Christopher Columbus


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Christopher Columbus

  1. 1. <ul><li>ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>How did Europeans of late 15th century Europe view their world? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Christopher Columbus? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Columbus finance his voyages? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Columbus choose to embark on his voyage? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did Columbus land in the New World and who did he encounter? </li></ul><ul><li>How would one describe Columbus’s encounter(s) with New World inhabitants? </li></ul>Christopher Columbus
  2. 2. The World Is Round? <ul><li>Columbus knew the world was round! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A round world was believed to be true even by the Ancient Greeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pythagoras (570 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said Earth and planets were spheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed the most harmonious geometric form is the sphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristotle (384 B.C.E. – 322 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was Plato’s prized student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Said Earth had a curved surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported his theory by offering other arguments: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The shadow of Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse is round </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The World Is Round? <ul><li>Others offered evidence as well : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ship returning to port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First the mast is seen, then sails, & then hull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Dark Ages (400 – 1200 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek knowledge was temporarily forgotten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps were made based on religious beliefs and not science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rectangular maps showed the “Four corners of the Earth” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circular maps placed Jerusalem at the center of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Renaissance was a re-birth of Greek ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus was born during this rebirth period in Europe </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Who Was Columbus? <ul><li>Italian navigator, colonizer & explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Born in 1451 in Genoa (today Italy) </li></ul><ul><li>His father was a wool weaver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He also had a cheese stand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He probably received some education </li></ul><ul><li>In May 1476, he took part in a convoy to northern Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1476 he possibly docked in Iceland </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Who Was Columbus? <ul><li>Wasn't the first to reach the Americas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was preceded some 500 years by Leif Ericson, and perhaps others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But Columbus did initiate the widespread contact between Europeans and Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>His 1492 voyage came at a critical time for the states in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There was growing imperialism and economic competition between European nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They were seeking wealth from trade routes to help their empires grow </li></ul>
  6. 6. Navigation Plans: Why did he go? <ul><li>Constantinople was lost to the Turks (1453) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land route to Asia became more difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silk and spices became harder to trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Columbus developed a plan to travel to the Indies by sailing west across the Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>What he did do was incorrectly calculate the size of the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No ship at the time could carry enough food and water for a journey of the actual distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spain was desperate for an edge in trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbus’s calculations promised this advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All Europeans believed the oceanic expanse was uninterrupted </li></ul>
  7. 7. Funding the Campaign <ul><li>In 1485, Columbus presented his plans to the King of Portugal, John II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The King submitted the proposal to his experts…who rejected it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was their opinion that his proposed route of 2,400 miles was far too short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were right: it’s actually about 12,200 sm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>So…Columbus sought an audience from Ferdinand II and Isabella I of Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain, like Portugal, judged Columbus’s distance to Asia much too short </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He continued to lobby the Spanish court for two years </li></ul>
  8. 8. Funding the Campaign <ul><li>In 1492 he succeeded! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Ferdinand granted Columbus permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About ½ of the financing came from private Italian investors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Contract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If he discovered any new land, he would receive many “high rewards” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed Governor of new lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The terms were generous, why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They didn't expect him to return </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. His Voyage <ul><li>On August 3, 1492, Columbus departed with three ships: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Santa María, Pinta, and the… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Santa Clara </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nicknamed Niña </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>On September 6, he started his 5-week voyage across the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>September 9 he began keeping two logs </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One had the true course and distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other a smaller course and distance to make the crew happy </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Land Discovered <ul><li>At 2am on October 12, 1492, a sailor aboard the Pinta sighted land </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus called the island San Salvador </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus searched for gold on San Salvador </li></ul><ul><li>He spent 96 days exploring small islands in the Bahamas looking for gold </li></ul><ul><li>He encountered the indigenous people, the Taíno, who were peaceful and friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus also explored Cuba and Hispaniola </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Returns <ul><li>Before returning to Spain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He left 39 men and founded La Navidad in what is now Haiti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He kidnapped 10 to 25 natives and took them back with him </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He began his return voyage to Spain and reached Europe in 1493 </li></ul><ul><li>New World Return </li></ul><ul><ul><li>September 1493 he made a return trip with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17 ships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several hundred armed soldiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 priests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 1,000 colonists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonization had begun </li></ul>