Writing in discipline


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Writing in discipline

  1. 1. P a g e | 1 (Writing In Discipline) Submitted to: Ms. Sharmane B. Delgado ENGL2 Instructor
  2. 2. P a g e | 2 I. Structural Analysis…………………………………………3 II. Homonyms, Homograph & Heteronyms………………..8 III. Word Association…………………………………………..10 IV. Idioms……………………………………………………….12 V. Synonyms and Antonyms………………………………...13 VI. Figures of Speech………………………………………….14 VII. Tenses of the Verb…………………………………………17 VIII. Run-ons…………………………………………………….37 IX. Fragments…………………………………………………..40 X. Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers………………………43 XI. Capitalization………………………………………………46 XII. Punctuations……………………………………………….58 XIII. Qualities of a Paragraph………………………………….77 XIV. Friendly Letters…………………………………………….78 XV. Business Letters…………………………………………..83 XVI. Application Letter…………………………………………89 XVII. Rules in Subject-Verb Agreement…………………….95 .
  3. 3. P a g e | 3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Common Prefixes, Suffixes and Root Words The English languages has its roots in several languages, including Greek, Latin, and older forms of English, German and French. Learning to recognize common roots and affixes (prefixes and suffixes)will help you build your vocabulary and improve your ability to make educated guesses about unknown words you encounter in reading and test-taking situation. Good dictionaries will give you information about the origins of words. Whenever you look up a new word, make a point of reading this information. Some of the roots and affixes appear in a large number of words. Learning these will enhance your ability to comprehend course reading and to learn new terminology. Positional categories of affixes Affixes are divided into several categories, depending on their position with reference to the stem. Prefix and suffix are extremely common term. Infix and circumfix are less so, as they are not important in European languages. The other terms are uncommon.
  4. 4. P a g e | 4 Categories of Affixes Prefix - appears at the front of a stem. Suffix - appears at the back of a stem. Infix - appears within a stem. Circumfix - one portion appear at the front of a stem, and the other at the rear. Interfix - link two stem together in a compound incorporates a reduplicated portion of a stem. Duplifix - may occur in front, at the rear or within the stem. Transfix - a discontinuous affix that interleaves within a discontinuous stem. Simulfix - changes a segment of a stem. Suprafix - changes a suprasegmental phoneme of a stem. Disfix - the elision of a portion of a stem.
  5. 5. P a g e | 5 Roots Root Meaning Example Acu sharp acute, acupuncture Belli war rebellion, belligerent Carn flesh carnivorous, incarnate Deca ten decade, decalogue Equi equal equinox ,equilibrium fac, fact, fic, fect do, make factory, fact, manufacture geo earth geometry, geography homo same homogenous, homonyms ject throw deject, inject, project liter letters literary, literature, literal mega great megaphone, megalopolis
  6. 6. P a g e | 6 Prefixes Prefix Meaning Example a without, not asexual, anarchy Anti against antipathy Bi two bisexual, binary Circum around circumference Di two, double diatomic ego I, self egocentric geo earth geology, geography homo same, like homozygous inter between interpret locus place locality macro large macroeconomic post after post-mortem pre before preview scope examine microscope trans across transport
  7. 7. P a g e | 7 Suffixes Suffixes Meaning Example able,ible able, capable applicable, visible ance action, process, state allowance cy action, function normalcy en made of, to make frozen er,or one who, that which baker, professor ess female goddess ul full of careful ic nature of, like metallic ism system, manner alcoholism ist one who, that which dentist logy study, science, theory anthropology ly like,manner of carelessly nomy law autonomy ship state of ,office, quality assistantship y inclined to, tend to cheery
  8. 8. P a g e | 8 Homonyms Homonyms (also called homophones) are words that sound like one another but have different meanings. Some homonyms are spelled the same, like bark (the sound a dog makes) and bark (the outer layer of a tree trunk). Some homonyms are spelled differently, like one (the number) and won (having been victorious). Examples: Aunt-ant Allowed-aloud Be-bee Fair-fare Feat-feet Homographs Homographs are different words that are spelled the same. They have different meanings and origins. Homographs may or may not have the same pronunciations. Examples: bear (verb) – to support or carry bear (noun) – the animal sow (verb) – to plant seed sow (noun) – female pig .
  9. 9. P a g e | 9 Heteronyms Heteronyms (also known as heterophones) are words that are written identically but have different pronunciations and meanings. In other words, they are homographs that are not homophones. Examples: abuse – improper treatment abuse – to use properly attribute – a characteristic attribute – to associate ownership
  10. 10. P a g e | 10 Word Association  Stimulation of an associative pattern by a word.  The connection and production of other words in response to a given word, done spontaneously 1. Similarity e.g. • Beautiful-Pretty • Funny- Humorous • Old- Antiquated 2. Contrast e.g. • Near - Far • War- Peace • Rude- Polite 3. Assonance e.g. • Ate- Eight • Weight- Wait • Through- Threw 4. Subordination e.g. • Sports- Basketball, Volleyball, Golf
  11. 11. P a g e | 11 • Insects- Spider, Ant, Bug • Job- Teacher, Doctor, Engineer 5. Coordination e.g. • Basketball- Volleyball- Softball • Blue- Red- Yellow • Cavite- Manila- Quezon 6. Super Ordination e.g. • Nurse-Job • Eight-Number • Banana-Fruits 7. Derivation’ e.g • Play-Playful • Love-Lover • Court-Courtship
  12. 12. P a g e | 12 IDIOMS An idiom is a phrase where the words together have a meaning that is different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. Examples: 1.) beat one's brains out: try very hard to understand or do something. 2.) can't make heads or tails of something: can't understand something at all; find something confusing and illogical. 3.) drag one's feet: delay; take longer than necessary to do something. 4.) elbow grease: hard work; effort. 5.) far-fetched: difficult to accept; difficult to believe. 6.) have one's hands full: be extremely busy. 7.) in over one's head: in a situation that is too much / too difficult for one to manage. 8.) jump all over someone: severely criticize / find fault with someone.
  13. 13. P a g e | 13 Synonyms A synonym is a word with the same meaning. The meaning of the unknown word is understood because the idea is repeated in familiar words. Examples: Bellicose – warlike Misleading - wrong Fallacious - deception Dominate - rule Stupendous – marvelous Puke – vomit Loquacious –talkative Smart – intelligent Scrupulous – careful Colossal – humongous Antonyms Antonyms are words or phrases that are opposite in meaning. Examples: Loquacious - hardly talk at all Anxiety – calm Beauty – ugly Accuracy – precision Thick – thin Frigid – scorching Benevolence – unkindness Precido – right
  14. 14. P a g e | 14 Figure s of Speech -is a change from the ordinary manner of expression using words in other that literal sense to enhance the way or thought is expressed. *Alliteration -the same sound is repeated noticeably at the beginning of words placed closed together. Example: Santa's Short Suit Shrunk Tie twine to three tree twigs. Six slimy snails sailed silently. *Apostrophe -direct address of an absent or dead person or personified thing. Example: "Science! True daughter of Old Time thou art!" "Then come, sweet death, and rid me of this grief." "O black night, nurse of the golden eyes!" *Hyperbole -exaggeration not meant to be taken literally. Example: ―I‘ve told you a million times‖ ―It was so cold, I saw polar bears wearing jackets‖ He's got tons of money.
  15. 15. P a g e | 15 *Simile -a comparisons between things, events or actions which are fundamentally unlike. Typically involves the words ''like'' or ''as''. Example: ―cute as a kitten,‖ comparing the way someone looks to the way a kitten looks ―as busy as a bee‖ comparing someone‘s level of energy to a fast-flying bee "Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you're going to get." comparing the uncertainty of life to the uncertainty of choosing a chocolate from a box. *Personification -representing a thing, quality or idea as a person. Example: The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky. The phone awakened with a mighty ring. The tornado ran through town without a care. *Metaphor -is a figure of speech that says that one thing is another different thing. Example: The noise is music to his ears Heart of a lion Love is a growing garland
  16. 16. P a g e | 16 *Oxymoron -a paradoxical statement in which two contradictory terms or words are brought together. Example: After celebrating the new year all night, she was miserable, hung over and looked like living death. Her new hairstyle is pretty ugly. This chocolate is bitter sweet. *Metonomy -substituting a word which is suggested by it or which is closed associated with it for another word. Example: The White House supports the bill (using White House instead of President. The President is not like the White House, but there is contiguity between them). We need a couple of strong bodies for our team. (strong people) I've got a new set of wheels. (car, motorcycle, etc.) *Onomatopoeia -using words to imitate the sound they represent. Example: Don't beep that horn again. The birds in the tree went cheep, cheep, cheep until they were fed We heard the tlot-tlot of the horses hoofs
  17. 17. P a g e | 17 Tenses of the Verb A verb indicates the time of an action, event or condition by changing its form. Through the use of a sequence of tenses in a sentence or in a paragraph, it is possible to indicate the complex temporal relationship of actions, events, and conditions There are many ways of categorizing the twelve possible verb tenses. The verb tenses may be categorized according to the time frame: past tenses, present tenses, and future tenses. Verb Tense: Time The four past tenses are: 1. the simple past ("I went") 2. the past progressive ("I was going") 3. the past perfect ("I had gone") 4. the past perfect progressive ("I had been going") The four present tenses are: 1. the simple present ("I go") 2. the present progressive ("I am going") 3. the present perfect ("I have gone") 4. the present perfect progressive ("I have been going")
  18. 18. P a g e | 18 Note that the present perfect and present perfect progressive are a present not past tenses -- that idea is that the speaker is currently in the state of having gone or having been going. The four future tenses are: 1. the simple future ("I will go") 2. the future progressive ("I will be going") 3. the future perfect ("I will have gone") 4. the future perfect progressive ("I will have been going") Verb Tense: Aspect Verb tenses may also be categorized according to aspect. Aspect refers to the nature of the action described by the verb. There are three aspects: indefinite (or simple), complete (or perfect), continuing (or progressive). The three indefinite tenses, or simple tenses, describe an action but do not state whether the action is finished: the simple past ("I went") the simple present ("I go") the simple future ("I will go") A verb in the indefinite aspect is used when the beginning or ending of an action, an event, or condition is unknown or unimportant to the meaning of the sentence. The indefinite aspect is also used to used to indicate an habitual or repeated action, event, or condition.
  19. 19. P a g e | 19 The three complete tenses, or perfect tenses, describe a finished action: the past perfect ("I had gone") the present perfect ("I have gone") the future perfect ("I will have gone") A verb in the complete aspect indicates that the end of the action, event, or condition is known and the is used to emphasize the fact that the action is complete. The action may, however, be completed in the present, in the past or in the future. The three incomplete tenses, or progressive tenses, describe an unfinished action: the past progressive ("I was going") the present progressive ("I am going") the future progressive ("I will be going") A verb in the continuing aspect indicates that the action, event, or condition is ongoing in the present, the past or the future. It is also possible to combine the complete tenses and the incomplete tenses, to describe an action which was in progress and then finished: the past perfect progressive ("I had been going")
  20. 20. P a g e | 20 the present perfect progressive ("I have been going") the future perfect progressive ("I will have been going") The Function of Verb Tenses The Simple Present Tense The simple present is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that is occurring in the present, at the moment of speaking or writing. The simple present is used when the precise beginning or ending of a present action, event, or condition is unknown or is unimportant to the meaning of the sentence. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the simple present tense and each sentence describes an action taking place in the present: Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets. The shelf holds three books and a vase of flowers. The crowd moves across the field in an attempt to see the rock star get into her helicopter. The Stephens sisters are both very talented; Virginia writes and as in the following sentences: Rectangles have four sides. Canada Day takes place on July 1, the anniversary of the signing of the British North America Act.
  21. 21. P a g e | 21 The moon circles the earth once every 28 days. Calcium is important to the formation of strong bones. Menarche and menopause mark the beginning and the ending of a woman's reproductive history. The simple present is used to indicate a habitual action, event, or condition, as in the following sentences: Leonard goes to The Jumping Horse Tavern every Thursday evening. My grandmother sends me new mittens each spring. In fairy tales, things happen in threes. We never finish jigsaw puzzles because the cat always eats some of the pieces. Jesse polishes the menorah on Wednesdays. The simple present is also used when writing about works of art, as in the following sentences. Lolly Willowes is the protagonist of the novel Townsend published in 1926. One of Artemisia Gentleschi's best known paintings represents Judith's beheading of Holofernes. The Lady of Shallot weaves a tapestry while watching the passers-by in her mirror. Lear rages against the silence of Cordelia and only belatedly realizes that she, not her more vocal sisters, loves him. The play ends with an epilogue spoken by the fool.
  22. 22. P a g e | 22 The simple present can also be used to refer to a future event when used in conjunction with an adverb or adverbial phrase, as in the following sentences. The doors open in 10 minutes. The premier arrives on Tuesday. Classes end next week. The publisher distributes the galley proofs next Wednesday. The lunar eclipses begins in exactly 43 minutes. The Present Progressive While the simple present and the present progressive are sometimes used interchangeably, the present progressive emphasises the continuing nature of an act, event, or condition. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the present progressive tense. In each sentence the on-going nature of the action is emphasised by the use of the present progressive rather than the simple present. Nora is looking for the first paperback editions of all of Raymond Chandler's books. Deirdre is dusting all the shelves on the second floor of the shop. The union members are pacing up and down in front of the factory. KPLA is broadcasting the hits of the 70s this evening. The presses are printing the first edition of tomorrow's paper.
  23. 23. P a g e | 23 The present progressive is occasionally used to refer to a future event when used in conjunction with an adverb or adverbial phrase, as in the following sentences. The doors are opening in 10 minutes. The premier is arriving on Tuesday. Classes are ending next week. The publisher is distributing the galley proofs next Wednesday. The Present Perfect Tense The present perfect tense is used to describe action that began in the past and continues into the present or has just been completed at the moment of utterance. The present perfect is often used to suggest that a past action still has an effect upon something happening in the present. Each of the highlighted compound verbs in the following sentences is in the present perfect tense. They have not delivered the documents we need. This sentence suggest that the documents were not delivered in the past and that they are still undelivered.
  24. 24. P a g e | 24 The health department has decided that all high school students should be immunised against meningitis. The writer of this sentence uses the present perfect in order to suggest that the decision made in the past is still of importance in the present. The government has cut university budgets; consequently, the dean has increased the size of most classes. Here both actions took place sometime in the past and continue to influence the present. The heat wave has lasted three weeks. In this sentence, the writer uses the present perfect to indicate that a condition (the heat wave) began in past and continues to affect the present. Donna has dreamt about frogs sitting in trees every night this week. Here the action of dreaming has begun in the past and continues into the present. The Present Perfect Progressive Tense Like the present perfect, the present perfect progressive is used to describe an action, event, or condition that has begun in the past and
  25. 25. P a g e | 25 continues into the present. The present perfect progressive, however, is used to stress the on-going nature of that action, condition, or event. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the present perfect progressive tense and each sentence suggests that the action began in the past and is continuing into the present. That dog has been barking for three hours; I wonder if someone will call the owner. I have been relying on my Christmas bonus to pay for the gifts I buy for my large family. They have been publishing this comic book for ten years. We have been seeing geese flying south all afternoon. Even though the coroner has been carefully examining the corpse discovered in Sutherland's Gully since early this morning, we still do not know the cause of death. The Simple Past Tense The simple past is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that occurred in the past, sometime before the moment of speaking or writing. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the simple past tense and each sentence describes an action taking place at some point in past. A flea jumped from the dog to the cat.
  26. 26. P a g e | 26 Phoebe gripped the hammer tightly and nailed the boards together. The gem-stones sparkled in a velvet lined display case. Artemisia Gentilsechi probably died in 1652. The storyteller began every story by saying "A long time ago when the earth was green." The Past Progressive Tense in the past. These actions often take place within a specific time frame. While actions referred to in the present progressive have some connection to the present, actions referred in the past progressive have no immediate or obvious connection to the present. The on-going actions took place and were completed at some point well before the time of speaking or writing. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the past progressive tense. The cat was walking along the tree branch. This sentence describes an action that took place over a period of continuous time in the past. The cat's actions have no immediate relationship to anything occurring now in the present. Lena was telling a story about the exploits of a red cow when a tree branch broke the parlour window.
  27. 27. P a g e | 27 Here the action "was telling" took place in the past and continued for some time in the past. When the recess bell rang, Jesse was writing a long division problem on the blackboard. This sentence describes actions ("ran" and "was writing") that took place sometime in the past, and emphasises the continuing nature of one of the actions ("was writing"). The archivists were eagerly waiting for the delivery of the former prime minister's private papers. Here the ongoing action of "waiting" occurred at some time unconnected to the present. Between 1942 and 1944 the Frank and Van Damm families were hiding in a Amsterdam office building. In this sentence, the action of hiding took place over an extended period of time and the continuing nature of the hiding is emphasised. The Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense is used to refer to actions that took place and were completed in the past. The past perfect is often used to emphasise that one action, event or condition ended before another past action, event, or condition began.
  28. 28. P a g e | 28 Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the past perfect. Miriam arrived at 5:00 p.m. but Mr. Whitaker had closed the store. All the events in this sentence took place in the past, but the act of closing the store takes place before Miriam arrives at the store After we located the restaurant that Christian had raved about, we ate supper there every Friday. Here the praise ("had raved") precedes the finding ("located") of the restaurant. Both actions took place sometime before the moment of speaking or writing. The elephant had eaten all the hay so we fed it oats for a week. In this sentence, both actions take place in the past, but the eating of the hay ("had eaten") preceded the eating of the oats ("fed"). The heat wave had lasted three weeks. While the sentence "The heat wave has lasted three weeks" suggests that a condition began in the past and continues into the present, this sentence describes an action that began and ended sometime in the past ("had lasted"). By using the past perfect the writer indicates that
  29. 29. P a g e | 29 the heat wave has no connection to any events occurring in the present. After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent. Here the learning took place and was completed at a specific time in the past. By using the past perfect rather than the simple past ("learned"), the writer emphasises that the learning preceded the feeling of independence. The Past Perfect Progressive Tense The past perfect progressive is used to indicate that a continuing action in the past began before another past action began or interrupted the first action. Each of the highlighted compound verbs in the following sentences is in the past perfect progressive tense. The toddlers had been running around the school yard for ten minutes before the teachers shooed them back inside. Here the action of the toddlers ("had been running") is ongoing in the past and precedes the actions of the teachers ("shooed") which also takes place in the past. We had been talking about repainting the front room for three years and last night we finally bought the paint.
  30. 30. P a g e | 30 In this example, the ongoing action of "talking" precedes another past action ("bought"). A construction crew had been digging one pit after another in the middle of my street for three days before they found the water main. Here, the action of digging ("had been digging") took place in the past and occurred over a period of time. The digging was followed by the action of finding ("found"). Madeleine had been reading mystery novels for several years before she discovered the works of Agatha Christie. In this sentence the act of discovery ("discovered") occurred in the past but after the ongoing and repeated action of reading ("had been The chef's assistant had been chopping vegetables for several minutes before he realized that he had minced his apron strings. This sentence is a bit more complex in that it contains three different past verb tenses. The sequence of tenses conveys a complex set ofinformation. The past perfect progressive ("had been chopping") is used to emphasise the ongoing nature of the past act of chopping. While a second past perfect progressive ("had been mincing") could be used, the past perfect ("had minced") is used to suggest that act of mincing was completed. The simple
  31. 31. P a g e | 31 past ("realized") is used to describe the action closest to the present, an action that followed both the chopping and the mincing. The Simple Future Tense The simple future is used to refer to actions that will take place after the act of speaking or writing. The future progressive tense is used to describe actions ongoing in the future. The future progressive is used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future. Each of the highlighted compound verbs in the following sentences is in the future progressive tense. The glee club will be performing at the celebration of the town's centenary. Ian will be working on the computer system for the next two weeks. The selection committee will be meeting every Wednesday morning. We will be writing an exam every afternoon next week. They will be ringing the bells for Hypatia next month. The Future Perfect Tense The future perfect is used to refer to an action that will be completed sometime in the future before another action takes place.
  32. 32. P a g e | 32 Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the future perfect tense. The surgeon will have operated on 6 patients before she attends a luncheon meeting. In this sentence, the act of operating ("will have operated") takes place in the future sometime before the act of attending ("attends"). The plumber and his assistant will have soldered all the new joins in pipes before they leave for the next job. Here, the plumbers' act of soldering ("will have soldered") will precede the act of leaving ("leave"). By the time you get back from the corner store, we will have finished writing the thank you letters. In this sentence, the act of returning from the store ("get back") takes place after the act of writing ("will have written"). If this year is like last year, I will have finished my holiday shopping long before my brother starts his. In this example, the act of finishing ("will have finished") occurs well before the act of starting ("starts"). They will have written their first exam by the time we get out of bed.
  33. 33. P a g e | 33 Here, the act of getting out of bed occurs sometime after the writing of the exam. The Future Perfect Progressive Tense The future perfect progressive tense is used to indicate a continuing action that will be completed at some specified time in the future. This tense is rarely used. Each of the highlighted verbs in the following sentences is in the future perfect progressive tense. I will have been studying Greek for three years by the end of this term. In this sentence, the future perfect progressive is used to indicate the ongoing nature of the future act of the studying. The act of studying ("will have been studying") will occur before the upcoming end of term. By the time the meeting is over, the committee will have been arguing about which candidate to interview for three hours. Similarly in this sentence, the ongoing nature of a future act ("will have been arguing") is emphasised by the use of the future perfect progressive. The act of sustained arguing will take place before the meeting is over.
  34. 34. P a g e | 34 When he returns, the wine will have been fermenting for three months. Here the ongoing action of fermentation will precede ("will have been fermenting") the act of return The Twelve Tenses of English PRESENT (main verb) I study English. He studies English. PAST (past tense of main verb) I studied English. He studied English. FUTURE (will or shall + main verb) I will study English. He will study English. PRESENT PERFECT (have or has + past participle of verb) I have studied English. He has studied English. PAST PERFECT (had + past participle of verb) I had studied English. He had studied English.
  35. 35. P a g e | 35 FUTURE PERFECT (will or shall + have + past participle of verb) I will have studied English. He will have studied English. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (form of "be" verb + "ing" form of main verb) I am studying English. He is studying English PAST PROGRESSIVE (past tense of form "be" verb + "ing" form of main verb) I was studying English. He was studying English. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (will or shall +be + "ing" form of main verb) I will be studying English. He will be studying English. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (have or has + been + "ing" form of main verb) I have been studying English. He has been studying English. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (had + been + "ing" form of main verb) I had been studying English. He had been studying English
  36. 36. P a g e | 36 FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE (will or shall + have + been + "ing" form of main verb) I will have been studying English. He will have been studying English.
  37. 37. P a g e | 37 Run on Sentences Run on sentences are sentences that contain too many ideas without proper punctuation. Not all long sentences are run on sentences. It is perfectly acceptable to join several related ideas in one compound sentence. However, if you don't follow punctuation rules, a sentence can become a run on. A simple explanation of run ons and some examples of run on sentences should help to make this point clear. Components of a Sentence Each sentence has 3 necessary components 1. A subject: What is this sentence about? The subject is usually, but not always, a noun or a pronoun. 2. An action: What is the subject of the sentence doing? The action is always a verb. 3. A complete thought: What is the purpose of this sentence? For example, lets look at the sentence "Jim is cold." This sentence has a subject: "Jim." It has an action: "is" which is a form of the "to be" verb. Jim is doing the action of "being cold." It also expresses a complete thought- the purpose of this sentence is to tell the reader that Jim is cold. Sentences which have these 3 components are called Independent Clauses. If a sentence is lacking in one of the 3 components, it is called a Dependent Clause. Independent clauses
  38. 38. P a g e | 38 can stand on their own- they form their own sentences. Dependent clauses can't stand alone- they need to be joined to another clause. What is a Run on Sentence? A run on sentence is a sentence that has 2 or more clauses which are improperly joined. Independent and dependent clauses can be joined together to create compound sentences when writing. However, there are rules that have to be followed when creating compound sentences, in order to avoid creating a run on sentence: 2 related independent clauses can be joined using a semicolon. Related independent clauses are clauses that could stand on their own, but that are related to each other. For example: "Jim is cold; he wants to go inside." Each of the two clauses in this sentence are independent clauses- they could stand by themselves. They are related, so they are joined together by a semicolon. An independent clause can be joined to another independent clause using a subordinating conjunction An independent clause can be made dependent on another clause, by using asubordinating conjunction. For example: "Jim is cold but he wants to say outside." The second clause "He wants to stay outside." could be an independent clause. However, the subordinating conjunction "and" makes it dependent on the first clause. With the "and" at the beginning, the sentence could no longer stand on its own. It is dependent on the first clause.
  39. 39. P a g e | 39 Examples of Run on Sentences The following 3 examples of run-on sentences demonstrate problems that occur when compound sentences are formed without proper punctuation: 1. Kelly likes to cook, she makes chicken every day. "Kelly likes to cook" is an independent clause that could stand by itself. "She makes chicken every day" is an independent clause that could stand by itself. These two sentences cannot be joined by a comma. The improper use of a comma here is called a comma splice. The sentence could be corrected by using a semicolon in place of the comma. It could also be corrected if a conjunction was used: "Kelly likes to cook, and she makes chicken every day." 2. Mary likes dogs she has a beagle. "Mary has dogs" is an independent clause that could stand by itself. "She has a beagle" is an independent clause that could stand by itself. As written, the sentence is a run on sentence since it contains two separate ideas. These two clauses must have punctuation and/or a conjunction. 3. Ann likes to read; she reads lots of books; she goes to the library 3 times a week. While semicolons can be used to link independent thoughts, they can only be used to link 2 independent thoughts. You can't use 2 semicolons to link 3 independent thoughts. One of these thoughts needs to be a separate sentence, or a conjunction needs to be used. For example, it would be acceptable to say "Ann likes to read; she reads lots of books and goes to the library 3 times a week."
  40. 40. P a g e | 40 Fragments Every sentence has to have a subject and a verb in order to be complete (remember what we said about subjects and verbs?). If it doesn't, it's a fragment. That's easy enough if you have something like 1. Ran into town. (no subject) 2. The growling dog. (no verb) Unfortunately, there's a little more to it than that. You can have a group of words with both a subject and a verb that is still a fragment. Not fair? What is? So, before we go any further, we need to cover some basics. A phrase is nothing more than a group of words. (See prepositions.) A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb. There are two types that you need to be able to distinguish: 1. main (independent) clause: one that can stand alone and express a complete thought 2. subordinate (dependent) clause: one that depends on another element for its complete meaning A main clause is a complete sentence; a subordinate clause, because it depends on something else, isn't--even though it has a subject and a verb. A few examples should make this clear (subjects and verbs are bolded):
  41. 41. P a g e | 41 1. I sit in front of the fireplace. 2. We go for a walk. 3. I like people. These are all main clauses. The information might be sketchy, but the ideas are complete. Compare these with the following which are all subordinate clauses. There is a subject and a verb, but the ideas are incomplete. 1. When it is cold. 2. After the dishes are put up. 3. Who pat my head and give me treats. These are fragments because they are punctuated incorrectly. It's easy to spot this kind of mistake: just read your paper aloud, slowly and carefully, exactly as it is punctuated (that is, stop at each period). If anything is incomplete (a fragment), you should hear it. Think about it: if I come into the room and haven't spoken to you, you'll be a little puzzled if all I say is "When it is cold." You're going to be waiting for more information. (Actually, you'd probably be more than puzzled if I said anything!) One way to put these examples together clearly and correctly is: 1. When it is cold, I sit in front of the fireplace. 2. We go for walk after the dishes are put up. 3. I like people who pat my head and give me treats.
  42. 42. P a g e | 42 Notice the punctuation. When a subordinate clause begins a sentence, always put a comma after it (#1). If the subordinate clause comes after the main clause, you usually need no punctuation (#2 and #3). With sentence 1 and 2, you could just as easily have written (again, pay attention to the punctuation): 1. I sit in front of the fireplace when it is cold. 2. After the dishes are put up, we go for a walk. Some of the words that create a subordinate clause are: after, although, as, because, before, if, since, that, unless, until, when, whether, which, while, and who. Watch out for these and check your sentences carefully to make sure they're punctuated correctly. That's probably enough on fragments. Just remember: whatever is between that opening capital letter and the closing period in a sentence has to express a complete thought. Otherwise, you'll probably give your professor something to mark on your paper!
  43. 43. P a g e | 43 Dangling Modifiers & Sometimes modifiers in a sentence cannot do their work effectively because they have been placed in a ―wrong‖ position. The following pointers will help you achieve effective modification. Misplaced Modifier A modifier is misplaced when it is placed so far from the word it modifies that it gives rise to misinterpretations. Place the phrase modifier near the noun it modifies. Examples: Misplaced: The wind frightened the children rattling the window panes. (It seems that the children are rattling the window panes.) Improved: The wind rattling the window panes frightened the children. Misplaced: Eagerly awaiting her birthday, Mary's presents were all picked up and admired by Mary many times throughout the course of the day. (Here, this sentence makes it seem as though Mary's presents were eagerly awaiting Mary's birthday. Since presents can't exhibit the emotion of feeling eager, it is unlikely that this modifier is written correctly. The most logical explanation is that Mary was eagerly awaiting her own birthday.)
  44. 44. P a g e | 44 Improved: Eagerly awaiting her birthday, Mary picked up and admired her presents many times throughout the day. Misplaced: She served sandwiches to the children on paper plates. Improved: She served the children sandwiches on paper plates. A dangling modifier is one that has no word to which it could be attached. A phrase modifier that comes at the beginning of a sentence should be followed at once by the subject of the sentence. It is placed in such a way that it appears to modify unintended words in the same sentence. EXAMPLES: Dangling: Walking on the sidewalk the flowers seemed to dance and bow. (Who is walking on the sidewalk?) Improved: Walking on the sidewalk, I saw the flowers that seemed to dance and bow. Dangling: Hoping to garner favor, my parents were sadly unimpressed with the gift. (This is a dangling modifier because we do not know who or what was garner favor. It is unlikely that the parents were hoping to garner favor, since they wouldn't have given an unimpressive gift to themselves.)
  45. 45. P a g e | 45 Improved: Hoping to garner favor, my new boyfriend brought my parents a gift that sadly unimpressed them. Dangling: Hoping to excuse my lateness, the note was written and given to my teacher. ( Here, it seems as though we have a subject- my. However, my is part of the modifier and not the subject itself.) Improved: Hoping to excuse my lateness, I wrote a note and gave it to my teacher.
  46. 46. P a g e | 46 Capitalization Capitalization Rules There are many rules to capitalization. Most people know the basics of capitalization such as capitalizing the first letter of the first word at the beginning of a new sentence, but when is capitalization appropriate in other situations? Outlined below is a comprehensive guide providing rules and examples to proper capitalization. Buildings, Streets, Parks, Statues, Monuments - Capitalize the names of: · buildings · towers · churches · schools · thoroughfares · squares · parks · statues · monuments Continents, Countries, Counties, Districts, Cities, Towns - Capitalize the names of: · continents · countries · counties · districts · towns · villages · hamlets · communities · political divisions (i.e. United Kingdom, French Republic)
  47. 47. P a g e | 47 Courts - Federal and State and Provincial Courts - Capitalize when used with a definite name. Examples: · the Supreme Court of Canada · the State Court of Appeals · the United States Circuit Court Do not capitalize district or city courts. (example: the magistrate‘s court) Compass Points - Capitalize points of the compass when they designate geographical parts of a country, region or city. Examples: · the Inland Northwest · Southeast states · out West · Eastern sources - Capitalize northern, southern, western, eastern, east, west, north, south when used as part of proper names to designate a world division. DO NOT capitalize when used to indicate parts of states or provinces. Examples: · Eastern Hemisphere · Southwestern Europe · Southeast Asia · southern California · northern Quebec
  48. 48. P a g e | 48 Degrees - Academic - Capitalize academic degrees and professional designations. When writing more than one degree/designation, arrange them in accordance to their importance Examples: · Laura Bates, Ph.D. · James Pallister, M.D. · Peter Wong, M.D., BChir Eras and Historical Periods - Scientific and Common names - Capitalize scientific names of the world‘s eras and common names for historical epochs, periods and events. Examples: · the Ice Age · Colonial days · the Great Depression Flags - Capitalize the names and synonyms for flags of nations. Examples: · the Union Jack · the Star-Spangled Banner · Old Glory · the Maple Leaf
  49. 49. P a g e | 49 Geographical Terms - The following geographical terms are usually capitalized immediately following the names: Basin Bend Branch Butte Canal Canyon Harbor Passage Peninsula Plateau Geographical Words - The following words are usually capitalized when they stand before or after a name or when used as part of a name: Bay Bayou Camp (military) Cape Desert Falls Fort Head Isle Lake Mount Oasis Pass Port River Strait Valley Government - Capitalize the word “Government” when referring to the country‘s Government or that of any foreign nation. Example: · Her Majesty‘s Government · Government responsibility · Imperial Government · on official Government business
  50. 50. P a g e | 50 Holy Bible - Names for the Bible – Capitalize all names for the Bible, for parts and versions of the Bible and all names of other sacred books. Examples: · Bible · Scriptures · Word of God · Holy Bible - Creeds and Confessions – Capitalize all names of creeds and confessions of faith and general Biblical terms. Examples: · Lord‘s Supper · the Apostles‘ Creed · the Westminster Catechism · Nicene Creed - Deity - Capitalize all names for Deity Examples: · Father · Almighty · God · Lord · Holy Spirit · Son of Man · Messiah · Lord of Hosts · Redeemer · Savior · Holy Trinity - Devil - Capitalize all names for the Devil Examples: · Devil · Satan · Adversary · Father of Lies · Evil One · Lucifer · Prince of Darkness · Beelzebub (meaning Satan) * Do not capitalize when used in a general sense or as an expletive. (Example: The devil is a formidable adversary.)
  51. 51. P a g e | 51 Military - Army, Navy and Air Force – Capitalize when referring to these organizations by name or with other widely accepted references to them. Examples: · the Army · U.S. Army · French Army · Organized Reserves · 1st Regiment · the Navy · U.S. Navy · British Navy · Marine Corps · the Marines · the Air Force · U.S. Air Force · Royal Air Force · Edwards Air Force Base Names/Persons - Proper Nouns – Capitalize all proper nouns that are names of individuals. Examples: · Sally Jane Anderson · John. A. Smith - Personal Pronoun “ I ” – Capitalize the word " I " when referring to oneself in the first person. This word is always capitalized, even when used in mid sentence. Examples: · I will try to make the time for a vacation this year. · This year, I will try to make the time for a vacation.
  52. 52. P a g e | 52 - Epithets - Capitalize epithets added to proper names or applied to people or places. Examples: · the Dallas Cowboys · the Golden Gate · the Green Belt · William the Conqueror · the Empire State Building - Family - Father and Mother – Capitalize when used as a means of personally addressing the individual, but not when used as a possessive pronoun. Examples: · Before I forget to tell you, Father, they are expecting you at 7:00 PM at the hall. · My mother has agreed to stay with our children. - Family - Uncle, Aunt, Cousin – Capitalize these and other family terms when used with a proper noun, but not when used as a possessive pronoun. Examples: · I saw Aunt Sarah dancing all night. · When I arrived, Cousin Bill was directing traffic. · My uncle sold the farm because of his bad health. - Prefixes – Capitalize prefixes in the names of foreign people unless preceded by a given name or title. Examples: · Van Leeuwen · Thomas van Leeuwen · De Paul · Cardinal de Paul With British and American names, such prefixes are usually capitalized even if preceded by a given name or title. Individual preference prevails in these cases.
  53. 53. P a g e | 53 Nation or Republic - Capitalize when used as a synonym for a country. Examples: · The Nation stands by its men and women in combat. · The future of the Republic is riding on his shoulders. Organized Bodies - Capitalize when referring to these organized groups as a whole. Examples: · Shriners · Democrats · Elks Organizations - Capitalize names of clubs, societies, associations, companies, foundations, institutes, etc. Examples: · Knights of Columbus · American Lung Association · Microsoft Corporation Poetry - Traditionally, the first word of every line of poetry is capitalized. - In some modern English poetry formats, only the first word of the first line is capitalized, and sometimes even this word is all lower-case.
  54. 54. P a g e | 54 Quotations - Capitalize the first word of every complete quotation within quotation marks. Example: · The waitress asked, ―Do you want your coffee with cream and sugar?‖ - DO NOT capitalize that part of a quotation resumed within the same sentence. Example: · ―Do you want your coffee,‖ the waitress asked, ―with cream and sugar?‖ Sentences - Capitalize the first word of every sentence, whether it is a complete sentence or not. State or Province/Provincial - Capitalize when used with a name or when used in place of the name. Lower-case applies when used as a general term. Examples: · The Province of Ontario · New York State · State‘s legislation · provincial park · state prison
  55. 55. P a g e | 55 Titles - Personal - Academic and Religious titles – Capitalize when preceding a name or when used as a means of personally addressing the individual. Examples: · Professor David Schwartz · Bishop Larry Wiseman · Doctor Paul McNeil · Dr. Paul McNeil · Reverend Henry Krause · Rev. Henry Krause · Please be completely honest with me, Doctor, about your prognosis. * The titles Doctor and Reverend are usually abbreviated, but are often spelled out with formal use. - Government titles – Capitalize when referring to definite persons or to their positions. Examples: · the Queen of England · the President of the United States · Secretary of Defense · Congressman from Massachusetts - Rank, Respect, and Honor titles – Capitalize all titles of rank, respect and honor when preceding a name. Examples: · President Theodore Roosevelt · Senator Robert Morris · Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist · Speaker John Denison - Titles instead of Names – Capitalize titles when used as a means of personally addressing the individual. Examples: · We‘ve talked with the troops, General, and they seem to be in
  56. 56. P a g e | 56 good spirits. · Mr. Secretary, please give me your opinion on this issue. · I came across the crime scene, Officer, and immediately called the police. · Is there enough support, Senator, to get this bill passed? Titles - Other - Book titles – Capitalize all principal words (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs) and first word in book titles. Example: · Gone With the Wind by Margaret Mitchell. - Document and Report titles – Capitalize all principal words (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs) and first word in these titles. Examples: · U.S. Constitution · American Lung Association Annual Report - Captions/Pictures – Capitalize all principal words (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs) and first word in the captions under pictures. Example: · Da Vinci‘s ―Last Supper‖ - Musical Composition titles – Capitalize all principal words (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs) when referring to musical compositions. Example: · Beethoven‘s Moonlight Sonata, Opus 28, No.15
  57. 57. P a g e | 57 - Radio Program titles – Capitalize all principal words (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs) and first word in radio program titles. Example: · All Things Considered with hosts Robert Siegel, Michele Norris and Melissa Block - Television Show/Movie titles – Capitalize all principal words (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs) and first word in these titles. Example: · The Wizard of Oz, with Judy Garland
  58. 58. P a g e | 58 Punctuations Valuable punctuation tips on how to implement the basic rules of punctuation into your every day writing. Although there is a trend towards the minimal use of punctuation in the addressing of letters, it is essential to maintain correct punctuation in the body of the letter in order to convey the writer‘s precise meaning. Remember, punctuation is powerful—one punctuation mark can change the whole meaning of a sentence. Each element of punctuation listed below gives a full explanation of the basic rules that apply to that type of punctuation. 1. Apostrophe 2. Brackets 3. Colon and Semicolon 4. Comma 5. Dash 6. Ellipsis Dots 7. Exclamation Mark 8. Hyphen 9. Parentheses 10. Period 11. Question Mark 12. Quotation Marks
  59. 59. P a g e | 59 Apostrophe The proper use of apostrophes in writing is important to maintain the writer‘s precise meaning. The apostrophe is used: a) To indicate contractions: Example: it’s (it is) don’t (do not) o’clock (on the clock) b) To show possession. Example: 1) The girl‘s dress was purple. ... (singular - referring to only one girl) 2) All the girls‘ dresses were purple. ... (plural - referring to more than one girl) Sometimes it may be difficult to decide where to place the apostrophe to indicate correct possession. A simple rule to follow is to turn the phrase in the sentence around to read: 1) “the dress of the girl” If the final word does not end in an ―s,‖ then add ’s (apostrophe s ) to that word in the sentence. (i.e. girl‘s ) 2) “the dresses of all the girls” If the final word in the phrase does end in an ―s,‖ then s’ ( s apostrophe) is used. (i.e. girls‘ ) c) To denote joint possession. Example: Tom, Jake, and Sally‘s project received the top grade. The apostrophe is added to the possessor mentioned last, in a list of two or more.
  60. 60. P a g e | 60 Colon The colon is used: a) To introduce a list. Example: You will have to order several accessory components: chargers, cases, cords, cables, and speakers. b) To introduce an extract or quotation that follows an introductory sentence. Example: As Author, Erica Jong, stated: ―If you don‘t risk anything, you risk even more.‖ c) In the salutation of a formal business letter. Example: Dear Sir: Dear Madam: d) Between figures denoting hours and minutes, with exception to the 24-hour clock system. Examples: 4:30 A.M. 6:20 p.m. 1820 hrs. e) To precede an extended explanation. Example: There are two conditions that must exist before we can experience true freedom: first, each person must be entitled to act independently of the other; second, each must agree not cross those parameters that have been set in place as protection from harm. f) To precede a restatement of an idea. Example: The play was poorly performed: it lacked both experience and characterization from the actors.
  61. 61. P a g e | 61 Semicolon While the comma is frequently used, the following are the general accepted rules for the use of the semicolon. a) To separate two independent thoughts in a sentence that otherwise would have been separated by using a conjunction such as and or but. Example: It was the first of April; all the spring lines were on display. * A comma separating these thoughts would not provide a distinct enough pause. b) To precede the words “for example,” “for instance,” “as in,” etc. in sentences. Example: The course will include role-playing which demonstrates the practical application for anger management skills learned; for example, a boss employee conflict, a spousal argument, and a situation of a misbehaved child with a parent. c) To separate items in a long list, especially when commas have already been used. Example: Please place the following orders with the restaurant for our breakfast meeting: two boiled eggs, sausages, toast, and coffee; eggs benedict with a side order of hash browns, tea and orange juice; and two pancakes with one egg cooked over easy and coffee.
  62. 62. P a g e | 62 * First, a colon is used to indicate "the following orders," then the semicolons are used within the list itself. Dash Proper use of the dash in writing helps to convey the precise message. The dash is used: a) To denote a sudden change of thought. Example: What he said was true—or so I thought. b) To indicate a sudden break in a sentence. Example: I can‘t let them continue to—so many people would be hurt if they proceeded with this action. c) In the place of parentheses. Example: They were all in agreement with the restructuring—even agreeing to the shortened lunch breaks—but if anyone tried to revamp their vacation time they claimed they would walk out. d) As a replacement of the word to with reference to dates, sections, verses, etc. Examples:  2001-2004  sections 8-10  pages 112-134  Genesis 11:5-8
  63. 63. P a g e | 63 Exclamation Mark Restraint should be exercised when using the exclamation punctuation mark in writing, for when it is used liberally it will lose its impact. The exclamation mark is used to: a) Indicate a strong and emotional response. Example: We are going to hold a party to celebrate this great success! b) Emphasize a strong command. Example: Call an ambulance! c) Express a special indication of contempt or scorn. Example: There goes the company expert! * Double exclamation marks should be avoided in business correspondence.
  64. 64. P a g e | 64 Parenthesis The use of parentheses in writing. "Parenthesis" is singular "parentheses" is plural Parentheses are used to: a) Enclose words not directly relevant to the main topic of the sentence but too important to omit. Example: Optimistic thinking people (and I count myself among them) always seem to produce positive results in any situation . b) Enclose figures or letters marking the division of a subject. Example: Our silent auction fundraising project included the following priorities: (1) Securing the location to hold the auction. (2) Soliciting businesses in the community to donate items. (3) Launching an aggressive advertising campaign in the community.
  65. 65. P a g e | 65 c) Add examples. Example: The new photo copier has many features (including scanning options and faxing capabilities) that will be most beneficial to us in this office. Question Mark The question mark is primarily used to indicate a question is being asked. Using the question mark: a) This punctuation mark is used to indicate a direct question being asked. Example: ―What time does the show start?‖ he asked. b) The question mark is not used at the end of an indirect question. Example: He asked what time the show starts. c) When used in dialogue, the question mark is placed inside the quotation marks and takes the place of a period or a comma. Example: Karen asked, ―Will you be able to make that meeting?"
  66. 66. P a g e | 66 d) If the question mark does not form part of the quotation, it is placed outside of the quotation marks. Example: Did Jane say the meeting will, ―start earlier because of the game,‖ or ―end earlier because of the game‖? Bracket The proper use of brackets in writing. Brackets [ ] … not to be confused with parentheses ( ) are used: To enclose words and phrases independent of the sentence; as in, explanatory notes, omissions, and comments that are not written by the author. Examples:  They arrived in America and in the following year [1931] founded one of the first plastics manufacturing plants in the country.  Through all the obstacles, he [Henry] remained optimistic about the future demand for the automobile.
  67. 67. P a g e | 67 Comma Commas are used to separate thoughts within a sentence allowing the reader to mentally pause and assimilate the full meaning of the sentence. The misuse of commas can alter the entire meaning of sentences. The comma is used: a) To set apart words in opposition. Appositives are words that identify or define other words. Example: Mr. Smith, our manager, will be there. * Do not separate compound personal pronouns from the words they emphasize. Example: Jane herself will take on that project. b) To set apart titles written after a person’s name. Example: John Smith, Ph.D. is the professor taking over that area. * A comma may or may not be used before and after Jr. and Sr. following a name. Examples: - John Smith, Jr., will be the successor to his father‘s corporation. - John Smith Jr. will be the successor to his father‘s corporation.
  68. 68. P a g e | 68 * Omit periods and commas before and after II, III, and IV with names. c) When setting apart the year from the month and the day in a sentence. Example: We‘ve had to reschedule the fundraising event, which will now be held on June 15, 2006. d) To separate successive nouns and adjectives in a sentence. Examples: - Please don‘t forget to bring pens, pencils, paper, and envelopes. - We‘re going to need balls, helmets, markers, etc., for the tournament. * A comma is used before the final „and‟ in a list of three or more items. e) To introduce spoken words. Example: Mr. Smith said, ―Do not charge service fees on the Dawson account.‖ f) After the salutation and complimentary close of a personal or informal business letter. Example: Dear John, Best regards, g) To coordinate adjectives as qualifying words preceding a noun. Example:
  69. 69. P a g e | 69 We want it to be a clear, simplified, informative presentation. * Don‘t use a comma between two adjectives preceding a noun if the adjectives are too closely related to be separated: Examples: - It‘s an attractive quaint little motel along the shore. - The reasonable additional cost for this perk is acceptable. h) To separate the name of a person that is addressed from the rest of the sentence. Example: We welcome you, Jane, as the newest addition to our team. i) To set off a contrasted word, phrase or clause. Example: A better way to get cooperation from your team members is by asking, not telling. j) To set off a transitional word or expression when a pause is needed for clearness or emphasis. Examples: - Therefore, this matter must be dealt with as quickly as possible. - Indeed, it was a success. - As was intended, the focus turned to costs. * Do not use a comma when such words, phrases and clauses do not interrupt the thought or required punctuation for clearness. Examples:
  70. 70. P a g e | 70 - The board therefore voted unanimously in favor of the acquisition. - It is indeed surprising that that they lost the contract. - That decision in this case was expected. k) To follow words such as yes, no, well when one of these words is at the beginning of a sentence. Examples: - Yes, we expect him to arrive this week. - Well, this is the case so we must implement plans to offset the losses. Ellipsis Dots When and how to use ellipsis dots in writing. Ellipsis Dots are used: 1. To signify an omission: Ellipsis is the term for omission of words or paragraphs from a quotation. It is indicated by the use of three period dots. ( … ) 2. To indicate a pregnant pause: Ellipsis dots can be used to signify hesitation by the writer. Often a writer will use ellipsis when attempting to conceal something or when unable to write directly about the matter. 3. To indicate an unfinished thought: Ellipsis dots are used when the writer‘s thoughts trail off.
  71. 71. P a g e | 71 Three dots mean that the omission, pause or unfinished thought is within the sentence. The three dots follow any punctuation within a sentence and a space is left before the series of dots and after the last dot, before the next word in the sentence. Four dots indicate that the omission, pause or unfinished thought is between sentences. The fourth dot is actually a period ending the sentence. Hyphen A guide to the proper use of the hyphen in compounded words and phrases. A hyphen is used: a) To compound words which will form a compound adjective that precedes a noun. Examples: first-rate service one-man job up-to-date fashions When the compound adjective follows the noun, it is not generally hyphenated. Example: The service they provide, first rate and consistent, will be what turns that company into a success. b) To compound numerals.
  72. 72. P a g e | 72 Examples: thirty-five forty-second twenty-six hundred And compounding numerals with other words. Examples: Ten-foot post twelve-o‘clock lunch break 50-yard dash four-year-old boy c) In certain compounds made up of nouns and prepositional phrases. Examples: Mother-in-law hand-in-hand off-the-cuff d) In titles compounded with ex and elect. Examples: ex-wife ex-Governor President-elect e) In compounds made up of prefixes joined to proper names. Examples: mid-September anti-American un-American f) To distinguish words spelled alike but differing in meaning. Examples: re-count, to count again re-cover, to cover again recount, to relate in detail recover, to regain g) To eliminate the confusion where vowels are doubled in combination with a prefix. Examples: co-owner semi-independent
  73. 73. P a g e | 73 * Exceptions to this rule are the words cooperate andcoordinate along with their derivatives. h) Generally in words compounded with self as the prefix. Examples: Self-confidence self-worth self- reliant * Do not use a hyphen in the word selfless or in pronouns compounded with self; as in, myself, itself, herself, etc. Period The use of the period as punctuation in writing. The primary uses of the period are: a) At the end of a sentence, when the sentence is a statement or instruction. Example: Please have those reports completed and on my desk by Friday. b) After an abbreviation or after initials. Examples: Gov‘t. etc. I.R.S. John W. Smith Inc. ( Sample Company Inc. or Sample Company, Inc. ) c) It is acceptable to omit the period after an abbreviation in some cases. If in doubt, consult a dictionary. Examples: TV FBI UN Mr. or Mr Dr. or Dr
  74. 74. P a g e | 74 d) When abbreviating, for example calendar months, titles, degrees, or days of the week, it should be remembered that only one space follows the period at the end of the abbreviation, and that no spaces follow the letters within the abbreviation. Examples: U.S.A. not U. S. A Ph.D. not Ph. D. e) If a sentence concludes with an abbreviation that ends with a period, a second period should NOT be used. Example: This matter will now be referred to the I.R.S Quotation Marks Using quotation marks properly as punctuation in written works. Quotation marks are primarily used to indicate: a) Direct speech. Example: ―Will you have them send over the contracts now please?‖ asked Mr. Jones. Note: All punctuation marks in the sentence are placed
  75. 75. P a g e | 75 inside the quotation marks,with the exception of: i) question marks that do not form part of the quotation and, ii) semicolons and colons. Examples: ―Please begin your presentation whenever you are ready,‖ the chairman told him. (Statement) ―What are the new hours of operation?‖ Harry asked. (Question) ―They just all stopped working and walked out of the plant!‖ exclaimed the supervisor. (Exclamation) i. If the question mark does not form part of the quotation, it is placed outside of the quotation marks. Example: Did Jane say, ―The meeting will start earlier because of the game, or end earlier because of the game‖? ii. Semicolons and colons, are placed outside the quotation marks. Example: That‘s when she gave up those small acting parts as ―queen of commercials‖: she paid her dues.
  76. 76. P a g e | 76 b) A quotation within a quotation. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. Example: ―I specifically remember he asked, ‗Which lever will slow it down?‘ when I showed him how to operate the machine,‖ said Joe. c) To set off from the context any quoted or emphasized word or phrase. Example: With a ―deer in the headlights‖ look on his face, John just stared out across the audience. d) To indicate ironical use of words. Example: Everyone at the barbeque party ―borrowed‖ my sunscreen lotion until it was all used up.
  77. 77. P a g e | 77 Qualities of Good Paragraph 1. Unity - is when a paragraph contains one single main idea. 2. Coherence - is when a sentence follow one another in such a way that the writer`s ideas are expressed in a clear logical manner without sudden shifts or gaps of thought. a. be arranging the details in logical order to avoid thought gaps. b. by using transitional devices or signals to link the thought sequence from one idea to the next. 3. Emphasis - is the principle of composition by means of which important ideas are made to stand. 4. Order - the quality that gives the paragraph a specific direction. - it guides the readers mind towards the point the writer wishes to make or directs the direct the reader towards the understanding of that point.
  78. 78. P a g e | 78 Friendly Letter Writing Purpose of a Friendly Letter A friendly letter (or informal letter) is a way of communicating between two people (sometimes more) who are usually well acquainted. There are many uses and reasons for writing a friendly letter but friendly letters will usually consist of topics on a personal level. Friendly letters can either be printed or hand-written. Friendly Letter Writing The friendly letter is typically less formal than that of a business letter. Usually the first paragraph of the body will consist of an introduction which will give the recipient an idea about why you're writing to them with a short summary of the main topic of your letter. If you don't know the person you are writing to, you may want to introduce yourself in this introductory paragraph as well. The next few paragraphs will usually consist of the message you want to get across along with any details you may want to convey. The last paragraph will usually be the conclusion where you wrap everything up. You can sum up your main idea in this paragraph, thank the recipient for their time, wish the recipient well, and/or ask any questions. Since friendly letters are less formal, you can feel free to write it however you like, but the above format is fairly common.
  79. 79. P a g e | 79 Friendly Letter Format Return Address Line 1 1 Return Address Line 2 Date (Month Day, Year) 2 Dear Name of Recipient, 3 Body Paragraph 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Body Paragraph 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Body Paragraph 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Closing (Sincerely...), 5 Signature 6 P.S. 7 In the friendly letter format, your address, date, the closing, signature, and printed name are all indented to the right half of the page (how far you indent in is up to you as long as the heading and closing is lined
  80. 80. P a g e | 80 up, use your own discretion and make sure it looks presentable). Also the first line of each paragraph is indented. Your Address 1 All that is needed is your street address on the first line and the city, state and zip on the second line. (Not needed if the letter is printed on paper with a letterhead already on it.) Date 2 Put the date on which the letter was written in the format Month Day Year e.g. August 30, 2003. Skip a line between the date and the salutation. Salutation 3 Usually starts out with Dear so and so, or Hi so and so. Note: There is a comma after the end of the salutation (you can use an exclamation point also if there is a need for some emphasis). Body 4 The body is where you write the content of the letter; the paragraphs should be single spaced with a skipped line between each paragraph. Skip 2 lines between the end of the body and the closing. Closing 5 Let's the reader know that you are finished with your letter; usually ends with Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Thank you, and so on. Note that there is a comma after the end of the closing and only the first word in the closing is capitalized.
  81. 81. P a g e | 81 Signature 6 Your signature will go in this section, usually signed in black or blue ink with a pen. Skip a line after your signature and the P.S. P.S. 7 If you want to add anything additional to the letter you write a P.S. (post script) and the message after that. You can also add a P.P.S after that and a P.P.P.S. after that and so on.
  82. 82. P a g e | 82 Sample Friendly Letter 506 Country Lane North Baysville, CA 53286 July 16, 2007 Dear Susan, It feels like such a long time since the last time I saw you. I know it's only been several weeks since I saw you. So far my summer has been great! I spend my all my weekends at the beach. I am getting a nice tan and you can no longer say I am paler than you. I have been playing lots of volleyball, surfing and building a nice collection of sea shells. Just this past weekend I took second place in a sandcastle building contest! On the weekdays I work. I drive an ice cream truck around and sell ice cream to the kids. It is so cool. It is a combination of the two things I love most, ice cream and kids. The pay isn't too great but I love the job so much. I hope the summer's been going well for you too. There's only a month and a half left in summer vacation and after that it's back to school. Would you like to meet up some time before school starts? Your friend, Signature P.S. John Austin says hi.
  83. 83. P a g e | 83 Business Letter Writing Purpose of a Business Letter A business letter (or formal letter) is a formal way of communicating between two or more parties. There are many different uses and business letters. Business letters can be informational, persuasive, motivational, or promotional. Business letters should be typed and printed out on standard 8.5" x 11" white paper. Elements of a Good Letter The most important element of writing a good letter is your ability to identify and write to your audience. If you are addressing your letter to the department of human resources, avoid using highly technical terms that only engineers would understand, even if your letter is addressed to an engineering company, chances are that the personnel in human resources does not have an engineering background. The next element is that you make sure your present your objective in a clear and concise manner. Don't be vague about your objective, most people will not have the patience to sit there and guess at the meaning of your letter or the time to read a long-winded letter, just get to the point without going into unnecessary details. Another important element to remember is to remain professional. Even if you are writing a complaint letter, remain polite and courteous, simply state the problem(s) along with any other relevant information and be sure to avoid threats and slander.
  84. 84. P a g e | 84 Business Letter Format Block Format: Business Letter Return Address Line 1 1 Return Address Line 2 Date (Month Day, Year) 2 Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. Full name of recipient. 3 Title/Position of Recipient. Company Name Address Line 1 Address Line 2 Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name: 4 Subject: Title of Subject 5 Body Paragraph 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Body Paragraph 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Body Paragraph 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
  85. 85. P a g e | 85 Closing (Sincerely...), 7 Signature 8 Your Name (Printed) 9 Your Title Enclosures (2) 10 Typist Initials. 11 The block format is the simplest format; all of the writing is flush against the left margin. Your Address 1 The return address of the sender so the recipient can easily find out where to send a reply to. Skip a line between your address and the date. (Not needed if the letter is printed on paper with the company letterhead already on it.) Date 2 Put the date on which the letter was written in the format Month Day Year i.e. August 30, 2003. Skip a line between the date and the inside address (some people skip 3 or 4 lines after the date). Inside Address 3 The address of the person you are writing to along with the name of the recipient, their title and company name, if you are not sure who the letter should be addressed to either leave it blank, but try to put in a
  86. 86. P a g e | 86 title, i.e. "Director of Human Resources". Skip a line between the date and the salutation. Salutation 4 Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. Last Name:, Dear Director of Department Name: or To Whom It May Concern: if recipient's name is unknown. Note that there is a colon after the salutation. Skip a line between the salutation and the subject line or body. Subject Line (optional) 5 Makes it easier for the recipient to find out what the letter is about. Skip a line between the subject line and the body. Body 6 The body is where you write the content of the letter; the paragraphs should be single spaced with a skipped line between each paragraph. Skip a line between the end of the body and the closing. Closing 7 Let's the reader know that you are finished with your letter; usually ends with Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Thank you, and so on. Note that there is a comma after the end of the closing and only the first word in the closing is capitalized. Skip 3-4 lines between the closing and the printed name, so that there is room for the signature. Signature 8 Your signature will go in this section, usually signed in black or blue ink with a pen.
  87. 87. P a g e | 87 Printed Name 9 The printed version of your name, and if desired you can put your title or position on the line underneath it. Skip a line between the printed name and the enclosure. Enclosure 10 If letter contains other document other than the letter itself your letter will include the word "Enclosure." If there is more than one you would type, "Enclosures (#)" with the # being the number of other documents enclosed, not including the letter itself. Reference Initials 11 If someone other than yourself typed the letter you will include your initials in capital letters followed by the typist's initials in lower case in the following format; AG/gs or AG:gs.
  88. 88. P a g e | 88 Sample Business Letter 3519 Front Street Mount Celebres, CA 65286 October 5, 2004 Ms. Betty Johnson Accounts Payable The Cooking Store 765 Berliner Plaza Industrial Point, CA 68534 Dear Ms. Johnson: It has come to my attention that your company, The Cooking Store has been late with paying their invoices for the past three months. In order to encourage our customers to pay for their invoices before the due date, we have implemented a discount model where we'll give you 2% off your invoice if you pay us within 10 days of receiving the invoice. I hope that everything is going well for you and your company. You are one of our biggest customers, and we appreciate your business. If you have any questions, feel free to contact me at (555) 555-5555. Sincerely, Signature Bob Powers Accounts Receivable
  89. 89. P a g e | 89 Application Letter Writing Writing a cover letter often seems like a particularly daunting task. However, if you take it one step at a time, you'll soon be an expert at writing cover letters to send with your resume. A cover letter typically accompanies each resume you send out. Your cover letter may make the difference between obtaining a job interview and having your resume ignored, so it makes good sense to devote the necessary time and effort to writing effective cover letters. A cover letter should complement, not duplicate, your resume. Its purpose is to interpret the data-oriented, factual resume and add a personal touch. A cover letter is often your earliest written contact with a potential employer, creating a critical first impression. There are three general types of cover letters: The application letter which responds to a known job opening (review samples) The prospecting letter which inquires about possible positions (review sample) The networking letter which requests information and assistance in your job search (review samples) Your cover letter should be designed specifically for each purpose outlined above as well as for each position you seek. Do not design a
  90. 90. P a g e | 90 form letter and send it to every potential employer (you know what you do with junk mail!). Effective cover letters explain the reasons for your interest in the specific organization and identify your most relevant skills or experiences (remember, relevance is determined by the employer's self-interest). They should express a high level of interest and knowledge about the position.
  91. 91. P a g e | 91 Application Letter Format Contact Information Name Address City, State, Zip Code Phone Number Email Address Date Employer Contact Information (if you have it) Name Title Company Address City, State, Zip Code Salutation Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name, (leave out if you don't have a contact) Body of Application Letter The body of your application letter lets the employer know what position you are applying for, why the employer should select you for an interview, and how you will follow-up.
  92. 92. P a g e | 92 First Paragraph The first paragraph of your letter should include information on why you are writing. Mention the job you are applying for and where you found the job listing. Include the name of a mutual contact, if you have one. Middle Paragraph(s) The next section of your application letter should describe what you have to offer the employer. Mention specifically how your qualifications match the job you are applying for. Remember, you are interpreting your resume, not repeating it. Final Paragraph Conclude your application letter by thanking the employer for considering you for the position. Include information on how you will follow-up. Complimentary Close Sincerely, Signature
  93. 93. P a g e | 93 Sample Application Letter First Name Last Name 87 Washington Street Smithfield, CA 08055 555-555-5555 (h) 123-123-1234 (c) email Date Mr. John Doe Smithfield Elementary School Main Street Smithfield, CA 08055 Dear Mr. Doe, I am interested in applying for a teaching position, on the elementary level, in your school district. As a 200X graduate of XXX College, I have student teaching experience on the third and sixth grade level, in both suburban and urban school districts. At the present time I am teaching ―at risk‖ preschool children. This position enables me to provide these students with a ―head start‖ in mastering basic skills. I am challenged to be creative, nurturing and most of all, patient.
  94. 94. P a g e | 94 In my junior year at XXX College, a passion for, and knowledge of horses created an opportunity for me work for the Racing Museum. This position allowed me to teach every fourth grade class in the local school system. I coordinated field trips with classroom instruction. It is my goal to combine my range of experience with my ability to be a compassionate, enthusiastic, intelligent teacher who will make a positive contribution to your school district. I would welcome an interview and hope to hear from you at your earliest convenience. Sincerely, Signature FirstName LastName
  95. 95. P a g e | 95 RULES IN SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Basic Rule The basic rule states that a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. NOTE: The trick is in knowing whether the subject is singular or plural. The next trick is recognizing a singular or plural verb. Hint: Verbs do not form their plurals by adding an s as nouns do. In order to determine which verb is singular and which one is plural, think of which verb you would use with he or she and which verb you would use with they. Example: talks, talk Which one is the singular form? Which word would you use with he? We say, "He talks." Therefore, talks is singular. We say, "They talk." Therefore, talk is plural. Rule 1 Two singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb. Example: My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today. Rule 2 Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb as in Rule 1.
  96. 96. P a g e | 96 Examples: Neither Juan nor Carmen is available. Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations. Rule 3 When I is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor, put it second and follow it with the singular verb am. Example: Neither she nor I am going to the festival. Rule 4 When a singular subject is connected by or or nor to a plural subject, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb. Example: The serving bowl or the plates go on that shelf. Rule 5 When a singular and plural subject are connected by either/or or neither/nor, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb. Example: Neither Jenny nor the others are available. Rule 6 As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected byand. Example: A car and a bike are my means of transportation.
  97. 97. P a g e | 97 Rule 7 Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by words such as along with, as well as, besides, or not. Ignore these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb. Examples: The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly. Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking. Rule 8 The pronouns each, everyone, every one, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, andsomebody are singular and require singular verbs. Do not be misled by what follows of. Examples: Each of the girls sings well. Every one of the cakes is gone. NOTE: Everyone is one word when it means everybody. Every one is two words when the meaning is each one. Rule 9 With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth —look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb. Examples: Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared. Pie is the object of the preposition of. Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared. Pies is the object of the preposition.
  98. 98. P a g e | 98 One-third of the city is unemployed. One-third of the people are unemployed. NOTE: Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions. All of the pie is gone. All of the pies are gone. Some of the pie is missing. Some of the pies are missing. None of the garbage was picked up. None of the sentences were punctuated correctly. Of all her books, none have sold as well as the first one. NOTE: Apparently, the SAT testing service considers none as a singular word only. However, according to Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, "Clearly none has been both singular and plural since Old English and still is. The notion that it is singular only is a myth of unknown origin that appears to have arisen in the 19th century. If in context it seems like a singular to you, use a singular verb; if it seems like a plural, use a plural verb. Both are acceptable beyond serious criticism" (p. 664). Rule 10 The expression the number is followed by a singular verb while the expression a number is followed by a plural verb. Examples: The number of people we need to hire is thirteen. A number of people have written in about this subject. Rule 11 When either and neither are subjects, they always take singular verbs.
  99. 99. P a g e | 99 Examples: Neither of them is available to speak right now. Either of us is capable of doing the job. Rule 12 The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there, the subject follows the verb. Examples: There are four hurdles to jump. There is a high hurdle to jump. Rule 13 Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time. Examples: Ten dollars is a high price to pay. Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. Rule 14 Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So, if that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb. Examples: Salma is the scientist who writes/write the reports. The word in front of who is scientist, which is singular. Therefore, use the singular verb writes. He is one of the men who does/do the work.
  100. 100. P a g e | 100 The word in front of who is men, which is plural. Therefore, use the plural verb do. Rule 15 Collective nouns such as team and staff may be either singular or plural depending on their use in the sentence. Examples: The staff is in a meeting. Staff is acting as a unit here. The staff are in disagreement about the findings. The staff are acting as separate individuals in this example. The sentence would read even better as: The staff members are in disagreement about the findings.
  101. 101. P a g e | 101 I. Structural Analysis  hand out given by Mrs. Mildred Par last semester II. Homonyms, Homograph & Heteronyms  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homonym III. Word Association IV. Idioms V. Synonyms and Antonyms VI. Figures of Speech  http://yourdictionary.com  http://www.uebersetzung.at  http://wikipedia.org  http://wiki.answers.com  http://answers.yahoo.com  http://bigcsshop.hubpages.com VII. Tenses of the Verb  http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/us etense.html  http://utminers.utep.edu
  102. 102. P a g e | 102 VIII. Run-ons  http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/sentences/run-on- sentences.html IX. Fragments X. Modifiers  examples.yourdictionary.com  Language Literature World Literature Revised Edition (Grammar Workbook) IV  Authors: Remedios F. Nery, Esperanza Chee Kee, Lourdes M. Ribo XI. Capitalization  www.libraryonline.com XII. Punctuations  www.libraryonline.com XIII. Qualities of a Paragraph  www.wiki.answers.com XIV. Friendly and Business Letter  www.letterwritingguide.com XV. Application Letter  www.jobsearch.about.com XVI. Rules in Subject verb Agreement  http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/subjectVerbA gree.asp
  103. 103. P a g e | 103 Submitted by: Lezette P. Endozo Ann Loreine S. Estolero Rachelle A. Francisco Marivic A. Gallanosa Mark Jayson A. Garcia Gio Miguel L. Garrido Ian Cliffton C. Gludo Rohmar L Ibañez Ma. Elaine C. Igdalino