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The War Of 1812


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The War Of 1812

  1. 1. THE WAR OF 1812 Essential Questions: • Who were the War Hawks? • What events/actions caused the War of 1812? • Who was Tecumseh? • What were the events of the War of 1812?
  2. 2. The War Hawks Demand War Jefferson‟s popularity soared  after the purchase of the Louisiana territory Won reelection in 1804  During his second term fighting  between Britain and France raged In 1806 Napoleon decided to  exclude British goods from Europe Great Britain then decided to  blockade Napoleons‟ Europe Britain sealed up its ports and  prevented ships from entering or leaving
  3. 3. The War Hawks Demand War By 1807 Britain had  seized more than 1,000 American ships  Their ships cargos were confiscated France had seized  about 500 American ships and done the same to their cargo
  4. 4. Grievances Against Britain Americans focused their anger on  Britain British policy of impressment   Seizing Americans at sea and „impressing‟, or drafting, them into the British navy Second, was the Chesapeake  Incident  June 1807 a British warship commander demanded the right to board and search the U.S.S Chesapeake  Looking for British deserters  U.S. captain refused so the British attacked  3 Americans were killed and 18 wounded
  5. 5. Jefferson Acts Jefferson convinced Congress to  declare an embargo, or ban on exporting products to other countries Felt the Embargo Act of 1807  would hurt Britain and other European powers Thought it would force them to  honor American neutrality Instead the Embargo Act hurt  America more than Britain 1809 Congress lifted the ban on  foreign trade, except with France and Britain
  6. 6. Tecumseh‟s Confederacy William Henry Harrison was the  governor of Indian Territory Persuaded several Native American  chiefs to sign away 3 million acres of land to the U.S.  Other chiefs were not happy about this  Two were Tecumseh and his brother Prophet  Called for other tribes to cast of all traces of the white “civilization” such as Christianity Tecumseh began negotiations with the  British for assistance in what seemed like a war with the U.S.  He tried to gain the support of others tribes  Found many had already accepted payment, or didn‟t want to give up their autonomy
  7. 7. The War Hawks In 1811, Prophet led an attack  on Harrison and his troops Harrison struck back on the  banks of the Tippecanoe River Shawnee capital,  Prophetstown was burned to the ground Harrison‟s victory became  known as the Battle of Tippecanoe It was discovered that the  Native American confederacy was using arms from British- Canada Group of young Congressmen  known as War Hawks called
  8. 8. President Madison In the election of 1808  James Madison was elected to the presidency By the spring of 1812  Madison had decided to go to war with the British Believed Britain was trying  to strangle American trade and cripple the American economy Congress approved the  war declaration in early June
  9. 9. The War The War in Canada  American military was  unprepared for war American forces lost Detroit soon  after war was declared Native American tribes fought  with the British in hopes of stopping American expansion The War at Sea  Americans had only 16 ships  All they had were there three 44-  gun frigates British were superior in naval  combat 1812 the British began a  blockade which extended the entire east coast American ships were stuck in port 
  10. 10. British Burn the White House Earlier the Americans had  captured the capital of Upper Canada, in the Battle of York They burned the Governors  Mansion and the legislative building In 1814 the British entered  Washington, D.C. In retaliation for the Battle of  York the British burned the capitol, the White House, and other public buildings Madison and other officials  fled the capital
  11. 11. The Battle of New Orleans At the same time Washington,  D.C. burned General Andrew Jackson, was winning numerous battles He defeated a Native American  tribe known as the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend His victory against the Creeks  destroyed Native American power in the South His greatest victory of the war  came after the war was over In January 1815, Jackson‟s  troops defeated a superior British force at the Battle of New Orleans Hundreds of British troops died  with few American loses
  12. 12. The Treaty of Ghent Peace treaty was signed on Christmas  Eve 1814 Declared an armistice, or an end to  fighting  Jackson was unaware of this at the time of the Battle of New Orleans Americans were eager for peace and  welcomed the treaty  1815 a commercial treaty reopened trade  In 1818, a British-American commission set the northern and western boundaries of the U.S. At home resolving differences was not as  easy The nation was becoming divided 