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Nationalism, Slavery, & The States


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Nationalism, Slavery, & The States

  1. 1. NATIONALISM, SLAVERY, & THE STATES Essential Questions: Why is Gibbons v. Ogden important? • Why is McCullough v. Maryland important? • What was the Adams-Onis Treaty? • What was the Monroe Doctrine? • What was the Missouri Compromise and why was it important? •
  2. 2. GIBBONS V. OGDEN 1808 Robert Fulton and Robert  Livingston received a charter from New York that gave them the exclusive right to run steamboats on New York rivers They charged other steamboat  operators for licenses to operate on various stretches of the river One of those operators was Aaron  Ogden  He ran his steamship between NY and NJ Thomas Gibbons, then began to run a  similar service in the area
  3. 3. GIBBONS V. OGDEN DECISION Ogden took Gibbons to court  claiming that he could not operate this service  Supreme Court (1824) said interstate commerce could be regulated only by the federal government  The routes crossed state lines Gibbons v. Ogden, helped  ensure the federal government has power to regulate just about everything that crosses state lines
  4. 4. MCCULLOUGH V. MARYLAND Maryland put a tax on the  Second Bank of the United States They wanted the bank to fail  John Marshall said that the  state could not do this  Would in effect be overturning a law passed by Congress  Said “the power to tax is the power to destroy” Chief Justice John Marshall  guided the court to a ruling It strengthened the federal  government‟s control over the economy  Supported national government over state governments
  5. 5. NATIONALISM AND FOREIGN POLICY Secretary of State John Quincy  Adams established foreign policy guided by nationalism Nationalism is the belief that  national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries What did Secretary Adams do?   Worked out a treaty to reduce the Great Lakes fleets of Britain and America  Led the United States and Canada to demilitarize its border  Helped set the U.S. border at the Rocky Mountains  Had Britain agree to a joint occupation of the Oregon territory for 10 years
  6. 6. ADAMS-ONIS TREATY By 1819 Spain was too  weak to police its „New World‟ territories Spain ceded Florida to  the Untied States Gave up its claims to  the Oregon Territory
  7. 7. THE MONROE DOCTRINE The World in 1815   Spain and Portugal defeated Napoleon  They wanted to take back their colonies in Latin America  Russia had been in Alaska since 1784 The U.S. had to do something  President Monroe (1823) warned all  outside powers not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere In return the U.S. would not involve itself in  European affairs These principles became known as the  Monroe Doctrine
  8. 8. EXPANSION WESTWARD U.S. settlers moved into  the Northwest Territory Present-day Ohio, Indiana,  Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan Most pushed west in  search of economic gain Land was fertile and cheap   With land one could change their social status
  9. 9. MISSOURI COMPROMISE In 1819, the territory of Missouri  requested admission into the union Conflict arose over the question  of slavery Up to 1818, the union had  consisted of 10 free states and 10 slaves states Illinois (in 1818) was admitted  into the union as the 11th free state The south felt Missouri should  become the 11th slave state to keep the balance
  10. 10. HENRY CLAY AND THE COMPROMISE But a bill was passed in  Congress which called for Missouri to slowly free its slaves During this time Alabama was  admitted as the 11th slave state Missouri became a crucial  “tipping the balance state” Debates were so intense that  some people mentioned civil war Henry Clay  Resolved the crisis with a  series of agreements called the Missouri Compromise
  11. 11. MISSOURI COMPROMISE: WHAT IT SAID! Maine was admitted as a Free State and  Missouri a slave state (Kept the balance) Louisiana territory was split into two  spheres, one for slaveholders and one for free settlers Dividing line was 36 30‟ north latitude   South of the line slavery was legal  North of the line (expect in Missouri) slavery was banned Monroe signed the Missouri Compromise in  1820 Jefferson feared for the United States after  the Missouri Compromise The problem of slavery seemed settled 