South and East Asia Religions


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South and East Asia Religions

  1. 1. ism du in H   Considered the world’s oldest religion Practiced primarily in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal Hindu traditions date to beginnings of civilization in Indus River Valley (the word hindu may come from the Persian word for that river - sindhu)
  2. 2. Hinduism is a diverse religion with variation in practice and the worship of god(s). With a billion followers, Hinduism is the world’s third largest religion
  3. 3. Belief in Deity Diverse beliefs. Many Hindus believe in Brahman (God) as the impersonal (remote, not a friend) ultimate reality/world soul. Many believe God is both impersonal force and personal savior. There are many, or countless, gods and goddesses that represent various aspects (pieces, features) of the One Supreme God.
  4. 4. The Hindu scriptures are written in Sanskrit – an ancient language. Sanskrit is also the language used in Hindu ceremonies.
  5. 5. Hindus believe that every living thing has a soul, which comes from the creator, Brahma. As a result, most Hindus are vegetarian -do not eat meat; some are vegan – no animal products at all, including eggs and cheese.
  6. 6. Hindus believe that people’s souls live on after death, and that all living things can be reborn. This is called: Reincarnation.
  7. 7. The Caste System Brahmin The way Hindu society is organized. The Caste System was brought to India by Aryan conquerors – powerful nomadic warriors from Central Asia (Priests) Kshatryia (Warriors) (KUH SHAT REE YUH) (VEEZ YUH) Viasya (Merchants, Landowners) Sudra (Commoners, Peasants, Servants) Outcast – Out of Caste, Untouchable (street sweepers, latrine cleaners)
  8. 8. Traditionally, a person who followed the rules of their caste would be reborn to a higher form in the next life. A Hindu who neglected their duties would be reborn in a lower form, perhaps as an animal or insect.
  9. 9. The goal of Hinduism is to escape the cycle of rebirth by reaching Nirvana. Nirvana is a Sanskrit word that means ending. Hindus and Buddhists believe Nirvana is a state of happiness without change or pain.
  10. 10. Hinduism Vocabulary & Chief Gods Dharma – The sacred duty of all Hindus Karma – Ethical (right, fair) law of cause and effect Brahma – Chief Hindu God – Creator of the Universe Vishnu – Chief Hindu God – Preserver of the Universe Siva – Chief Hindu God – Destroyer of the Universe Devi – Mother Goddess Ganesha – beloved elephant-faced god who clears away life’s obstacles
  11. 11. is dh d u B based on  Religion the teachings of m Gautama Siddhartha known as the Buddha, -or Enlightened One, born and raised Hindu Buddha said: “I teach suffering and the way out of suffering Buddhism is a way of life – ritual, repeated meditation
  12. 12. The Life of Buddha Siddhartha Gautama – raised a rich prince, protected from all unpleasantness. At age 29, Siddhartha left the palace four times and saw: old age, sickness, and grieving because of death. The fourth time he saw a man who had chosen to give up living in society for religious (a Hindu) reasons, and who was content and at peace despite having no possessions.
  13. 13. Siddhartha decided to leave his home to seek the solution to these problems. First he tried meditation, but this only offered temporary escape. Then he tried fasting and came close to death since he was, toward the end of this period, only eating a single grain of rice each day. Finally, he gave this up, as well. He decided that neither extreme – luxury and plenty, such as he had in the palace, or doing entirely without possessions and pleasures, would lead to enlightenment. He decided to pursue a “middle way” of moderation and meditation.
  14. 14. Then one night, under the Bodhi tree: Siddhartha began to have a breakthrough. He found he could remember his past lives in detail He saw how good deeds and bad deeds determined one’s next life He learned that he had grown so far, spiritually, that he would not reincarnate again. He had attained enlightenment!
  15. 15. Buddha’s Teachings The Four Noble Truths Life is Suffering Suffering is due to attachment Attachment can be overcome There is a path for accomplishing this
  16. 16. Buddhist Sacred There are lots of Buddhist Textstexts. Some, called religious Satras are considered to be the actual words of the Buddha. Some Buddhists, however (Zen Buddhists), reject scriptures as a tool to help followers reach enlightenment. Buddhist Proverbs: If we are facing in the right direction, all we have to do is keep on walking. Laughter is the language of the Gods. When the student is ready, the master appears.
  17. 17. The Laughing Buddha: The laughing Buddha reminds us that to be happy we need to have a loving heart. A big heart gives you tolerance. It helps you to greet each day with joy and all people with gladness. It helps you to tolerate a great many things with a big happy smile that reaches your eyes and your heart.  Buddha says that the best way to solve a problem we might have with someone else is to have a warm and loving heart. By not being resentful, by not bearing grudges, only then are we able to smile like the Buddha - only then can we be truly happy.
  18. 18. The Goal - To Become The Greatest Person in the World: Buddhism teaches that a person is successful not because he or she is better than someone else, and not because they received a higher grade on a test or won a Gold Medal at the Olympics, or beat out other ants to see who could carry the biggest and heaviest grain of rice. True achievement does not come from competition or comparison. A person (or an ant) is successful because he or she has given their best within their means. For this reason, every single person can become the greatest person in the world, all at the same time.
  19. 19. Shinto (The Way of the Gods) Originated in prehistoric times Important in Japanese society Native Japanese religion
  20. 20. Shinto has no moral code Shinto is focused on the Kami or sense (feeling) of the sacred. Provides a creation myth, but no afterlife – death is the end .
  21. 21. Shinto worship and practice takes place in shrines. The shrines are territories (of certain Kami) marked by the presence of gates. The gates are of various sizes and are usually painted red or natural wood. Shrines have a distinctive architecture that features a peaked roof.
  22. 22. When one enters a shrine compound, usually a water purification ritual is performed by scooping up water at a basin provided and cleaning ones hands and mouth.
  23. 23. Then you proceed to walk around the compound where you will find various shrine buildings and occasionally trees, rocks or other items deemed to have some sense of kami or spiritual power.
  24. 24. Sometimes there will be a fire burning and people will waft the smoke over their heads. The most important value in Shinto is cleanliness both physical and spiritual. Pollution, which is mainly identified with blood and death, must be avoided as much as possible but can be erased through elaborate ritual.
  25. 25. A K I M There are various kinds of Kami (thousands, actually) – the main ones are: Ujigami – village or clan gods Kami – spirits which may be found in water, rocks, trees, etc. Earth elements – sun, wind, rivers = Ameratsu Omikami is the Sun Goddess and the most important Powerful forces, Deceased persons, various animals, human emotions
  26. 26. Shinto Priest They’re called "KAN-NUSHI". They wear blue or purple ceremonial skirt. There're rankings of Shinto priest. Kan-nushi who rank higher wear purple. It can be either a man or a woman.
  27. 27. Shinto Texts There is no core sacred text in Shinto, such as the Bible in Christianity. Instead, there are books of mythology and history: Kojiki – Record of Ancient Matters Nihon Shoki (Continuing chronicles of Japan And several others
  28. 28. Shinto and Buddhism Until Buddhism was introduced in Japan, via Korea, Shinto did not have a name – it became necessary to distinguish it from the new religion, so it was given its name. The Kojiki and Nihon Suki were written to help explain the differences between Shinto and Buddhism and Confucianism. These religions coexist easily in Japan.
  29. 29. K'ung Fu Tzu (Confucius) was born in 551 BCE in the state of Lu in China. He traveled throughout China giving advice to its rulers and
  30. 30. Confucius’ Effect on Chinese Confucius Culture taught that it is better to lead people with well-ordered procedures than by rules and punishment. He taught that this would lead to people choosing to do the right thing rather than “lose face” – that a sense of shame would motivate right behavior far better than punishment. The desire to “save face” is still perhaps the most prominent feature of Chinese culture.
  31. 31. Confucianism does not contain all of the elements of some other religions, like Christianity and Islam. It is primarily an ethical system to which rituals at important times during one's lifetime have been added.
  32. 32. • Confucianism is a "code of conduct" to live this life, and it has had a tremendous impact on how the Chinese live their lives... with a great influence in Chinese government, education, and attitudes toward correct personal behavior and the individual duties to society. • There is no church nor clergy; no teaching on the worship of God or gods, or life after death. • Confucianism does not mention God.
  33. 33. • "Golden Rule" is: "What you do not want done to yourself, do not do unto others". "The injuries done to you by an enemy should be returned with a combination of love and justice". • The Symbol means total harmony, righteousness, in your own life and in your relations with your neighbor.
  34. 34. The "universal virtues" are: Wisdom, Benevolence, and Fortitude.. Knowledge "It is to know all men Benevolence "It is to love all men” Fortitude “To do what is right, in every circumstance”
  35. 35. Confucian ethical teachings include the following six values: • Li: includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc. • Hsiao: love within the family: love of parents for their children and of children for their parents • Yi: righteousness • Xin: honesty and trustworthiness • Jen: benevolence, humaneness towards others; the highest Confucian virtue • Chung: loyalty to the state, etc.
  36. 36. Four life passages have been recognized and regulated by Confucian tradition : 1. birth: The T'ai-shen (spirit of the fetus) protects the expectant woman and deals harshly with anyone who harasses the mother to be. 2. reaching maturity: This life passage is no longer being celebrated, except in traditional families. It takes the form of a group meal in which the young adult is served chicken.
  37. 37. 3. marriage: This is performed in six stages: • 1)Proposal: the couple exchange the eight characters: the year, month, day and hour of each of their births. • 2) Engagement: after the wedding day is chosen, the bride announces the wedding with invitations and a gift of cookies made in the shape of the moon. • 3) Dowry: This is carried to the groom's home in a solemn procession. The bride-price is then sent to the bride by the groom's parents. Gifts by the groom to the bride, equal in value to the dowry, are sent to her. • 4) Procession: The groom visits the bride's home and brings her back to his place, with much fanfare. • 5) Marriage and Reception: The couple recite their vows, toast each other with wine, and then take center stage at a banquet. • 6) Morning after: The bride serves breakfast to the groom's parents, who then reciprocate.
  38. 38. • death: At death, the relatives cry out aloud to inform the neighbors. The family starts mourning and puts on clothes made of a coarse material. The corpse is washed and placed in a coffin. Mourners bring incense and money to offset the cost of the funeral. Food and significant objects of the deceased are placed into the coffin. A Buddhist or Taoist priest (or even a Christian minister) performs the burial ritual. Friends and family follow the coffin to the cemetery, along with a willow branch which symbolizes the soul of the person who has died. The willow branch is carried back to the family altar where it is used to "install" the spirit of the deceased. Liturgies are performed on the 7th, 9th, 49th day after the burial and on the first and third anniversaries of the death.
  39. 39. Confucianism Texts Although three of these books are traditionally attributed to Confucius (K'ung-tzu, 551-479 B.C.E.) it has been established that he did not write a single word of them; they were written down by his students after his death. The Analects come closest to an actual description of his philosophy. Daxue The Great Learning Zhongyong The Doctrine of Mean  Lanyu, Analects of Confucius  Shiling Book of Odes Xiayong, Book of Filial Piety
  40. 40. Confucianism is lived in syncretism (union) with any other religion in China... any Confucianist would be very happy to become a Christian!. The Gen and the sayings of Confucius are very much parallel to the virtues and commandments of the Bible.
  41. 41. Confucius said: "A virtuous man has three awes:—(l) Awe for Heaven’s decree, (2) Awe for great men and (3) Awe for saints’ words. When worshipping God, one must feel as if He were visibly present."