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  1. 1. <ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What conditions did cities experience at the turn of the century? </li></ul><ul><li>How did electricity and steel change the urban environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is “How The Other Half Lives” important in regards to urban living and working conditions? </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Migrating citizens and new immigrants settled in cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cheapest place to live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most convenient places to live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unskilled laborers could find jobs in factories and mills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding became a huge problem for cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding led to other urban problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenements arose in major U.S. cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple families living in single family homes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New transportation networks were needed to keep pace with the rising population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little control over quality of drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor quality led to the spread of diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horse manure piled up on the streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage flowed through open gutters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories spewed smoke into the air </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More people  Rise in crime rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide between rich and poor continued to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People turned to alternative ways to survive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities were packed with wooden housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities lacked water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires broke out in major cities from about 1870s to 1900s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters at the time were volunteers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Americanization Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to assimilate people of different cultures into one dominant culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social campaign was sponsored by government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aimed to teach immigrants the skills needed for citizenship: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants did not wish to abandon their culture </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In 1870 only 25 American cities had populations of 50,000 or more </li></ul><ul><li>By 1890, 58 cities could make that claim </li></ul><ul><li>The primary way to meet the need for urban space was to build upward </li></ul><ul><li>Skyscrapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two inventions led to their development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal steel skeletons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elevator (with steel cables) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformed the urban environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900 networks of electric streetcars ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown offices and department stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residents can commute to downtown jobs </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Work of photojournalist Jacob Riis </li></ul><ul><li>Documented the living conditions in New York City slums </li></ul><ul><li>Featured 15 halftone images and 43 drawings based on photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Blamed crowded and unsanitary tenements as the cause of crime and moral decay </li></ul><ul><li>The recent invention of flash photography, allowed Riis to capture the unlit areas of tenements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped expose the wretched working and living conditions of the poor </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Characterized the experience of more than 1 million immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Pushed tenement reform to the front of New York's political agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Riis argued for better housing, adequate lighting and sanitation, and the construction of city parks and playgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged the middle and upper classes to take an active role in shaping communities </li></ul>