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Life In Army Pp


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Lifetime in the Army during the Civil War -- 8th grade SS

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Life In Army Pp

  1. 1. Life in the Army Civil War Descriptions
  2. 2. Section 1 <ul><li>Average age between 18-30 </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides did have older and younger for example: </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Carter Hay was 11 when he joined an Alabama Regiment </li></ul><ul><li>William Wilkins was 83 when he joined the Pennsylvania Home Guards </li></ul><ul><li>Average height and weight – 5ft 8in, 143 lbs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Farmers were largest group of soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>About ½ of the soldiers from both sides were farmers </li></ul><ul><li>These men were excited; they got to ride a train for the 1 st time, leave the farm, travel, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority were American born </li></ul><ul><li>German and Irish made up majority of immigrant soldiers (one regiment in New York had soldiers born from 15 different countries; the commanding officer had to give orders in 7 diff. languages) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Beginning of the war African Americans were not allowed on either side </li></ul><ul><li>As the war drug on North allowed them to serve </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans wanted to serve with hopes of ending slavery </li></ul><ul><li>South wasn’t going to give guns to slaves to fight </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Native Americans served both sides </li></ul><ul><li>About 2 million soldiers served the Union , less than 1 million served Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of soldiers were volunteers who were seeking adventure and glory </li></ul><ul><li>Some soldiers were seeking escape from the boredom of farm and factory life </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Some joined because friends and neighbors did </li></ul><ul><li>Some joined for the recruitment money </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers also fought because they were loyal to country or state </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers had a 1 in 15 chance of dying </li></ul><ul><li>Most soldiers as volunteers were common infantry or foot soldiers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sect. 1 <ul><li>At the start of the Civil War many volunteers, easy to get soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>As hopes of a swift victory faded, fewer and fewer volunteered </li></ul><ul><li>Promises of travel and glory carried little weight when balanced against the low pay of military service and risks of fighting </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sect. 1 <ul><li>In July 1861, the North began offering bounties (bonus to join) of $100 </li></ul><ul><li>Later government tripled the amount </li></ul><ul><li>This encouraged bounty jumpers – would enlist – desert- and then enlist again somewhere else </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Still facing shortages of soldiers in 1862 the Confederate Congress began the 1 st draft in American history </li></ul><ul><li>In the South men between 18 – 35 became subject to draft </li></ul><ul><li>North began draft in March of 1863 drafting men ages 20 – 45 </li></ul><ul><li>Draftees could escape military service by paying $300 or hiring substitutes </li></ul><ul><li>In the South if you supervised 20 or more slaves you were freed from service </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Neither side favored the draft </li></ul><ul><li>Riots broke out in New York </li></ul><ul><li>Favored the rich, poor did not like it </li></ul><ul><li>Draft continued but never proved to be a great success </li></ul><ul><li>Only a small percentage of Northerners entered the Union Army as draftees </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Soldiers marched from battle to battle </li></ul><ul><li>Marched as many as 30 miles a day </li></ul><ul><li>Ate meals of salt pork/beef, cornmeal, coffee, and hardtack ( universal cracker usually with bugs in it) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Southerners were often hungry and poorly supplied throughout the war </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers usually carried a rifle, cartridge box, canteen, haversack, cap box, bayonet, and bed roll. Union troops sometimes carried knapsacks </li></ul><ul><li>Union soldiers wore sky-blue trousers, a four-button dark blue sack coat, and a blue forage cap </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Southerners wore whatever they could find </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations were a gray jacket with sky-blue trousers, but in reality many Rebs wore a brownish-colored jacket in a butternut shade. Wore a medium-brimmed soft felt slouch hats </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sect. 1 Questions <ul><li>What were the characteristics and background of typical soldier? </li></ul><ul><li>What obstacles did African Americans face who wanted to serve? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did so many men volunteer? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Section 2 <ul><li>After enlistment, soldiers spent hours every day doing drills getting them ready for battle (boring) drilled as many as 5 times a day for 2 hours at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Also shown how to load and fire guns </li></ul><ul><li>They were sent to camps to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Typical camp looked like a sea of canvas tents </li></ul><ul><li>Tents grouped by company and held between 2-20 men </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Recruits in training elected their company officers on both sides of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Training involved set schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Bugle or drum call in morning at dawn </li></ul><ul><li>After roll call and breakfast, soldier had 1 st of many drill sessions </li></ul><ul><li>In between meals and drills, soldiers performed guard duty, cut wood for campfires, dug trenches for latrines, and cleaned up the camp </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Shortly after arrival to camp, soldiers were given their uniforms and equipment (not always the right size; had to trade back and forth to get clothes that fit) </li></ul><ul><li>Early in the war, soldiers received poor quality of clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers took advantage of the government’s needs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Examples: shoes made of imitation leather that fell apart when wet </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners often went without uniforms including shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers often pilfered the dead after battles for clothing </li></ul>
  19. 19. Section 2 Questions <ul><li>What training did soldiers receive? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did both armies have problems providing food, clothing, and shoes for soldiers? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Drills <ul><li>Drills </li></ul>
  21. 21. Section 3 <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers often looked for many things to do to divert their attention from the war and the boredoms of camp life between the horrors of war </li></ul><ul><li>Activities included writing to friends, family, loved ones, neighbors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Many took up activities that were not allowed in their hometowns due to religious reasons </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Such activities included gambling on this, that and everything </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken fighting, dice, and card games </li></ul><ul><li>Others wrestled </li></ul><ul><li>Held raffles </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling became such a passion they often gambled all their money away </li></ul><ul><li>They even gambled on such things as lice races. They would put lice on tin plates and bet on which one would win </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sect. 3 <ul><li>They did play a game that was accepted by both sides and that was a game similar to the one we call baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Known to them as town ball, rounders, or goal ball </li></ul><ul><li>Played with 12 players </li></ul><ul><li>Field was square with 4 bases </li></ul><ul><li>Used stakes for bases </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Players could be called out if he was plugged (hit by a thrown ball while running the bases) </li></ul><ul><li>Especially played in the prison camps </li></ul><ul><li>They did not use gloves, helmets, or masks </li></ul><ul><li>Games were called matches, runs were called tallies, fans called standees </li></ul><ul><li>Balls were tightly wound twine, bats were long pieces of wood </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Outs were the same, except a one hop fly ball also an out </li></ul><ul><li>Grounders were grasscutters </li></ul><ul><li>Pitcher threw underhand </li></ul><ul><li>Batters were strikers </li></ul><ul><li>Outfielders were scouts </li></ul><ul><li>Home plate was striker’s point </li></ul>
  26. 26. Section 3 questions <ul><li>What were the activities soldiers did to pass time? </li></ul><ul><li>What are 3 differences between civil war baseball and modern baseball? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Section 4 <ul><li>Punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Army life produced imperfect soldiers, who were generally a bored, restless, and diverse bunch. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules often broke in camp </li></ul><ul><li>For problems such as mutiny, dereliction of duty, straggling on marches, theft, desertion, drunkenness, cowardice, fighting, insubordination, etc. the following punishments were given: </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sect. 4 <ul><li>Bucked and gagged (hands and feet bound, knees drawn up between arms and a rod inserted so that it ran under knees and over arms, stick forced into the mouth) </li></ul><ul><li>Walked during guard duty with a heavy log instead of rifle </li></ul><ul><li>Tied up by the thumbs </li></ul><ul><li>Rode the wooden mule (hands tied and sat on a narrow rail with feet not touching the ground) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sect. 4 <ul><li>Performed extra duties and fines </li></ul><ul><li>Spent time in guardhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced in rank </li></ul><ul><li>Flogged </li></ul><ul><li>Branded and drummed out of the army in disgrace </li></ul><ul><li>Tied spread eagle on a wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Executed by firing squad or hanging </li></ul>
  30. 30. Drills <ul><li>Drills </li></ul>
  31. 31. Section 5 <ul><li>Prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Few prisoners taken until 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate jails and warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions horrid and inhumane </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowded, lacked proper food or sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Many died due to suffering (approx. 29,000 between 2 armies) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Sect. 5 <ul><li>Some of the most extreme were: </li></ul><ul><li>Andersonville, Belle Isle, Elmira, Camp Chase, Castle Thunder, Fort Douglas, and Rock Island Prison </li></ul><ul><li>One prisoner described Belle Isle as, “a nightmare of starvation, disease, and suffering from cold.” </li></ul><ul><li>Worst prisons were probably Andersonville for the South deep in the Georgia swamps and Elmira for the North in New York </li></ul>
  33. 33. Sect. 5 <ul><li>Elmira – housed 12,000 prisoners, insufficient shelter, lack of vegetables, and illness resulted in many deaths daily. Prison was only in existence for one year and more than 1/3 of prisoners died </li></ul><ul><li>Andersonville – most likely worst in the entire war. More than 13,000 died here. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions as bad or worse than every other prison </li></ul>
  34. 34. Sect. 5 <ul><li>The difference was the camp leader </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Heinrich Wirz (the monster) </li></ul><ul><li>He struck, kicked, shot prisoners at will </li></ul><ul><li>Had poor sanitation, shelter, food shortages due to blockade, lack of medicine and criminals known as raiders who terrorized prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Worse condition of this prison was the stream that ran through the camp was polluted causing many sicknesses and deaths </li></ul>
  35. 35. Sect. 5 <ul><li>Commander Wirz was tried, found guilty, and condemned to die on the gallows for his actions in the prison camp </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5 questions – wksht on Andersonville prison </li></ul>
  36. 36. Section 6 <ul><li>Medicine in the War </li></ul><ul><li>Poor hygiene led to widespread sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers’ bodies, clothing, and bedding became infested with lice and fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Most soldiers had chronic diarrhea or other intestinal disorders </li></ul><ul><li>These disorders were caused by contaminated water, food, or insects </li></ul>
  37. 37. Sect. 6 <ul><li>People were unaware of germs </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors often failed to wash their hands or instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors often used bloody saws and knives to cut off mangled limbs; they were often then just thrown on piles </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments for intestinal issues included doses of mercury, chalk to a plug of opium, and tree bark </li></ul>
  38. 38. Sect. 6 <ul><li>Pneumonia and bronchitis were treated by bleeding the soldier and then giving them quinine and sometimes accompanied by an application of mustard plaster </li></ul><ul><li>Scurvy was treated with such home remedies as onions, lemons, wine vinegar, green vegetables and fruit </li></ul><ul><li>If doctors didn’t have the use of opium pills, ether or chloroform for disinfecting or anesthesia they often used alcohol such as whiskey or brandy as the universal cure-all </li></ul>
  39. 39. Section 6 Questions <ul><li>What were the major causes of widespread sickness in army camps? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the lack of knowledge contribute to the spread of disease? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Section 7 <ul><li>African and Native Americans in the war </li></ul><ul><li>African-Americans played and incalculable part in the war effort for the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Former slave Fredrick Douglas counseled Lincoln on such issues as the formation of black regiments </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of nameless former slaves and free blacks helped the Union (approx. 185,000) so that their freedom would become a reality not just a hope or dream </li></ul><ul><li>Many fought on battlefields from Maryland to Mississippi </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sect. 7 <ul><li>There were 166 all A.A. Units in the Union </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of the A.A. Soldiers were from the South that escaped to help the North </li></ul><ul><li>They were organized into all black regiments led by whites </li></ul><ul><li>Often given worst jobs to do </li></ul><ul><li>At 1 st they received ½ the pay as whites until 1864 when Congress authorized full pay </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 A.A. served in the Navy. Made up ¼ of Navy sailors </li></ul>
  42. 42. Sect.7 <ul><li>Some A.A. regiments insisted on fighting without pay rather than accepting lower pay </li></ul><ul><li>The 54 th Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>One of 1 st organized in North </li></ul><ul><li>2 members were the sons of Fredrick Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous regiment of Civil War </li></ul>
  43. 43. Sect. 7 <ul><li>Earned its fame in July 1863 when it led a heroic attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>A.A. soldiers faced great dangers in the war if captured. The South instead of taking them prisoner would just shoot them </li></ul>
  44. 44. Sect. 7 <ul><li>About 38,000 A.A. soldiers were killed </li></ul><ul><li>28 A.A. soldiers and sailors received the Congressional Medal of Honor </li></ul><ul><li>An A.A. regiment was the 1 st to enter Richmond when General Grant captured the city </li></ul><ul><li>A.A. regiments participated in over 500 Civil War engagements </li></ul>
  45. 45. Sect. 7 <ul><li>It was after Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation that A.A. were allowed to participate in the war </li></ul><ul><li>About 90 A.A. became commissioned officers (lieutenants, colonels, major, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the war A.A. regiments made up about 10% of the Union Army </li></ul>
  46. 46. Sect. 7 <ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>The five-civilized tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Chickisaw, Choctaw, Seminole) forced to move West in the 1830’s still had ties in the South. These tribes raised several thousand troops for the South. (Cherokee Stand Watie became a Brigadier General of the 1 st Indian Calvary Brigaide) </li></ul><ul><li>About an equal number fought for the Union as well </li></ul><ul><li>Most remaining Indian Territory was devastated </li></ul>
  47. 47. Section 8 <ul><li>Women in war transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Where was this photograph taken? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened to the two men in the beds? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the woman doing? </li></ul><ul><li>What roles did women play in the Civil War? </li></ul><ul><li>What barriers to involvement do you think they overcame? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Section 8 <ul><li>Women in the War </li></ul><ul><li>Women had to provide for families and supply the armies </li></ul><ul><li>They worked in stores, factories, and government offices, hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Women helped when supplies became short ex. Melted church bells to make cannons, instead of paying expensive prices for coffee they roasted and brewed cornmeal </li></ul>
  49. 49. Sect. 8 <ul><li>Women bought many gov’t bonds to help out in the North </li></ul><ul><li>They sold jewelry and finery to help in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Women donated silverware, bales of cotton, whatever they could </li></ul><ul><li>Women worked in the fields as soldiers (disguised as men) nurses, and spies </li></ul>
  50. 50. Sect. 8 <ul><li>Clara Barton, Harriet Tubman, and Dorothea Dix all served as nurses </li></ul><ul><li>Belle Boyd and Rose O’Neal Greenhow worked as spies </li></ul>
  51. 51. Section 9 <ul><li>Technology in the War </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to improvements and changes in weaponry battle tactics changed and casualties soared </li></ul><ul><li>Rifles with a grooved barrel were used (this groove caused the bullet to spin through the air, which allowed the bullet to travel farther and more accurate) </li></ul><ul><li>Shot farther than the old muskets that they used to use </li></ul>
  52. 52. Sect. 9 <ul><li>The bullets changed as well. Used minie’ ball which is a bullet with a hollow base </li></ul><ul><li>The bullet would expand upon firing to fit the grooves of the barrel </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the rifles mounted charges and infantry assaults did not work as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The civil war was also the 1 st war telescopic sites were used with rifles </li></ul>
  53. 53. Sect. 9 <ul><li>1 st war to use machine guns </li></ul><ul><li>1 st war to use land mines and hand grenades </li></ul><ul><li>1 st war where they spied on enemy troops from the air (in observation balloons) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st war in which soldiers fought from trenches, sometimes using periscopes to peer over the top without making targets of themselves </li></ul>
  54. 54. Sect. 9 <ul><li>Warships covered with iron called Ironclads were used compared to the all wood ships (look at overhead of ironclad) </li></ul><ul><li>Had a powerful iron hull almost entirely under water </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating gun turret </li></ul><ul><li>Also 1 st war in which the telegraph and the RR were vital to a war effort </li></ul>
  55. 55. Sect. 9 Questions <ul><li>What effect did changes in weapons have on the way war was fought? </li></ul><ul><li>What contributed to the high casualty rate in the Civil War? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were ironclads better than wooden warships? </li></ul>