History and Foundations of Pastoral Care


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I high-end overview of Pastoral Care, from the Biblical metaphor of the shepherd, to Historical Pastoral Care to Clinical Pastoral Care. Also considers other issues such as various views on how theology and psychology relate in a pastoral care/counseling ministry.

Published in: Spiritual, Health & Medicine

History and Foundations of Pastoral Care

  1. 1. History and Foundations of Pastoral Care Historical Pastoral Care Clinical Pastoral Care Pastoral Care and Counseling Today By Robert H. Munson, ThD Celia P. Munson, BCCC (CPSP) Bukal Life Care, 2017
  2. 2. What is Pastoral Care? Etymology and Definition of Pastoral Care – Pastor: A Latin word meaning “shepherd” • Related to pastus meaning “feeding” • A shepherd sees to the feeding, well being, and growth of the flock – Care • watchful attention; supervision • show concern for – Pastoral Care: To be concerned for and give watchful attention (feeding, well being, and growth) for the “flock.” – Came to mean “cure of souls”
  3. 3. Who is the “Flock” for the shepherd? • Church members only? • Those closely associated with the church? • Community/Parish? <Reflect on John 10:16> • People who do not recognize us as a “shepherd”?
  4. 4. Who is the “Flock” for the shepherd?  For Chaplains, the flock most certainly may include people of other denominations, religions and ideologies.  In hospitals, the flock can be patients (with family and friends) and staff.  In jails, the flock can be inmates (with families and friends) and staff.  In military, the flock may include officers, enlisted, civilian workers, and families.
  5. 5. Reflections on Pastoral Care in Terms of Shepherding Ezekiel 34 -Directs and gathers together -Provides healing and safety -Gives justice (liberation?) Psalm 23 -Takes care of Needs -Guides the way... safe and right way -Restores and strengthens -Protects from dangers John 10 -Cares for -Protects -Sacrifices for Luke 4 -Give words of comfort to the suffering -Proclaim freedom -Provide healing
  6. 6. How is Chaplaincy Different from Pastoral Care? “The term Chaplain refers to a clergyperson or layperson who has been commissioned by a faith group or an organization to provide pastoral services in an institution, organization or government entity. Chaplaincy refers to the general activity performed by a chaplain, which may include crisis ministry, counseling, sacraments, worship, education, help in ethical decision-making, staff support, clergy contact and community or church coordination.”
  7. 7. How is Chaplaincy Different from Pastoral Care? “ Although many faith groups and institutions use "pastoral care" synonymously with "chaplaincy services," some prefer to use "pastoral care to refer to any services performed by either ordained or non- ordained persons, but reserve "chaplaincy services" for activities performed by ordained ministers, priests or rabbis.” - The Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling: Rodney J. Hunter, Ed., Abingdon Press, Nashville, TN.
  8. 8. Chaplain The term comes from “Middle English: from Old French chapelain, from medieval Latin cappellanus, originally denoting a custodian of the cloak of St. Martin, from cappella, originally ‘little cloak’”
  9. 9. Chaplain St. Martin of Tours. Military Man. Born 335. “Martin and his friends were entering the city of Amiens when an almost naked and shivering beggar asked them for alms. Martin had no money for him, but he took off his cape, cut it in two, and gave half to the beggar. According to the story, later in his dreams Martin saw Jesus coming to him, wrapped in half a soldier’s cape, and saying: “Inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me.”
  10. 10. Historical Pastoral Care Key figure: Pope Gregory the Great. Wrote “Pastoral Care,” a book that has been used for centuries. Four assumptions: (reference Oden) #1. Each case requires variable responses. Each person is unique. Each situation is unique. Therefore each symptom can have different causes, and need different responses. “One-size” answers do not fit all people.
  11. 11. Historical Pastoral Care #2 The display of an outstanding virtue may conceal a corresponding vice to which the pastoral counselor must attend.
  12. 12. Historical Pastoral Care #3 The pastor's care mirrors Christ's care for us. When in doubt as to what we should do as caregivers, the old line from the book “In His Steps” (Charles Sheldon, 1896) does have value: “What Would Jesus Do?”
  13. 13. Historical Pastoral Care #4. Authority in ministry is paradoxically validated only through humble service following the example of Jesus Christ. One of the key aspects of following the example of Christ is the role as a humble servant. Our influence as care providers may be tied somewhat to POSITION. Such position may be tied to ordination, certification, and role in an organization. However, as John Maxwell has noted, Position is the lowest level of influence in the lives of others. In humble and competent serving, we have influence in our ministry through the PERMISSION of others, and through the observed PERFORMANCE.
  14. 14. Other Practitioners and Writers of Historical Pastoral Care Cyprian,Tertullian, Chrysostom, Ambrose, Augustine, Bonaventure and Thomas Aquinas, Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, Bucer, More, Herbert, Burnet, Baxter, etc. These were commonly quoted by pastoral care practitioners and writers of the 19th century, but mostly ignored by those in the 20th century.
  15. 15. Pastoral Care Functions Hiltner (1958) Clebsch & Jaeckle (1964) Clinebell (1966) Lester (1995) Lartey (2003) Healing Healing Healing Healing Healing Guiding Guiding Guiding Guiding Guiding Sustaining Sustaining Sustaining Sustaining Sustaining Reconciling Reconciling Reconciling Reconciling Nurturing Nurturing Liberating Liberating
  16. 16. Definition of Pastoral Care “The ministry of the cure of souls, orpastoral care, consists of helping acts, done by representative Christian persons, directed toward the healing, sustaining, guiding, and reconciling of troubled persons whose troubles arise in the context of ultimate meanings and concerns.” (fromClebsch & Jaekle)
  17. 17. Sustaining (Clebsch/Jaekle) “Preservation- seeks to maintain a troubled person's situation with as little loss as possible.” “Consolation- to communicate that actual losses could not nullify person's opportunity to achieve his destiny under God.” “Consolidation- of the remaining resources available to the sufferer to build a platform from which to face a deprived life.” “Redemption- by embracing the loss and by setting out to achieve whatever historical fulfilment might be wrested from life in the face of irretrievable deprivation.”
  18. 18. Guiding (Clebsch/Jaekle) “Guiding- is the function of the ministry of the cure of souls which arrives at some wisdom concerning what we ought to do when faced with a difficult problem of choosing between various courses of thought and action.” Guidance is often done not so much by “advice giving” (although that is certainly appropriate at times) as by drawing out from the individual's own experiences and values for their source as criteria in decision making, “eductive guidance”.
  19. 19. Healing (Clebsch/Jaekle) “Healing- aims to overcome some impairment by restoring a person to wholeness and by leading him to advance beyond his previous condition.” Today, Pastoral Healing is less focused on healing the physical body (although it is done). The focus is often on other areas such as social, mental, emotional, spiritual, and holistic.
  20. 20. Reconciling (Clebsch/Jaekle) Reconciliation can be thought of as healing of relationships. Reconciliation is commonly with others. However, it can be with God, and it can be with self. Clebsch and Jaekle suggest that Reconciliation may be the area of Pastoral Care that is in greatest need in this era.
  21. 21. History of Clinical Pastoral Care Clinical Pastoral Education (aka Clinical Pastoral Training) began in the US in the 1920’s through Anton Boisen, Richard Cabot, and Helen Flanders Dunbar
  22. 22. History of Clinical Pastoral Care Rev. Anton Boisen, father of the Clinical Pastoral Education/ Training movement, saw the need for pastoral care in mental hospitals after being a patient there himself. He placed theological students in supervised contact with patients in mental hospitals.
  23. 23. History of Clinical Pastoral Care Dr. Richard Cabot's efforts to define the physician's, as well as the health care system's, role in human well-being, presaged medicine's current attempts to emphasize the social context of the patient.
  24. 24. History of Clinical Pastoral Clinical Helen Flanders. Her roots was in homeopathic medicine. She carved a theoretical niche for psychosomatic medicine-- She established the Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, serving as its chief editor from 1938 to 1947, and, in 1942 was instrumental in founding the American Psychosomatic Society. http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/dunbar.html
  25. 25. The integration of religion and psychology for psychotherapeutic purposes began in the 1930’s with the collaboration of Norman Vincent Peale, a renowned minister, and Smiley Blanton, M.D., a psychiatrist, to form the American Foundation of Religion and Psychiatry, now the Blanton-Peale Institute. Over the years, the role of pastoral counseling has evolved from religious or spiritual counseling to pastoral psychotherapy which integrates theology and the behavioral sciences. History of Clinical Pastoral Clinical
  26. 26. History of Clinical Pastoral Care Psychological Influences – Eric Erickson • Ego development • Life stages • Stages of psychosocial development – Carl Rogers • Client centered therapy • Reflective listening techniques – Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of needs – Viktor Frankl - Will to Meaning, Logotherapy
  27. 27. History of Clinical Pastoral Care Psychological Influences Psychiatrist Karl Menninger was a pioneer in the integration of the psychological and the theological disciplines because he believed in the "inseparable nature of psychological and spiritual health." Paul Pruyser (at the Menninger Clinic) promoted the concept of pastoral diagnosis.
  28. 28. History of Clinical Pastoral Care Influencers in Pastoral Care/Psychology – Donald Capps • Psychosocial & theological themes • Focus on personal change – William Arnold (Union Seminary) • Human development model – James Fowler (Emory University) • Stages of faith – Henri Nouwen - “Wounded Healer”
  29. 29. Psychology and Theology
  30. 30. Levels of Explanation Model Affiliated groups: Christian Association for Psychological Studies (CAPS); The Journal of Psychology and Christianity; Fuller Seminary School of Psychology Basic premise: Psychology deals with psychological and natural problems in human behavior and relationships. The Bible looks at spiritual problems and our relationship with God. As such they are separate disciplines that deal with unrelated problems. <Note: Descriptions of the four major models here are based generally on Timothy Keller's article “Four Models of Counseling in Pastoral Ministry”>
  31. 31. Integration Model Affiliated Groups: Rosemead School of Psychology at Biola University, La Mirada, CA; American Association of Christian Counselors; Reformed Theological Seminary, Jackson, MS. Basic premise: Psychology and biblical theology are both looking at the same thing—human nature. Two different tools to study human beings, “general revelation” and “special revelation.” They give priority to the Bible when there is conflict, but may give science priority in common practice.
  32. 32. Christian Psychology Model Affiliated Group: Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, MO Basic premise: The Bible/Theology critiques psychology at a foundational level. Foundationally, theology dominates, but psychological techniques may be brought in as part of the therapy. In practice, tends to be counselor driven rather than theory-driven.
  33. 33. Biblical Counseling Model Affiliated Groups: National Association of Nouthetic Counselors (NANC); Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation (CCEF) Basic premise: A high level of distrust of modern psychology and psychological methodology. Psychological insights should be used with extreme caution. The older approach, formulated by Jay Adams, put great emphasis on behavioral change and the adoption of patterns of biblical living. Much emphasis on sin, repentance, and redemption.
  34. 34. What About “Pastoral Care”  Pastoral Care has always tended to seek integration (many early church fathers applied practices that foreshadowed modern psychology).  Historical Pastoral Care comes closer to the Christian Psychology Movement.  Clinical (Modern) Pastoral Care comes closer to the Integrationists, with more emphasis on psychology.
  35. 35. “Pastoral Care” vs “Spiritual Care”  Some people prefer Spiritual Care. For one thing it sounds more interfaith... less specifically tied to the Christian Faith. Also, some people don't really know what pastoral care is.  On the other hand, Pastoral Care has 2000+ years of history behind it. It also is a better metaphor because the descriptor is “concrete” rather than “abstract.” Additionally, Spiritual Care seems to suggest a more limited form of care (does spiritual care only apply to “the spirit,” ignoring social, psychoemotional, economic, and physical concerns?)  We prefer “pastoral care” but recognize that both terms find traction with different people.
  36. 36. A Few Challenges  Finding a healthy integration of psychological principles, theological principles, and personal faith.  Integrating one's humanity into one's clinical role (Dykstra).  Juggling the roles of representative of God, one's denomination, oneself, and the client.  Balancing care of client and care of self.
  37. 37. References  “Pastoral Care in Historical Perspectives,” Book. by Clebsch and Jaekle, 1964.  “Care of Souls in the Classic Tradition,” Book. by Thomas Oden  “Skillful Shepherds: An Introduction to Pastoral Theology,” Book, by Derek J. Tidball.  “Preface to Pastoral Theology,” Book. by Seward Hiltner, 1958.  “Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling,” Book. by Howard Clinebell, 1966.  “Hope in Pastoral Care & Counseling,” Book. by Andrew Lester, 1995.  “The Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling,” Book. by Rodney J. Hunter, Ed.,  “Six Functions of Pastoral Care,” Internet Resource, by Jan Corbett-Jones.  “Four Models of Counseling in Pastoral Ministry,” Article. By Timothy Keller,  “Reviews from History of Pastoral Care,” Celia Munson, 2014  “Volunteer Chaplain Training,” Presentation, Al Honager, 2001.  “Bukal Life CPE Review,” Presentation, 2012.