Integrative Steps of Learning


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Looks at modes of learning (based loosely on Blooms modes of learning), with the goal of holistic integration in learning. Particular focus is on Christian education.

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Integrative Steps of Learning

  1. 1. Integrative Steps of Learning and Growth (Bukal Life Care and Counseling Center)
  2. 2. Note: <ul><li>Special emphasis is placed on “Christian” instruction. But the principles apply to education that should cover broad areas of life development. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The most well known description of learning domains was developed by Benjamin Bloom. It is known as “Bloom’s Taxonomy”
  4. 4. This presentation of the taxonomy of learning domains is heavily dependent on (but not strictly following) the work of Bloom, as well as others such as R. H. Dave.
  5. 5. Three Major Domains <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul>
  6. 6. Domain #1: Cognitive <ul><li>“ Cognitive” refers to thinking. As such, it includes such things as knowledge, understanding, and wisdom. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Domain #2: Affective <ul><li>“ Affective” refers to feelings. However, it is broader than simply emotions. It includes attitude and values. It also is tied greatly to the social or relational component in the person. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Domain #3: Behavioral <ul><li>Originally, with Bloom and others, this domain was viewed as psychomotor or hand skills. However, a broader understanding of actions seems valuable here. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Review Cognitive Affective Behavioral Thinking Feeling Doing Head Heart Hands
  10. 10. Levels of Learning: Cognitive Domain <ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Levels of Learning: Affective Domain <ul><li>Receiving </li></ul><ul><li>Responding </li></ul><ul><li>Valuing </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Internalizing </li></ul>
  12. 12. Levels of Learning: Behavioral Domain <ul><li>Imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Precision </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalization </li></ul>
  13. 13. Two General Thoughts on Levels of Learning <ul><li>FIRST: The levels are progressive. That is, level 1 is the starting point for each domain, but the goal is to work toward level 5. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Levels/Steps of Learning
  15. 15. Two General Thoughts on Levels of Learning <ul><li>Second: Most learning ultimately requires the integration of the domains. Education involves changing thoughts, values, and actions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Integrative Learning is the overlap of the three domains
  17. 17. Levels/Steps of Learning
  18. 18. Rather than focusing on the domains separately, consider a holistic integration of these domains. If we do this, what happens at each step?
  19. 19. Step 1: Intake <ul><li>Cognitive: Recall (I can remember and repeat back what I was told) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: Receive (I am willing to accept, not necessarily agree with, what I am taught) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral. Imitate (I can copy what the teacher is doing.) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Step 2: Grasp <ul><li>Cognitive: Comprehend (I understand what I am being taught.) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: Respond (I value what I am being taught enough to react to it… positively or negatively) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral. Manipulate (I can do as long as someone gives me instructions). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Step 3: Use <ul><li>Cognitive: Application (I can apply my knowledge in new situations) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: Value (I find what I learned important to me) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral. Precision (I can create/do without specific instructions) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Step 4: Create <ul><li>Cognitive: Analysis (I can competently research, analyze, and utilize new learning.) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: Organize (I can restructure my life around what I have found to be valuable.) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral: Articulate (I can design and make what is new based on learning and personal experience) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Step 5: Master <ul><li>Cognitive: Synthesize (I can take learning from many sources and integrate it into new levels of understanding) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: Internalize (My learning is now part of me and how I, in part, define myself) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral. Naturalize (I now design/develop/create as a master craftsman… as an extension of myself) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Review of the Holistic Steps of Learning
  25. 25. Think About It <ul><li>These may be steps to holistic learning, but perhaps they can be applied to overall well-being. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Consider Luke 2:52 <ul><li>Referring to Jesus… “And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and with man.” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Consider the four areas mentioned. <ul><li>Wisdom (mental/volitional) </li></ul><ul><li>Stature (physical) </li></ul><ul><li>God (spiritual) </li></ul><ul><li>Man (social) </li></ul>
  28. 28. All four of these areas have cognitive, affective, and behavioral components.
  29. 29. Wholistic Growth involves growing physically, mentally, socially, and spiritually. This growth, in all four areas, involves learning in thinking, feeling, and doing.
  30. 30. Consider Spiritual Growth <ul><li>Many Christians and Christian groups deal with spiritual training without concern on a broader level. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Problem #1 with spiritual training in Christian groups <ul><li>There is a tendency to limit training in Christian groups to that which is considered “spiritual”. Yet, a Christian should grow in all four areas. Why should churches and other faith groups leave it to other training institutions to promote growth in other areas. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Problem #2 with spiritual training in Christian groups <ul><li>Related to Problem #1, many Christian groups put such a high priority on “spiritual” matters, that a young believer may come to the conclusion that growing in other areas has no real value. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Problem #3 with spiritual training in Christian groups <ul><li>Many groups focus their training in the cognitive area. The focus is on information. This is strange since faith is foundational to Christian living and faith is primarily in the affective area, and demonstrated in the behavioral area. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Problem #4 with spiritual training in Christian groups <ul><li>Many groups emphasize cognitive training at the start and only seek behavioral training (ministry/missions) after a fair amount of (cognitive) maturity. This is not justifiable. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Recall the Integrated Steps
  36. 36. Spiritual Step #1. Intake <ul><li>A very young believer (or perhaps simply a seeker) is given instruction in the faith and can imitate the behavior of the discipler. Affectively, the individual should be open, but perhaps undecided. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Spiritual Step #2. Grasp <ul><li>Training moves beyond data input and imitation. At this point there should be the “Aha!!” as the person understands and responds to the message. Behaviorally, the learner can serve following clear instructions. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Spiritual Step #3. Use <ul><li>This is where the disciples are generally effective. They value their faith, they understand how their Bible and faith study relates to their lives. They are able to serve and minister without close supervision and guidance. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Spiritual Step #4. Create <ul><li>The disciple has moved beyond the “milk” of the word. He is now integrating his life around his faith, analyzing and dealing with confusing parts of his learning. He is able to move beyond simply doing. He is able to develop and create. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Spiritual Step #5. Master <ul><li>Spiritually speaking, this is the pinnacle. The disciple identifies himself by his relationship to God and faith community. He has great depth in his understanding, and is competent to lead, teach, and do as a fully faithful servant of God. </li></ul>
  41. 41. This is the pinnacle spiritually… <ul><li>… but God did not simply create us as spiritual beings. He created us as physical, thinking, social beings. As such, achieving a Master level spiritually while being stunted in other areas may not be possible… and certainly is not healthy. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Key point… <ul><li>Mastery involves our God-given potential and situation. For example, Physical mastery involves the body God has given us at the stage of life we are in. Mastery does not mean doing more push-ups than anyone else. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Steps Toward Integration
  44. 44. What would level 6 be? <ul><li>This should involve integration of physical, social, spiritual, and mental areas of life (they are integrated anyway… it is we who divide them up). </li></ul>
  45. 45. What should level 6 be like. <ul><li>Some characteristics could be: </li></ul><ul><li>-Evaluation. (Ability to judge competently) </li></ul><ul><li>-Replication. (Desire to pass on and develop his learning to others) </li></ul><ul><li>-Innovation. (Develop new creations that integrate different areas of life) </li></ul>
  46. 46. What else? <ul><li>Within a Christian context, level 6 could be described as “Christlikeness”. </li></ul><ul><li>Within other contexts, level 6 would be living up to one’s potential or design. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Suggestion… <ul><li>It may not be necessary to integrate areas of life in teaching computer programming. But one should consider integrating components of learning and areas of life in broader areas of learning. Education should be as broad as we are. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>We must see the whole man and his total need. If you only see his mental need you will become an educator. If you only see his political oppression, you will become a revolutionary or a politician. And if you see only his spiritual need, you will become a religionist. It is in seeing the whole man, with the strongest emphasis on the spiritual that you become a Christian witness, a missionary, an evangelist, a communicator of God’s Word. </li></ul><ul><li>-Franklin Graham </li></ul><ul><li>(CHE Overview {Modesto, CA: Medical Ambassadors International, 2005)) </li></ul>
  49. 49. Some References <ul><li>“ Bloom’s Taxonomy- Learning Domains” </li></ul><ul><li>Ford, LeRoy. Design for Teaching and Training: A Self-Study Guide to Lesson Planning . Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Knight, Lizette. Maximum Learning and Teaching: Asian Perspectivee. Baguio City, Philippines, MLK Equip Publishing, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>LeFever, Marlene. “Learning Styles” in Introducing Christian Education: Foundations for the 21st Century , Michael Anthony, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Munson, Celia. “Learning Styles and Modes of Learning.” </li></ul><ul><li>Munson, Robert. Wholistic Education in the Church. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>LeFrancois, Guy R. Psychology for Teaching . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1988. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Yount, William R. “Learning Theory for Christian Teachers” in Introducing Christian Education: Foundations for the 21st Century , Michael Anthony, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Yount, William R. Called to Teach: An Introduction to the Ministry of Teaching . Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman, 1999. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Integrative Steps of Learning and Growth (Compiled by Bob and Celia Munson for Bukal Life Care and Counseling Center)