Reproductive System     VTT 235/245
MALE ANATOMY
Structures Testes-      Male gonad that produces both testosterone       and germ cells (which become sperm).      Cont...
Structures Epididymis-      Structure adjacent to the testicle.      3 parts: head, body, and tail.      Spermatozoa m...
Structures The Spermatic Cord consists of-   Vas deferens   Testicular artery, vein, nerve, and    lymphatics
Accessory Sex Glands Prostate Seminal vesicles Bulbourethral glands
Penis The male copulatory organ. Provides a passage way for semen  and urine to the outside of the body. Prepuce- the c...
Penis Contains the glans penis (head of the  penis) Bulbus Glandis- the caudal part of  the penis.   Swells to lock the...
MALE PHYSIOLOGY
Testosterone Produced by the testes. Responsible for secondary sex  characteristics and sex drive. An androgen or anabo...
Sperm Spermatogenesis is stimulated by FSH.      Head-        Contains the nucleus and haploid chromosomes.        Acr...
Seminal Fluid Produced by accessory sex organs. The medium for survival of the  sperm. Prostatic secretion- alkalinizes...
MALE PATHOLOGY
Prostatic Disease   Common in dogs   Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia   Prostatic adenocarcinoma   Bacterial   All cause ...
Orchitis & Epididymitis Acute- Caused by trauma, infection, or  testicular torsion Chronic- Immune-mediated or neoplas...
Phimosis The inability to extrude the penis  through an abnormally small preputial  orifice Congenital or it develops du...
Paraphimosis The inability to completely retract  the penis Usually occurs after an erection The preputial orifice skin...
Pathologies… Inguinal Hernia-   The protrusion of a loop of organ or    tissue through the inguinal canal. Cryptorchidi...
FEMALE ANATOMY    Structures
Structures Ovaries Oviducts (uterine tubes) Uterus- horns and body Cervix- a heavy, smooth muscle sphincter  that is k...
Ovaries Ovaries- both endocrine (hormone  producing) and cytogenic (cell  producing).   Medulla- vascular center of the ...
Oviducts Oviduct- the open end of the uterine  tube (fallopian tube) Functions-   Collects ova as they are released.  ...
Uterus Highly expandable, tubular organ  where the embryo/fetus develops. A hollow structure with 3 parts-  neck (where ...
Uterus Uterine Walls- 3 layers
Vagina The part of the reproductive tract  between the cervix and the vulva. Along with the vestibule and vulva, it  is ...
Other Structures… Vulva- the external orifice that  terminates the genital tract. Labia- the Ⓡ and Ⓛ lips of the vulva.
FEMALE PHYSIOLOGY
Types Monestrous- usually one cycle per year,  usually seasonal breeders. (mink) Polyestrous- more than one cycle per ye...
Estrous Cycle The onset of the estrous cycle begins at  puberty. The purpose is to prepare the uterus to  receive fertil...
Estrous Cycle At the beginning of each cycle, ova within  the follicles in the ovaries begin to  develop. One or more fo...
Estrous Cycle The ruptured follicle grows larger, filling  with a yellow, lipoid material and becomes  the CORPUS LUTEUM ...
Estrous Cycle Without fertilization, the corpus  luteum and its secretions diminish,  forming a CORPUS ALBICANS  (“white ...
Stages of the Estrous Cycle
1. Proestrus Period of preparation. **FSH & LH cause the development  of the follicle. The follicle starts producing  E...
2. Estrus Period of female sexual receptivity. Uterus and uterine horns are ready  to receive an embryo. Release of LH ...
3. Diestrus & Metestrus Post-ovulating phase. Each ruptured follicle develops into a  corpus luteum (CL).    The CL sta...
3. Diestrus & Metestrus If pregnancy does not occur, the CL  degenerates. If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum is  mai...
4. Anestrus Periods of no estrous cycles     a. Pregnancy     b. Nursing     c. Season of year     d. Poor Nutrition ...
PREGNANCY
Gestation Periods   **Dog-               Pig-       57-63 days              114 days   **Cat-               Sheep & ...
Terms Gestation- the interval between  fertilization of the ovum and the birth of  the offspring. Mitosis- cell division...
Fertilization & Cell Division Ova enter the infundibulum and are  transported down by muscular  contractions. Sperm trav...
The Placenta A membranous structure that obtains  nutrients and oxygen from the mother to  deliver to the fetus. Attache...
Hormones Oxytocin-   **Produced by the Posterior pituitary   Stimulates milk let-down.   In the presence of Estrogen, ...
Hormones Prolactin-   **From the Anterior pituitary   Helps maintain the CL during pregnancy.   Stimulates the mammary...
FEMALE PATHOLOGY
Uterine Infection Infection of the uterus.   Endometritis- inflammation of the    endometrium.   Metritis- inflammation...
Pyometra A hormonally mediated disorder. An abnormal uterine endometrium  combined with a secondary bacterial  infection...
Uterine Prolapse The turning inside-out of the uterus  and vagina causing it to project  through the vulva. Most common ...
Pseudocyesis False pregnancy Common in dogs Occurs at the end of diestrus,  characterized by hyperplasia of the  mammar...
LABORATORY ANALYSIS   VAGINAL CYTOLOGY     Hendrix p. 327
Anestrus Predominantly  non-cornified  squamous  epithelial cells      Lg nucleus       and rounded       edges
Proestrus Above- early  proestrus, below-  late proestrus Cornified  squamous  epithelial cells Angular with  jagged bo...
Estrus All squamous cells  are cornified Segs- absent,  RBC’s present
Diestrus Non-cornified  squamous and  abundant cytologic  debris Segs increase,  RBC’s are absent Similar to anestrus
LABORATORY ANALYSIS    SEMEN ANALYSIS
Semen Collection
Semen Analysis Sample Handling-   Avoid exposure to marked changes in    temperature Supplies-   Slides, coverslips, p...
Semen Analysis Evaluation-             Morphology-      Volume                 Head      Appearance             Midp...
Primary Abnormalities
Primary Abnormalities
Secondary Abnormalities
Semen Analysis
The End!!
Lp 16a reproductive system
Lp 16a reproductive system
Lp 16a reproductive system
Lp 16a reproductive system
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Lp 16a reproductive system

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Lp 16a reproductive system

  1. 1. Reproductive System VTT 235/245
  2. 2. MALE ANATOMY
  3. 3. Structures Testes-  Male gonad that produces both testosterone and germ cells (which become sperm).  Contained in the scrotum. Scrotum- pouch containing the testicles and epididymis. Seminiferous Tubules-  Hollow structures where germ cells differentiate into spermatozoa.
  4. 4. Structures Epididymis-  Structure adjacent to the testicle.  3 parts: head, body, and tail.  Spermatozoa mature in the head and body of the epididymis. Ductus Deferens (Vas Deferens)-  The continuation of the epididymal duct at the tail of the epididymis.  It travels up the spermatic cord and through the inguinal canal to reach the abdomen.
  5. 5. Structures The Spermatic Cord consists of-  Vas deferens  Testicular artery, vein, nerve, and lymphatics
  6. 6. Accessory Sex Glands Prostate Seminal vesicles Bulbourethral glands
  7. 7. Penis The male copulatory organ. Provides a passage way for semen and urine to the outside of the body. Prepuce- the cutaneous sheath around the free part of the penis when it is not erect. Preputial Orifice- the external opening of the prepuce to the outside environment.
  8. 8. Penis Contains the glans penis (head of the penis) Bulbus Glandis- the caudal part of the penis.  Swells to lock the male into the female during copulation. +/- Os penis
  9. 9. MALE PHYSIOLOGY
  10. 10. Testosterone Produced by the testes. Responsible for secondary sex characteristics and sex drive. An androgen or anabolic steroid. Production is stimulated by LH.
  11. 11. Sperm Spermatogenesis is stimulated by FSH.  Head-  Contains the nucleus and haploid chromosomes.  Acrosome- a “cap” which contains enzymes to permit penetration into the ovum.  Midpiece-  “Power plant”  Numerous mitochondria carry-out metabolism that provides ATP for sperm locomotion.  Tail- consists of flagellum for propulsion.
  12. 12. Seminal Fluid Produced by accessory sex organs. The medium for survival of the sperm. Prostatic secretion- alkalinizes the vaginal environment to prevent sperm death.
  13. 13. MALE PATHOLOGY
  14. 14. Prostatic Disease Common in dogs Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Prostatic adenocarcinoma Bacterial All cause enlargement or inflammation
  15. 15. Orchitis & Epididymitis Acute- Caused by trauma, infection, or testicular torsion Chronic- Immune-mediated or neoplastic Testicular atrophy and fibrosis
  16. 16. Phimosis The inability to extrude the penis through an abnormally small preputial orifice Congenital or it develops due to inflammation, neoplasia, edema, or fibrosis after trauma, irritation or infection
  17. 17. Paraphimosis The inability to completely retract the penis Usually occurs after an erection The preputial orifice skin becomes inverted and impairs venous drainage A medical emergency!!!
  18. 18. Pathologies… Inguinal Hernia-  The protrusion of a loop of organ or tissue through the inguinal canal. Cryptorchidism-  Failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum.  The retained testicle can be anywhere between the scrotum and the caudal pole of the kidney.
  19. 19. FEMALE ANATOMY Structures
  20. 20. Structures Ovaries Oviducts (uterine tubes) Uterus- horns and body Cervix- a heavy, smooth muscle sphincter that is kept tightly closed except during estrus and parturition. Vagina- glandless mucosa located within the pelvic canal. Vulva- consists of the vestibule and labia.
  21. 21. Ovaries Ovaries- both endocrine (hormone producing) and cytogenic (cell producing).  Medulla- vascular center of the ovary.  Cortex- where follicles can be found, both developing and atrophying.  Functions-  To produce ova or eggs ready for fertilization.  Acts as an endocrine gland.
  22. 22. Oviducts Oviduct- the open end of the uterine tube (fallopian tube) Functions-  Collects ova as they are released.  Conveys ova from the ovaries to the uterine horns. Infundibulum- funnel-shaped ovarian end of the oviduct.
  23. 23. Uterus Highly expandable, tubular organ where the embryo/fetus develops. A hollow structure with 3 parts- neck (where the cervix is located), body, and horns. Function-  Provides a receptacle for embryos to develop.  Provides nutrients via the PLACENTA.
  24. 24. Uterus Uterine Walls- 3 layers
  25. 25. Vagina The part of the reproductive tract between the cervix and the vulva. Along with the vestibule and vulva, it is the females copulatory organ and birth canal. The hymen is the poorly developed, vestigial, mucosal folds at the junction of the vagina and vestibule.
  26. 26. Other Structures… Vulva- the external orifice that terminates the genital tract. Labia- the Ⓡ and Ⓛ lips of the vulva.
  27. 27. FEMALE PHYSIOLOGY
  28. 28. Types Monestrous- usually one cycle per year, usually seasonal breeders. (mink) Polyestrous- more than one cycle per year, continuous. (swine) Seasonally Polyestrous- cycles continuously in specific seasons. Induced Ovulators- requires copulation to ovulate. Spontaneous Ovulators- ovulation occurs naturally, with or without copulation.
  29. 29. Estrous Cycle The onset of the estrous cycle begins at puberty. The purpose is to prepare the uterus to receive fertilized ovum. Sexual maturity brings about-  ovarian development, which includes the production of ova,  ovulation,  and the production of the corpus luteum. The estrous cycle is under the control of hormones produced by the ovaries and the pituitary gland. Animals do not undergo menopause.
  30. 30. Estrous Cycle At the beginning of each cycle, ova within the follicles in the ovaries begin to develop. One or more follicles (depending on the species) continue to develop until they reach a ripened follicle One or more follicles rupture, (ovulation, usually occurs during estrus.) Then the ovum is expelled from the ovary to the oviduct (uterine tube).
  31. 31. Estrous Cycle The ruptured follicle grows larger, filling with a yellow, lipoid material and becomes the CORPUS LUTEUM (“yellow body”). The corpus luteum secretes progesterone. If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum continues to secrete progesterone and prevents future estrous cycles during pregnancy.
  32. 32. Estrous Cycle Without fertilization, the corpus luteum and its secretions diminish, forming a CORPUS ALBICANS (“white body”). The reduced levels of hormone production lead to a new estrous cycle.
  33. 33. Stages of the Estrous Cycle
  34. 34. 1. Proestrus Period of preparation. **FSH & LH cause the development of the follicle. The follicle starts producing ESTROGEN.  Estrogen stimulates the vagina and uterus for copulation and pregnancy.
  35. 35. 2. Estrus Period of female sexual receptivity. Uterus and uterine horns are ready to receive an embryo. Release of LH causes ovulation. Dogs may have bloody discharge, cats may exhibit behavioral changes.
  36. 36. 3. Diestrus & Metestrus Post-ovulating phase. Each ruptured follicle develops into a corpus luteum (CL).  The CL starts to secrete PROGESTERONE which inhibits the development of new follicles.  The CL is also responsible for maintaining the uterine lining to support the fetus during pregnancy.
  37. 37. 3. Diestrus & Metestrus If pregnancy does not occur, the CL degenerates. If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained and continues to secrete hormones for:  The entire pregnancy or,  Until the placenta develops.  Depends on the species.
  38. 38. 4. Anestrus Periods of no estrous cycles  a. Pregnancy  b. Nursing  c. Season of year  d. Poor Nutrition  e. Pathological Conditions
  39. 39. PREGNANCY
  40. 40. Gestation Periods **Dog-  Pig-  57-63 days  114 days **Cat-  Sheep & Goats-  65 days  150 days Horse-  Mice-  330 days  19-21 days Cow-  Rats-  283 days  21-23 days Rabbits-  Hamsters-  30-33 days  15-18 days Guinea pigs-  Gerbils-  59-72 days  23-26 days
  41. 41. Terms Gestation- the interval between fertilization of the ovum and the birth of the offspring. Mitosis- cell division, one cell divides into 2, 2 into 4… Zygote- fertilized ovum Embryo- stage at which major organs are developing. Fetus- stage where formation of major internal and external structures is complete until the time of parturition.
  42. 42. Fertilization & Cell Division Ova enter the infundibulum and are transported down by muscular contractions. Sperm travels up the female tract and fertilization takes place in the upper part of the uterine tube. Each ovum is penetrated by one sperm which results in a fertilization reaction (preventing fertilization by any other sperm). The fertilized ovum is now a zygote, and cell division begins via mitosis.
  43. 43. The Placenta A membranous structure that obtains nutrients and oxygen from the mother to deliver to the fetus. Attaches to the endometrial lining of the uterus.  Chorion- outer layer in contact with the maternal uterus.  Amnion- innermost membrane closest to the fetus.  Amnionic Sac- sac in which the fetus is located.
  44. 44. Hormones Oxytocin-  **Produced by the Posterior pituitary  Stimulates milk let-down.  In the presence of Estrogen, it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition.  Stimulates the oviducts to help move spermatozoa.
  45. 45. Hormones Prolactin-  **From the Anterior pituitary  Helps maintain the CL during pregnancy.  Stimulates the mammary glands to fill with milk at parturition.  Stimulates the replenishment of milk via neonatal suckling.
  46. 46. FEMALE PATHOLOGY
  47. 47. Uterine Infection Infection of the uterus.  Endometritis- inflammation of the endometrium.  Metritis- inflammation of all layers.  Pyometra- accumulation of pus in the uterus.
  48. 48. Pyometra A hormonally mediated disorder. An abnormal uterine endometrium combined with a secondary bacterial infection. Often occurs when progestational compounds are administered to delay or suppress estrus.
  49. 49. Uterine Prolapse The turning inside-out of the uterus and vagina causing it to project through the vulva. Most common in the cow and sow. The prolapsed uterus can often be pushed back in and sutured in place until it heals.
  50. 50. Pseudocyesis False pregnancy Common in dogs Occurs at the end of diestrus, characterized by hyperplasia of the mammary glands, lactation, and behavioral changes Falling progesterone and increasing prolactin are believed to be the cause
  51. 51. LABORATORY ANALYSIS VAGINAL CYTOLOGY Hendrix p. 327
  52. 52. Anestrus Predominantly non-cornified squamous epithelial cells  Lg nucleus and rounded edges
  53. 53. Proestrus Above- early proestrus, below- late proestrus Cornified squamous epithelial cells Angular with jagged borders Segs(neutraphils) decrease, RBC’s increase
  54. 54. Estrus All squamous cells are cornified Segs- absent, RBC’s present
  55. 55. Diestrus Non-cornified squamous and abundant cytologic debris Segs increase, RBC’s are absent Similar to anestrus
  56. 56. LABORATORY ANALYSIS SEMEN ANALYSIS
  57. 57. Semen Collection
  58. 58. Semen Analysis Sample Handling-  Avoid exposure to marked changes in temperature Supplies-  Slides, coverslips, pipettes, stains and diluents
  59. 59. Semen Analysis Evaluation-  Morphology-  Volume  Head  Appearance  Midpiece  Motility  Tail  Concentration  Live:Dead Ratio
  60. 60. Primary Abnormalities
  61. 61. Primary Abnormalities
  62. 62. Secondary Abnormalities
  63. 63. Semen Analysis
  64. 64. The End!!

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