose tolerance  Thyroid tests- T3, T4, Free T4, TSH  ACTH Stim.  Dexamethasone Suppression-  LDDS  HDDS  Urine Cortisol : Creatinine

Editor's Notes

  1. Be able to list glands
  2. Needs to be done in conjunction with estrogen