Homesteader: Credit Mobilier: Settlers that A construction settled on the company that made free land a contract to lay created by the Homestead Act in 1862. track at two to three times the actual cost and pocketed the profits. 1862 1863 1864 1864 Homestead Act: Sand Creek Massacre: Congress passed On November 29, this act, offering 1864 Colonel John 160 acres of land Chivington and hisfree to any citizen troops descended on or intended the Cheyenne and citizen who was Arapaho at Sand head of the Creek. They killed household. over 150 inhabitants.
Soddy: Grange: A sod home, like a An organization for farmers dugout, that was warm in that’s original purpose was the winter and cool in the to provide a social outlet and summer. Soddys were an educational forum for small and had little light or isolated farm families. air. Snakes, insects, and However, by the 1870s the other pests were attracted to these fire-resistant organization centered more homes. These homes were towards fighting the built mainly by railroads. (The grange gave Homesteaders. rise to the farmers’ alliances). 1865 1866 1867 1867 Great Plains: Grasslands extending Oliver Kelley: through the west He started the central portion of the patrons ofUnited States of North husbandry, anAmerica. The cowboys, organization forNative Americans and farmers that became farmers fought over popularly known asthis region during 1865 the Grange.
Greenbacks: A term used forthe United States Monopoly: paper dollar. In Complete controlthe mid 1800’s it over an industries was a negativeterm because the dollar had no production, wages and prices. secure financial backing 1868 1869 1870 1870 Frederick Law Olmsted: Tweed Ring: He planned A group of landscaping for corrupt Washington D.C. and Democratic St. Louis. He also politicians that drew the initial defrauded New designs for the York City. Emerald Necklace; Boston’s parks system.
Grandfather Clause: This Clause stated Jim Crow Laws: that if a man failed Laws that became the literacy test or popular because of could not afford the an old minstrel song poll tax, he could still that ended with vote if he, his father, or his grandfather had been eligible to “Jump, Jim Crow”. Racial Segregation was put into effect vote before January 1, in the South. 1867. 1870 1870 1871 1871 Poll Tax: Segregation: An annual tax Laws thatthat one must pay separated White before qualifying and Black people to vote. in public and private facilities.
Kickbacks: Trust: Illegal payments A term used when politicians would participants turned ask for because of their stock over to a group of trustees. the services they rendered to businesses. 1871 1872 1873 1873 Wild Bill Hickok: He was a scout and Tammany Hall: a spy during the civilA New York City war and he later political served as a Marshallorganization. Boss in Abalene, Kansas. Tweed became He was in a traveling head of this show in 1873 that corrupt later became known organization. as Buffalo Bill’s Wild west.
Alexander Graham Bell: Unveiled the telephone which opened the way for a worldwide communications network. He unveiled it with Thomas Watson. 1873 1874 1876 1876Andrew Carnegie: Patronage:Scottish industrial A term used whenmogul to make his someone was given own fortune. In a government job if 1873 he entered they had helped athe steel business candidate get after touring a elected. British steel mill Also known as the and seeing the spoils system duringBessemer process the Andrew Jackson in action. Administration.
Telephone: The invention of the telephone created new jobs for women and changed the office workplace. Next to the light bulb, it was the most dramatic invention.1876 1876 1876 1876 Thomas Alva Edison: Established the world’s first research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Here is where he perfected the incandescent light bulb.
Ellis Island: Nez Perce: A port in the New Tribe of Native York Harbor. Americans who fought Immigration an armed war with the stations were US government located here. In 1880 because they were congress made laws being pushed off land that measured that was rightfully immigrants during theirs. inspection. 1877 1877 1880 1880 National Farmer’s Alliance: Bessemer process: Established on March By 1880, American 21, 1877 by Grange manufacturers weremembers of New York using the Bessemerstate. This organization process to produce sought to organize to more than 90 percent fight the railroads, tax of the nation’s steel. system, and the This process injected legalization of The air into molten iron to Grange-Sponsored remove the carbon Insurance Companies. and other impurities.
Civil Service: Term used to Assimilation: describe the Under this plan Government Native Americans Administration. Jobs became part of the were created so that white culture. They the most qualified gave up their beliefs person would be and way of life. hired. Idea was to eliminate patronage. 1881 1881 1882 1882 Melting Pot:Booker T. Washington: A term used toAn African American describe the educator who was mixture of people born enslaved, but of different cultures later graduated from and races. They Virginia’s Hampton were supposed to Institute. He also blend together by headed the Tuskagee giving up their University in native languages Alabama. and customs.
Collective Graft: Bargaining: The The illegal use of negotiation between political influence representatives of for personal gain labor and became popular management, to after a political reach written machine had their agreements on candidates in office. wages, hours and working conditions. 1885 1885 1886 1886 Samuel Gompers: Political Machine: He lead the Cigar A cities political Makers’ Internationalparty was controlled Union to join with by this organized other craft unions in group. In exchange 1886. He was a majorfor financial support part of the laborit offered services to movement and voters and focused on collective businesses. bargaining.
Mail Order Catalog: Richard Sears started his company in 1886. George Eastman: The original Ward’s He sold his first Catalog from 1872 Kodak camera that grew from a single used roll-film. Thissheet the first year to a film replaced heavy booklet. glass plates. 1886 1887 1888 1889 Dawes Act: This act aimed to Jane Addams: “Americanize” the Native In 1889 Jane Americans. Addams founded It broke up the reservations Chicago’s Hull and gave some of the House with Ellen reservation land to Gates Starr. She individual Native Americans; later became a co- 160 acres to each head of the winner of the Nobel household and 80 acres to Peace Prize in 1931. each unmarried adult.
Battle of Wounded Knee: Angel Island: December 28, 1890, the 7th Located in San Francisco Calvary rounded up about Bay on the West Coast. 350 starving and freezing Asians immigrants Sioux and took them to a entered the United States camp near Wounded Knee through Angel Island. Creek, SD. The next day Immigrants endured soldiers opened fire and harsh questioning and killed about 300 Sioux. long detentions in places This ended the Indian that had poor conditions. Wars Era. 1890 1890 1890 1892 Urbanization: A rapid growth of cities. These cities Sherman Antitrustwere located mostly Act:in the Northeast and Made it illegal to Midwest. The form a trust that technological boom interfered with contributed to the free trade between growing industrial states or with strength that led to other countries. urbanization.
Ida B. Wells: Gilded Age: She was born into A satirical novel slavery, but written by Mark became editor of a Twain and Charles local paper. Her Dudley Warner. It theme of racial represents the time justice became a crusade which led between the 1870s and the 1890s. Twain to her being exposes the greed and lynched. self indulgence of his characters. 1892 1892 1893 1894 Scabs: Settlement Houses: Strikebreakers that Communitywere hired to keep a centers that plant operating. provided Henry Clay Frick assistance mostly hired a lot of Scabs to immigrants thatfor his factories over lived in slum the years. neighborhoods.
W.E.B Du Bois: Eugene V Debs: He was the first He attempted to African American to form the American receive a Harvard Railway Union. He doctorate. He felt unions should strongly disagreed include skilled and with Washington’s unskilled workers. approach. 1894 1894 1895 1895 William Randolph Hearst: Pullman Strike: He purchased the Began because New York Morning George M Pullman Journal because he cut his employees’ wanted to outdo pay and refused to Joseph Pulitzer bylower rent. This was printing personal a violent strike. scandals, cruelty and articles about hypnotism.
William Jennings Bryan: Delivered Plessy Vs. Ferguson: the “Cross of The Supreme Court Gold” speech on ruled that the separation of races July 8, 1896. Bryan won the in public places did democratic not violate the nomination. fourth amendment. 1895 1896 1896 1896 Jacob Riis: Cross of Gold Police reporter, Speech: Advocated journalist and bimetallism. Thephotographer who democratic party documented the wanted to changeworking and living the value of the conditions of the dollar to silver. This poor. He was a would help farmersDanish/American pay off their debts social reformer. easier.