The New Nation And Foreign Affairs


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The New Nation And Foreign Affairs

  1. 1. THE NEW NATION AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS Essential Questions: How did events in Europe shape early U.S. foreign • policy? • What was the Battle of Fallen Timbers? • What was Jay’s Treaty? • How did the Election of 1796 impact the young nation? • What was the X, Y, Z Affair? • What were the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
  2. 2. Events in Europe In July 1789 a mob stormed the  Bastille in France (the French prison) Initially many Americans  supported the French in their revolution Founded on the same republican  ideals as the American revolution Americans soon became divided  over whether to support the French 1793 events took a deadly turn  King Louis XVI was beheaded  This launched the Reign of Terror  The Jacobins declared war on  other monarchies, like Great Britain
  3. 3. American Reactions to the French Americans were split along party  lines  Democratic-Republicans wanted to honor the 1778 treaty and support the French  Federalists wanted to back the British In April 1793, President  Washington took a middle of the line approach  He issued a declaration of neutrality  Said U.S. would not support any side Jefferson later resigned from the  cabinet frustrated over the
  4. 4. Spain Spain was worried that they  would be attacked by a joint British-American force Included almost every provision  the Americans desired: Spain gave up land claims  east of the Mississippi (except Florida) Spain recognized the 31st  parallel as the southern boundary of the U.S. Spain agreed to open  Mississippi to traffic to U.S. citizens Spain agreed to allow  Americans to use the port of
  5. 5. Native Americans Pioneers that moved west  assumed the 1783 Treaty of Paris gave them free reign to settle the area  British still maintained forts in Northwest Territory (in violation of the treaty)  Settlers meet resistance from British as well as the native inhabitants Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794)   Washington ordered federal troops against Native Americans in the region  Miami Confederacy was defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers  The battle ended Native American resistance in Ohio
  6. 6. Jays Treaty John Jay was in London at the  time of the Battle of Fallen Timbers Was negotiating a treaty with  Britain over territories west of the Appalachian Mountains When news of the Battle of  Fallen Timbers arrived in London the British agreed to evacuate the area Treaty passed the Senate but  many were angry at its terms Allowed British to continue  their fur trade in America’s
  7. 7. Washington’s Farewell The divisions between  Federalists and Democratic-Republicans convinced Washington not to run for a third term In his farewell address he  urged Americans to “steer clear of permanent alliances” with other nations In 1797, Washington  retired to his home in Mount Vernon
  8. 8. 1796 Election The election of 1796 saw two different  parties contesting for same office  Federalists nominated John Adams  Democratic-Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson Adams got 71 votes and Jefferson got  68  The country found itself with a Federalist president (Adams) and a Democratic-Republican vice- president (Jefferson) Election underscored danger of  sectionalism  Placing the interest of one region over those of the nation as a whole South voted for Jefferson, & the north for  Adams
  9. 9. Adams and Foreign Affairs President Adams faced a new  crisis A possible war with France  French viewed Jay’s Treaty as a  violation of the French- American alliance French refused to receive  American ambassadors They began to seize American  ships bound for Britain By this time the reign of terror  had ended The French government  consisted a legislature, and a five man executive branch called the Directory They had little patience with  America
  10. 10. X…Y…and Z Planned to meet with French minister  Talleyrand  Directory sent three low-level officials  Referred to as “X”, “Y”, and “Z”  Demanded a $250,000 dollar bribe as a payment for seeing Talleyrand News of this insult spread and so did  anti-French feelings In 1798, Congress created a navy  department and authorized American ships to seize French vessels  Army of 50,000 troops was created and George Washington was brought out of retirement  Undeclared naval war raged between France and the United States for the next two years
  11. 11. The Alien and Sedition Acts Federalists pushed through Congress four  measures that became known as the Alien and Sedition Acts A fear of French spies swept the  nation Meant to counter what they saw as a  growing threat against the government Three measures of the Acts were:  Raised residence requirement for  American citizenship from 5 years to 14 years Allowed the president to deport or jail  any alien considered undesirable Set fines and jail terms for anyone  trying to hinder the operation of the government or expressing “false” statements against the government Outraged Democratic-Republicans said  the laws violated the freedom of speech
  12. 12. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson and Madison organized opposition to  the Acts by appealing to the states Madison drew up Virginia resolutions and  Jefferson drew up the Kentucky resolutions It had written into it the idea of nullification  States had right to nullify, any act of  Congress that they deemed unconstitutional Resolutions called on other states to do the  same No states did and the controversy died out  Resolutions showed the balance of power  between the states and the federal government remained a controversial issue
  13. 13. The Death of Washington On December 14, 1799  Washington died after catching a severe cold He was buried according to his  wishes with a military funeral at Mount Vernon Ironically, Washington’s death  would bring about better relations with the French In hopes of luring Americans to  his side Napoleon ordered ten days of mourning to be observed in the French armies Soon Napoleon would offer even  great concessions to the Americans