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  1. 1. LIBYA<br />Yes! This green side is the national flag. Not the best place for flag designers.<br />
  2. 2. Key Statistics<br />Population: 6.6 Million<br />Median Age: 24.5 Years<br />Religion: 97% Sunni<br />GDP: $89.03 Billion ($13,800 per capita)<br />Leader: <-- this guy! Mohammar Quadaffi<br />Years in Power: 42 years<br />Time Left in Power: 42 minutes?<br />
  3. 3. Modern Economy<br />OIL! (95% of export earnings, 25% of GDP, 80% of government earnings)<br />98th in world for Soverign debt<br />Qadaffi is worth close to $70 billion all stolen from the country<br />Small amounts of agriculture<br />Refines own oil<br />Exports petrochemicals<br />
  4. 4. History (prehistoric)<br />1000’s of years ago Sahara used to be lush green land<br />Land settled by Berbers after the nomadic tribes settled<br />Domesticated cattle<br />Cultivated crops<br />Society dates backs 12,000 years<br />No written language therefore little is known about them<br />Phoenician’s established trading relations with the Berber tribes by the 5th century BCE<br />The Phoenician state of Carthage occupied part of current day Libya<br />
  5. 5. Roman Libya 74 BC - 642 AD<br />Tripolitania becomes a state after the fall of Carthage and asks for protection from the Romans<br />Annexed in 74 BC and added to province of Crete<br />Economically successful in its golden age in 2nd century AD<br />Full of merchants and artisans and exported olive oil and cereals<br />Coastal regions became incredibly Romanized<br />
  6. 6. Tripolitania = “three polis” area<br />Oea = current day Tripoli<br />Sabratha<br />Leptis Magna<br />
  7. 7. Rome’s Split<br />During the split Libya goes to Byzantine empire.<br />High taxes imposed to pay for wars<br />Minimized legitimacy of the empire in Libya<br />In 642 AD the armies of Islam capture the province with 40,000 soliders<br />Tribal resistance surfaces but is put down in next 20 years<br />
  8. 8. Arab Islamic Rule 642-1551<br />Exports salt, wool, and leather<br />Normans of Italy invade setting off a long war<br />Turks and Bedouins reclaim Libya in 1174<br />Libya becomes a center of art, architecture, and literature<br />
  9. 9. Ottoman Rule 1551-1911<br />Invaded and conquered by the Ottomans<br />Run by janissaries<br />18th century - lapsed into military anarchy due to lack of central government<br />Coup takes power from Ottoman’s but deal is quickly reached to nominally rejoin with Ahmed as new governor<br />Ahmed improves economy by employing pirates on central shipping lanes<br />Fights the Barbary Wars with the US in 19th century<br />
  10. 10. Italian Colonialism 1911 - 1951<br />Known as Italian North Africa<br />150,000 Italians settled in the county<br />1934 Libya becomes official name<br />Uprising arises between two world wars<br />Under fascism Italy takes a hard line against rebels<br />After WWII the Brits and French control Libya<br />
  11. 11. Independent State<br />The UN General Assembly sets up a constitutional monarchy in 1952<br />Islam declared religion of state<br />Constitution protects individual rights and public obligations<br />Discovery of oil in 1959 helps Libya no longer be one of the world’s poorest states<br />
  12. 12. Qaddafi<br />Coup in 1969 by 27 year old Qaddafi (took 2 hours)<br />Suspended constitution and implemented Sharia<br />Purged country of “politically sick”<br />Created people’s militia to protect revolution<br />Extensive intelligence network - 10 - 20% of Libyans in its employ<br />Executed dissidents<br />Assassinated international refugees<br />
  13. 13. Qaddafi<br />Attacks Egypt because of Sadat’s peace with Israel<br />Egypt destroys all Libyan armor leaving 400 dead<br />Once more becomes impoverished from Qaddafi’s economic policy<br />Long history of state sponsored terrorism<br />
  14. 14. Protest Timeline<br />