The Age Of The Atom


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The Age Of The Atom

  1. 1. THE AGE OF THE ATOM Essential Questions: What was the Manhattan Project? 1. What was the Potsdam Declaration? 2. How did events of the bombing of Hiroshima 3. and Nagasaki occur? When and how did the Second World War end? 4.
  2. 2. Manhattan Project Project to develop first nuclear weapon  during WWII Involved United States, United Kingdom,  and Canada Under control of the U.S. Army Corps of  Engineers Scientific research was directed by  American J. Robert Oppenheimer Since 1930s officials feared Nazi Germany  was also investigating nuclear weapons The Project eventually employed more  than 130,000 people and cost nearly $2 billion dollars ($24 billion in 2008 dollars)
  3. 3. Potsdam Declaration July 26, Truman and the allied  leaders issue The Potsdam Declaration Outlined terms of surrender for Japan  Presented as an ultimatum and  stated that without a surrender, the Allies would attack Japan The atomic bomb was not mentioned  On July 28, Japan rejected the  ultimatum Truman now had to make the biggest  decision of the war: whether to use the bomb In the end, Truman made the  decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan: Bring about a quick resolution of the  war
  4. 4. Hiroshima Hiroshima was the primary target of the  first mission on August 6, 1945 B-29 Enola Gay, was piloted by Colonel  Paul Tibbets  Enola Gay was named after Tibbets' mother Little Boy (the bomb) was released at  8:15am  Took fifty-seven seconds to fall from the aircraft  It detonated 1,900 feet above the city The radius of total destruction was one  mile, with fires across 4 square miles 70,000 to 80,000 people, or about 30% of  the population, were killed immediately The residents of Hiroshima were given no  notice of the atomic bomb
  5. 5. Nagasaki August 9, 1945; B-29 Bockscar was  launched Its primary target was Kokura; Nagasaki  was the secondary target Bockscar arrived at the rendezvous and  the two other B-29s it was to meet weren’t there Bockscar circled for 40 minutes and  finally flew on alone By the time they reached Kokura a half  hour later, a 70% cloud cover obscured the city Prevented visual attack required by  orders They moved on to Nagasaki  At 11:01am, Bockscar visually sighted the 
  6. 6. There were more… The United States expected to  have another atomic bomb ready for use in the third week of August Three more were scheduled to  be ready by September A further three were to be ready  in October There was already discussion in  the War Department about conserving the bombs (and future bombs) in production until Operation Downfall The codename given to the  projected invasion of Japan
  7. 7. The Aftermath Immediate effects of the blast  at Hiroshima killed approximately 70,000 people Estimates of total deaths by  the end of 1945 from burns, radiation, and disease, range from 90,000 to 140,000 Others died of long term  effects from the blast, such as cancer Some estimates state up to  200,000 had died by 1950 due to cancer
  8. 8. Japan Surrenders August 15, 1945, Japanese Emperor  Hirohito announced Japan would accept the Potsdam terms Was broadcast to the Japanese people  over the radio The Emperor then advised the Allies via  the Swiss diplomatic mission in Washington, D.C. The formal Japanese signing of the  surrender took place on board the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay Japan was the last Axis Power to  surrender V-J Day marked the official end of the war  in the Pacific The Second World War was over 