Chapter 17


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Chapter 17

  1. 1. Chapter 17.3 pgs. 403-407 What events led to the outbreak of war?
  2. 2. Section 1 <ul><li>Democrats hold convention in April 1860, Charleston, SC. – only few weeks before Republicans nominated Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Northern and Southern Democrats differ on slavery issue </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners wanted the party to defend slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners wanted the party to support popular sovereignty </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Northerners win the platform(party’s statement of beliefs)vote </li></ul><ul><li>This caused 50 Southern delegates to walk out of the convention </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining delegates tried to nominate Stephen A. Douglas – the Southerners left there would not support Douglas because of his support for popular sovereignty </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Douglas could not win enough support to gain the nomination </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats reconvene at Baltimore in June </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners and Southerners still disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting barely gets started and most Southerners walk out </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Democrats nominate two candidates for election </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners – Stephen A. Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners – John Breckinridge of Kentucky (current Vice-Pres also supporter of slavery) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Is also Constitutional Union Party made up former Whigs and Know Nothing members who couldn’t support either party whose main goal was to preserve the Union </li></ul><ul><li>CUP nominates – John Bell of Tennessee </li></ul><ul><li>Four candidates for the election of 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln, Douglas, Breckinridge, Bell </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sect. 1 <ul><li>Goals of parties </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans – slavery stay out of territories, gain support in North and West, favored tariffs, free land for Western settlers, and construction of RR to the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>CUP – conserve Union </li></ul><ul><li>N. Dem.-- Popular sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>S. Dem. -- Slavery </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sect. 1 Questions <ul><li>What issue split the Democratic Party? </li></ul><ul><li>What was unusual about the number of candidates for president in 1860? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the aim of the Constitutional Union Party? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 2 <ul><li>The Election of 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Turned into two different races for the presidency </li></ul><ul><li>One in the North and one in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln and Douglas had most of Northern support and Breckinridge and Bell competed in the South </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Lincoln and Breckinridge had the most extreme views on slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln opposed expansion of slavery into the territories </li></ul><ul><li>Breckinridge insisted the federal gov’t be required to protect slavery in any territory </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas and Bell were moderates because they didn’t want the federal gov’t to pass new laws on slavery </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Outcome of election proved nation was tired of compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln defeated Douglas in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Breckinridge carried most of South </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas and Bell managed to win only in the states between North and Deep South </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln wins the election due to the North having more people in it than the South </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Also, support for his rivals was spread out </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s victory alarms many in South </li></ul><ul><li>Despite Lincoln’s statements that he would do nothing to abolish slavery in the South, many Southerners mistrusted him they feared he along with the Republicans would move to ban slavery </li></ul><ul><li>So much so he didn’t even win a single southern state </li></ul><ul><li>Many didn’t even put his name on the ballot </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Lincoln Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Born February 12, 1809 in Kentucky </li></ul><ul><li>Grew up on Indiana frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Was a lawyer, he split rails, worked flatboats, and tended store </li></ul><ul><li>Educated himself by reading by firelight at night </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed “Honest Abe” due to his fairness and clear thinking in politics </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Lincoln had a keen sense of humor </li></ul><ul><li>Hated slavery, but not an abolitionist </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t want to interfere with South and slavery there but did believe Western territories should remain free </li></ul><ul><li>Key events: Civil War, Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address, Kansas, West Virginia, and Nevada become states </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in office April 14, 1865 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sect. 2 <ul><li>Map work </li></ul><ul><li>Which states were won by Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>By Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>By Breckinridge </li></ul><ul><li>By Bell </li></ul><ul><li>Which state voted for Lincoln and Douglas and who won the state and by what count </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sect. 2 Questions <ul><li>How did Breckinridge’s stance on the expansion of slavery in the territories differ from Lincoln’s? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were Douglas and Bell thought to be moderates? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Southerners fear Lincoln would do after the election? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Section 3 <ul><li>Before the 1860 election many Southerners warned if Lincoln won, they would secede </li></ul><ul><li>They based their arguments on the idea of states’ rights </li></ul><ul><li>They felt states had voluntarily joined the Union, therefore they also had the right to leave the Union </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Not all Southerners believed they should secede </li></ul><ul><li>Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky proposed a compromise plan in early December known as the Crittenden Plan </li></ul><ul><li>He proposed extending the Missouri Compromise Line to the Pacific, area above free, below slave </li></ul><ul><li>He even proposed an unamendable amendment to the Constitution that would guarantee forever the right to hold slaves in states south of the line </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Bill received little support </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners believe the North would put an abolitionist in the White House </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery in the West was no longer an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Most Republicans were unwilling to surrender what they had won in the election </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners felt secession was only way to go </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sect. 3 <ul><li>South begins to secede </li></ul><ul><li>December 20, 1860 South Carolina becomes 1 st state to secede </li></ul><ul><li>Over next 6 week period, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas also seceded </li></ul><ul><li>February 1861 these states met in Montgomery, AL to decide what to do </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sect. 3 <ul><li>They formed the Confederate States of America </li></ul><ul><li>Named Jefferson Davis president of the Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>Also formed new government </li></ul><ul><li>Drafted a Confederate Constitution; modeled after the original Constitution but with some differences </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Confederate Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>1 st – said within the Confederacy, each state was sovereign and independent </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd – Confederate Congress could not interfere with slavery </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd – banned tariffs on imports </li></ul><ul><li>4 th – limited the President to a single 6 year term </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Having formed the Confederacy and their own government, the Confederate States were prepared to defend their separation </li></ul><ul><li>Many felt war was unavoidable </li></ul><ul><li>However, they wanted to wait to see what the Union government would do in response </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sect. 3 <ul><li>Map work </li></ul><ul><li>Name free states </li></ul><ul><li>Name slave states loyal to Union </li></ul><ul><li>Name Confederate States (all of them those that seceded before and after 1861) </li></ul><ul><li>Are there more Union or Confederate? </li></ul><ul><li>How might this affect the outcome of the civil war that is to come? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sect. 3 Questions <ul><li>What argument did some Southerners use to justify secession? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the results of the convention held by the six seceded states? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the six states? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the Confederate Constitution different from the U.S. Constitution? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Section 4 <ul><li>Union’s response to secession </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners considered secession of Southern states unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>President Buchanan, who was near the end of his term, argued against secession </li></ul><ul><li>He believed states did not have that right </li></ul><ul><li>He believed Federal Government not state’s was sovereign </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sect. 4 <ul><li>He believed if secession were permitted, the Union would become weak, like a “rope of sand” </li></ul><ul><li>He believed Constitution was framed to prevent such a thing </li></ul><ul><li>However, he wasn’t sure how to prevent the secession. He knew if he used force war would erupt, so ultimately he did nothing to prevent it from happening </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sect. 4 <ul><li>With secession other issues arose like majority rules </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners felt Northerners would use their majority to force the South to abolish slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Northerners simply responded that the South did not want to abide by the rules of democracy. They claimed the South was not willing to live with the election results </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sect. 4 <ul><li>Everyone was anticipating Lincoln’s inauguration </li></ul><ul><li>They wondered what would the new President do to solve the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>March 4 Lincoln takes the oath of office and delivered his First Inaugural Address </li></ul><ul><li>Despite facing many serious troubles Lincoln hoped for peace </li></ul>
  30. 30. Sect. 4 <ul><li>Lincoln assured the South he had no intention of abolishing slavery </li></ul><ul><li>He did speak forcefully about secession </li></ul><ul><li>Ended his speech with an appeal to friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln would not press the South and did not want invasion </li></ul><ul><li>However he would not abandon the government’s property there such as forts which needed supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Over March and April many waited to see what Lincoln would do </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War here we come!!!! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Sect. 4 Questions <ul><li>What was the response of the Northerners and President Buchanan to secession? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Lincoln try to reassure the South in his First Inaugural Address? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Secession
  33. 33. Secession Wilmot Proviso Compromise of 1850 Kansas-Nebraska Act Election of 1860
  34. 34. Secession <ul><li>Wilmot Proviso (1846) – Bill to outlaw slaver in territories obtained from Mexico; caused conflict in Congress between North and South </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise of 1850 – Laws meant to settle problem of slavery; California became free state; new fugitive slave law passed; caused conflict by failing to resolve slavery issue </li></ul>
  35. 35. Secession <ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) – Law to organize Kansas and Nebraska territories; overturned Missouri Compromise; caused violence in Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Election of 1860 – Lincoln elected with support only in free states; caused states in Deep South to decide to secede </li></ul>