Chapter 17.1 Pp


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Chapter 17 section 1 power point. 8th grade SS

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Chapter 17.1 Pp

  1. 1. Chapter 17.1 Pgs. 391-395 How did the North and the South try to settle their differences?
  2. 2. Differences <ul><li>Economies developed differently in 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture was important in both </li></ul><ul><li>North more industry and commerce </li></ul><ul><li>South plantation farming </li></ul><ul><li>Northern lots of cities which population mostly came from immigration </li></ul>
  3. 3. Differences <ul><li>Immigrants and Easterners moved west and built farms in the states formed from the NW Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Most canals and RR ran East and West </li></ul><ul><li>This helped with the Eastern and Midwestern states to develop strong ties with each other </li></ul>
  4. 4. Differences <ul><li>South unlike north a few wealthy planters controlled society </li></ul><ul><li>Made great profits from slave labor and then trading the products </li></ul><ul><li>Because plantations so profitable with cotton, owners invested in slavery not industry like the North </li></ul>
  5. 5. Differences <ul><li>Many southerners were poor small farmers who resented the powerful slave owners </li></ul><ul><li>However, poor whites accepted slavery to stay off the bottom of society </li></ul>
  6. 6. Divisions <ul><li>Sectional tensions between the North and South had been building for many years </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery being the biggest issue of all </li></ul><ul><li>In the North there was the abolitionist movements throughout the 1830’s and 40’s </li></ul><ul><li>Also in the North were the everyday workers and immigrants who opposed slavery for fear of owners employing slaves for free rather than them </li></ul>
  7. 7. Differences <ul><li>Most Northerners and abolitionists would be considered racist by today’s standards </li></ul><ul><li>Many whites refused to go to school with, work with, or live near African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>While Northerners attacked slavery Southerners defended it </li></ul><ul><li>Felt whites were superior </li></ul><ul><li>Felt slavery helped slaves </li></ul>
  8. 8. Differences <ul><li>Southerners claimed slavery introduced Christianity to slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Felt it provided them with food, clothing, shelter </li></ul><ul><li>The slaveholders determination to defend slavery and the northerners and abolitionists continued attacks on slavery are what brought the North and South into conflict </li></ul>
  9. 9. Missouri Compromise <ul><li>After the Miss. Comp. was accepted in 1820 political disagreements were thought to have been over about slavery </li></ul><ul><li>The compromise settled the issue about slave and free states entering the union </li></ul><ul><li>As well, it settled the territory dispute in the Louisiana Territory. North of 36-30 N parallel free, below slave. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Missouri Compromise <ul><li>New disagreements arose with the outbreak of the War with Mexico in 1846 </li></ul><ul><li>Argued about the land won from Mexico if it would be free or slave </li></ul><ul><li>South wanted slave, North wanted free </li></ul><ul><li>To settle the argument David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a bill </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wilmot Proviso <ul><li>Bill would outlaw slavery in any territory the United States might acquire from the War with Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Wilmot hated slavery </li></ul><ul><li>His proposal came up over and over in Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Never actually passed </li></ul><ul><li>Passed in the HOR but not in the Senate </li></ul>
  12. 12. Wilmot Proviso <ul><li>Northern representatives voted for it but the Southerners outvoted them the WP divided Congress along regional lines </li></ul><ul><li>Slaveholders believed Congress had no right to deny them the right to have slaves </li></ul><ul><li>They viewed slaves as property and they should be able to bring their property in to the new territory </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed the Constitution gave equal protection to the property rights of citizens </li></ul>
  13. 13. Free-Soil Party <ul><li>The Wilmot Proviso led to the formation of the Free-Soil party after it failed again in 1848 </li></ul><ul><li>Political party was dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Comprised of northerners </li></ul><ul><li>Party’s slogan expressed it’s ideals—”Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Free-Soilers <ul><li>Won 13 seats in Congress in the election of 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>Made slavery a key issue in national politics </li></ul><ul><li>Urged Congress to give western settlers free homesteads --- land on which to settle and build houses </li></ul>
  15. 15. Zachary Taylor <ul><li>12 th President </li></ul><ul><li>Whig </li></ul><ul><li>1849-1850 </li></ul><ul><li>War time hero </li></ul><ul><li>Old Rough and Ready </li></ul><ul><li>Key event gold rush </li></ul>
  16. 16. Question?? <ul><li>What issues contributed to sectionalism in the late 1840’s? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Answer <ul><li>The disagreement about slavery and the North’s growing power in Congress </li></ul>
  18. 18. Controversy over Territories <ul><li>Politicians could no longer ignore slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Free-Soilers’ success worried southerners </li></ul><ul><li>Also worried about territories </li></ul><ul><li>1848 - 30 states in union – ½ free, ½ slave </li></ul><ul><li>Equal number of senators in Congress </li></ul><ul><li>HOR more antislavery reps due to the population growth in North </li></ul>
  19. 19. Territories <ul><li>Southerners worried about being outvoted in HOR </li></ul><ul><li>Also, possibly someday in the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>This was possible especially if new territories in West became free </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners did not want Congress controlled by Northerners </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Territories <ul><li>South feared North would end to slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Feared North would put high tariffs on imports </li></ul><ul><li>This would cause higher prices on clothing furniture and finished goods from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners needed a plan to halt Western territories from becoming free states </li></ul>
  21. 21. California <ul><li>With the discovery of gold, thousands rushed to California </li></ul><ul><li>Soon would have enough to apply for statehood </li></ul><ul><li>Most residents wanted their state to be free </li></ul><ul><li>This would shift balance of power in Congress </li></ul>
  22. 22. California <ul><li>Southerners thought state should be divided </li></ul><ul><li>Top ½ free, bottom ½ slave </li></ul><ul><li>1849 Pres. Taylor proposed California submit a plan for statehood, without going through the territorial stage </li></ul><ul><li>This would give southerners little time to move to California with their slaves </li></ul>
  23. 23. California <ul><li>1850 – California applies for free state </li></ul><ul><li>If admitted slave states would be the minority in the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson Davis, senator from Mississippi, warned, “For the first time, we are about permanently to destroy the balance of power between the sections.” </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners did not want to accept such a change, they might even leave the union </li></ul>
  24. 24. Compromise of 1850 <ul><li>Congress knew slavery issue would split the country, so they work to find a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Senators Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, and John C. Calhoun take the lead on the compromise </li></ul>
  25. 25. Webster/Calhoun <ul><li>Webster, from Massachusetts, disliked slavery </li></ul><ul><li>However, he wanted to keep the country united </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun, South Carolina, all for states’ rights </li></ul><ul><li>Urged southerners not to compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Led the fight to extend slavery into the west (Poor health, died in 1850 of tuberculosis, after his death others were more willing to compromise) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Clay <ul><li>Clay, from Kentucky, helped work out Missouri Compromise in 1820 </li></ul><ul><li>Made last effort to bring an understanding between the North and South </li></ul><ul><li>To please the North, Clay suggested California be admitted as a free state, and the slave trade would be abolished in Washington D.C. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Clay <ul><li>To please the South, Congress would not pass laws regarding slavery for the rest of the territories won from Mexico, and Congress would pass a stronger law to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Many people on both sides, felt they had to give up to much in this plan. But, others were tired of the regional bickering </li></ul>
  28. 28. Stephen A. Douglas <ul><li>Clay gave over 70 speeches in favor of the compromise </li></ul><ul><li>The job of winning passage of the plan fell to senator Douglas of Illinois after Clay became to sick to continue promoting the compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas was one of the more powerful members of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Did not agree with slavery but felt each territory should decide on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Big supporter of Railroads </li></ul><ul><li>By September Douglas had succeeded and the plan passed. Compromise of 1850 became a law </li></ul>
  29. 29. Compromise <ul><li>Some celebrated and others did not </li></ul><ul><li>President Taylor did not agree </li></ul><ul><li>However, when he died and President Millard Fillmore took over, he did support it </li></ul>
  30. 30. President Fillmore <ul><li>13 th President </li></ul><ul><li>1850-1853 </li></ul><ul><li>2 wives – 2 children with 1 st </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyer </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>Key events – Compromise of 1850, California becoming state </li></ul>
  31. 31. Land Divided <ul><li>California becomes free state </li></ul><ul><li>Remainder of Mexican Cession is divided </li></ul><ul><li>New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Question of slavery in these territories was left up to the people who live there </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise also set a firm boundary between Texas and New Mexico </li></ul>
  32. 32. Land <ul><li>Texas gave disputed land to New Mexico and received in return $10 million </li></ul><ul><li>The Compromise also forbade the sale of slaves in the District of Columbia. (Slavery could still continue there) </li></ul><ul><li>Congress agreed to pass a strict law regarding fugitive –(runaway) slaves </li></ul>
  33. 33. Question <ul><li>What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Answer <ul><li>California free state </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery elsewhere in the West was up to the settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Slave trading banned in D. of C. </li></ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slave Law passed </li></ul>
  35. 35. Fugitive Slave Law <ul><li>Stated people in free states had to help catch and return escaped slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone caught aiding a runaway slave could be jailed or fined heavily (fine was $1,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners resisted this law </li></ul><ul><li>With this law people accused of being fugitives could be held without an arrest warrant </li></ul>
  36. 36. Slave Law <ul><li>Fugitives had no right to a jury trial instead a federal commissioner ruled on each case </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioner received $5 for releasing the defendant, and $10 for turning the defendant over to a slaveholder (lured by the extra money some commissioners sent African Americans to the South whether they were runaways or not) </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners felt law was justified because they considered slaves property </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners resented law – Why? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Law <ul><li>Northerners were required to help recapture runaway slaves </li></ul><ul><li>It placed fines on those who would not cooperate and jail those who helped runaways </li></ul><ul><li>Southern slave catchers also roamed the North, sometimes capturing free African Americans </li></ul>
  38. 38. Law <ul><li>Northerners were torn whether to obey the law and go against everything they believe in or risk breaking the law </li></ul><ul><li>Some were outraged by this law. Some gathered in groups and tried to rescue fugitives from their captors </li></ul><ul><li>Congress really hoped the Compromise would settle the slavery question forever </li></ul><ul><li>Lawmakers wanted no more angry debates that might endanger the nation </li></ul>
  39. 39. Question?? <ul><li>Do you think the Compromise of 1850 was fair to both sides? Why or Why Not? </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions remained high because neither group got everything they wanted. However, the North did win limits on slavery while the South gained the Fugitive Slave Law </li></ul>