The Science Of Architecture


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The Science Of Architecture

  1. 1. The Science of Architecture How forces act on buildings & how buildings resist them
  2. 2. What Forces Affect Buildings? <ul><li>Gravity Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gravity Forces – Live Loads <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Snow </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gravity Forces – Live Loads <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Snow </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gravity Forces – Dead Loads <ul><li>Building structure </li></ul><ul><li>Substructure </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Below Grade Sp. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gravity Forces – Dead Loads <ul><li>Building structure </li></ul><ul><li>Superstructure </li></ul><ul><li>Columns </li></ul><ul><li>Beams </li></ul><ul><li>Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Roof </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lateral Forces <ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Seismic </li></ul><ul><li>Waves </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lateral Forces – Wind Loads <ul><li>Act horizontally and sometimes upward </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause buildings to sway back and forth </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings must be designed to resist these forces </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lateral Forces – Seismic Loads <ul><li>Violently shakes ground back and forth </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause severe structural damage </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings must be designed to absorb forces </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lateral Forces – Wave Loads <ul><li>Constant and tremendous force at base of building </li></ul><ul><li>Can push superstructure off of foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings must be designed to allow waves to penetrate and go through structure </li></ul>
  11. 11. Forces Due to Temperature <ul><li>Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction </li></ul>
  12. 12. Forces Due to Temperature <ul><li>Expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a material heats up it can elongate or expand causing failure or damage to places where beams and columns connect. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a material gets cold it can shrink or contract also causing the same type of failure at connections. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Building Structure <ul><li>Superstructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roof </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basement </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Building Structure <ul><li>Beams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist a load or force applied perpendicular to the beam. The beam bends to resist the force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The top of the beam is pushing together in “compression”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bottom of the beam is pulling apart in “tension”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strength of beams depend on two factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shape of the beam </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Building Structure – Beam Diagram
  16. 16. Building Structure <ul><li>Columns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist a load or force applied parallel to the column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The columns resists the load in “compression”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The columns can also bend due to lateral loads. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A column is really just a beam that is vertical or standing straight up. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Building Structure - Column Diagram
  18. 18. Building Structure - Connections <ul><li>Beams and Columns are connected together in different ways to form a “rigid” structure. </li></ul><ul><li>These types of connections are one major way that buildings resist forces that act upon them. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Building Structure - Trusses <ul><li>A truss is a collection of structural members connected using “triangulation”. This method allows for a very lightweight and rigid structure that is commonly used in buildings and bridges. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Building Structure – Truss Diagram
  21. 21. Building Examples Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
  22. 22. Building Examples The Parthenon, Greece
  23. 23. Building Examples Gothic Cathedral – St. Patricks’s, NYC
  24. 24. Building Examples Eiffel Tower, Paris
  25. 25. Building Examples World Trade Center Towers
  26. 26. Building Examples John Hancock Building, Chicago
  27. 27. Building Examples Sears Tower, Chicago
  28. 28. Building Examples Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  29. 29. Building Examples Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan
  30. 30. Building Examples Burj Dubai Tower, Dubai, UAE
  31. 31. World’s Current Tallest Buildings
  32. 32. World’s Tallest Buildings Timeline
  33. 33. Let’s Build! Brian M. Taylor, AIA Brian M. Taylor Architects P.C.