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1
Brand Elements 
Brand Positioning 
Brand Resonance 
Brand Knowledge 
Session 6 
Bahman Moghimi
I Want to Be in Your Heart…
A brand is a name, term, 
sign, symbol, or design 
which is intended to identify 
the goods or services of one 
seller or ...
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 5
Brand elements 
Brands typically are made up of various elements, such as:[ 
• Name: The word or words used to identify a ...
Identity: 
How 
The 
Elements 
Transmit 
The 
Message 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 7
8 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Brand awareness 
• Brand awareness is the extent to which a brand is recognized by potential 
customers, and is correctly ...
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 10
Key Components of a Positioning Statement 
• Definition of target market(s): Who is the brand 
being built for (i.e., the ...
Brand Positioning (1) 
Positioning is built from what you know to be true 
about your customer. Positioning reflects the 
...
Brand Positioning (2) 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 13
Brand Positioning (3) 
Even producers in the commodity world of meats, have 
found ways to reposition themselves and thus ...
Brand Resonance 
Brand Resonance refers to the extent to which customers feel “in sync” with 
the brand. Just as we feel t...
What is brand-knowledge? 
Kevin Keller defined brand knowledge as awareness of the brand 
name and belief about the brand ...
Where is brand-knowledge? 
• Brand-knowledge – both explicit and tacit brand-knowledge 
– primarily is created by both the...
How to create brand-knowledge successfully? 
• Creating brand-knowledge is a process of transforming 
beliefs to experienc...
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 19
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 20
Leveraging 
Secondary Brand 
Associations To Build 
Brand Equity 
CONCEPTUALIZING 
THE LEVERAGING 
PROCESS 
Session 7 
Bah...
What Do You Feel About Me? 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 22
Secondary Brand Association 
FIRST 
Brand “borrows” some brand knowledge and, depending on the 
nature of those associatio...
Leveraging Secondary Associations 
• Creation of new brand associations 
• Effects on existing brand knowledge 
– Awarenes...
Leveraging Secondary Associations 
• Brand associations may themselves be linked to 
other entities, creating secondary as...
Leveraging Secondary Associations 
• These secondary associations may lead to a 
transfer of: 
– Response-type association...
Company 
1 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 27
Company 
 Create a new brand 
 Adopt or modify an existing brand 
 Combine an existing and a new brand 
28 
B.Moghimi@y...
COUNTRY OF 
ANDOTHER 
2 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 29
Country of Origin 
 BMW 
 Germany 
 Nike 
 America 
 Sony 
 Japan 
 Chanel 
 France 
 Gucci 
 Italy 
B.Moghimi@y...
3 CHANNELS OF 
31 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Channels of Distribution 
 Customers might perceive a same brand 
differently depending on where it is sold. 
B.Moghimi@y...
4 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 33
Co-Branding 
 Also called brand bundling or brand alliance 
Occurs when two or more existing brands are 
combined into a ...
Advantages of Co-Branding 
 Borrow needed expertise 
 Leverage equity you don’t have 
 Reduce cost of product introduct...
Disadvantages of Co-Branding 
 Loss of control 
 Risk of brand equity dilution 
 Negative feedback effects 
 Lack of b...
Ingredient Branding 
 A special case of co-branding that involves 
creating brand equity for materials, 
components, or p...
5 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 38
Licensing 
 Involves contractual arrangements whereby 
firms can use the names, logos, characters, 
and so forth of other...
6 CELEBRITY 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 40
BLAH 
BLAH 
BLAH 
BLAH 
BLAH 
BLAH 
BLAH 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 41
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 42
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 43
Celebrity Endorsement 
 Draws attention to the brand 
 Shapes the perceptions of the brand 
 Celebrity should have a hi...
Celebrity Endorsement: Potential Problems 
 Celebrity endorsers can be overused by endorsing 
many products that are too ...
Sporting 
Culture 
Or 
Other 
Events 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 46
Sporting, Cultural, or Other Events 
• Sponsored events can contribute to brand equity 
by becoming associated to the bran...
third party sources 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 48
Third-Party Sources 
• Marketers can create secondary associations in 
a number of different ways by linking the brand 
to...
Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) 
It is a way of assessing the value of a brand in customers' minds. 
Branding can incre...
Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 51
52 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Equity 
Equity Can be considered the sum total of values 
associated with a brand. These might include 
awareness, loyalty...
Brand Salience 
Achieving right brand identity involves creating right brand salience. 
It relates to the aspects of consu...
Key Points 
1. Brands can “borrow” equity from their association with 
people, places, programs, and other non-product-bas...
Brahman's Branding Mind-Map 
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 56
B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 58
Branding Management, sessions 6and7, Bahman Moghimi, Professor at University of Georgia, TBILISI
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Branding Management, sessions 6and7, Bahman Moghimi, Professor at University of Georgia, TBILISI

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1. Direct Branding:
Brand Elements, Brand Awareness, Brand Resonance, Brand Positioning, Brand Knowledge, CBBE Model
2. Indirect Branding Leverages ...

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Branding Management, sessions 6and7, Bahman Moghimi, Professor at University of Georgia, TBILISI

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Brand Elements Brand Positioning Brand Resonance Brand Knowledge Session 6 Bahman Moghimi
  3. 3. I Want to Be in Your Heart…
  4. 4. A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors in the mind of customers. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4
  5. 5. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 5
  6. 6. Brand elements Brands typically are made up of various elements, such as:[ • Name: The word or words used to identify a company, product, service, or concept. • Logo: The visual trademark that identifies the brand. • Tagline or Catchphrase: Ex: "The Quicker Picker Upper" for Bounty paper towels. • Graphics: The dynamic ribbon is a trademarked part of Coca-Cola's brand. • Shapes: The distinctive shapes of the Coca-Cola bottle and of the Volkswagen Beetle are trademarked elements of those brands. • Colors: Owens-Corning is the only brand of fiberglass insulation that can be pink. • Sounds: A unique tune or set of notes can denote a brand. Ex: NBC's chimes • Scents: The rose-jasmine-musk scent of Chanel No. 5 is trademarked. • Tastes: Kentucky Fried Chicken has trademarked its special recipe of eleven herbs and spices for fried chicken. • Movements: Lamborghini has trademarked the upward motion of its car doors. • Customer relationship management B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 6
  7. 7. Identity: How The Elements Transmit The Message B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 7
  8. 8. 8 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  9. 9. Brand awareness • Brand awareness is the extent to which a brand is recognized by potential customers, and is correctly associated with a particular product. So it’s the extent to which the consumer associates the brand with the product that they wish to purchase. It is the brand recall and the brand recognition of the company to the consumers 9 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  10. 10. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 10
  11. 11. Key Components of a Positioning Statement • Definition of target market(s): Who is the brand being built for (i.e., the center of the targeting bulls-eye? • Category frame of reference: What is the competitive context? What product category do you want the brand to be associated with • Statement of the key point of difference: What benefits should the brand stand for and deliver on? • Reason(s) to believe: What proof points need to be demonstrated? B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 11
  12. 12. Brand Positioning (1) Positioning is built from what you know to be true about your customer. Positioning reflects the "place" a brand occupies in a market or segment  Steps: 1. What is your current position? 2. What position do you want to have? 3. How do you create a new positioning? B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 12
  13. 13. Brand Positioning (2) B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 13
  14. 14. Brand Positioning (3) Even producers in the commodity world of meats, have found ways to reposition themselves and thus create a unique selling proposition. • Identify • Personify • Create a new generic (Diff…?) • Be Consistent But Flexible • Connect Emotionally • Benchmark B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 14
  15. 15. Brand Resonance Brand Resonance refers to the extent to which customers feel “in sync” with the brand. Just as we feel the vibe between ourselves and others, we also experience a vibe that resonates between ourselves and brands. There are four categories to brand resonance: • Behavior - such as frequent purchase. • Attitude – when we say we “love” the brand. • Sense of Community – such as the Harley Owner's Group (HOG). • Active Engagement – where people invest time and money beyond purchase or consumption. Adapted from: Kevin Lane Keller. Strategic Brand Management, 2 nd Ed, Prentice Hall 2003, p92-94. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 15
  16. 16. What is brand-knowledge? Kevin Keller defined brand knowledge as awareness of the brand name and belief about the brand image. Valuable beliefs are authentic beliefs – consistent and durable. In addition to belief, consumer experience is an important part of brand knowledge. Consumer experience includes emotions, sensations, and activity. Using the terminology of philosophy, beliefs are “explicit” knowledge – meaning they can be put in words, and experience is “tacit” knowledge – meaning it cannot be put in words. 16 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  17. 17. Where is brand-knowledge? • Brand-knowledge – both explicit and tacit brand-knowledge – primarily is created by both the consumers and the marketer. Other players in brand-knowledge creation include researchers, advertising agencies, marketing consultants, distribution channel partners, and others. Brand- knowledge is created and held both by individual people and by groups. So, brand-knowledge includes two dimensions: • beliefs (explicit) - experience (tacit) dimension • individual – group dimension 17 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  18. 18. How to create brand-knowledge successfully? • Creating brand-knowledge is a process of transforming beliefs to experiences and experiences to beliefs. In addition, creating brand- knowledge requires that marketers exchange information with consumers and that brand-knowledge is transferred between individuals and groups within the organization. 18 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  19. 19. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 19
  20. 20. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 20
  21. 21. Leveraging Secondary Brand Associations To Build Brand Equity CONCEPTUALIZING THE LEVERAGING PROCESS Session 7 Bahman Moghimi
  22. 22. What Do You Feel About Me? B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 22
  23. 23. Secondary Brand Association FIRST Brand “borrows” some brand knowledge and, depending on the nature of those associations and responses, perhaps some brand equity from other entities. SECOND Secondary brand knowledge may be quite important to creating strong, favorable, and unique associations or positive responses if existing brand associations or responses are deficient in some way. The indirect approach to building brand equity is LEVERAGING SECONDARY BRAND KNOWLEDGE for the brand. 23 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  24. 24. Leveraging Secondary Associations • Creation of new brand associations • Effects on existing brand knowledge – Awareness and knowledge of the entity – Meaningfulness of the knowledge of the entity – Transferability of the knowledge of the entity B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 24
  25. 25. Leveraging Secondary Associations • Brand associations may themselves be linked to other entities, creating secondary associations: – Company (through branding strategies) e.g. Aquifina by Pepsi Co – Country of origin (through identification of product origin) Sony from Japan – Channels of distribution (through channels strategy) – Other brands (through co-branding) • Special case of co-branding is ingredient branding e.g. Intel Inside – Characters (through licensing) – Celebrity spokesperson (through endorsement advertising) Accenture and Tiger Woods – Events (through sponsorship) Coke and FIFA 2010 – Other third-party sources (through awards and reviews) Lux Style Awards B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 25
  26. 26. Leveraging Secondary Associations • These secondary associations may lead to a transfer of: – Response-type associations • Judgments (especially credibility) • Feelings – Meaning-type associations • Product or service performance • Product or service imagery • Guidelines – Commonality (New Zealand and wool) – Complementarity (Buick and Tiger Woods) B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 26
  27. 27. Company 1 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 27
  28. 28. Company  Create a new brand  Adopt or modify an existing brand  Combine an existing and a new brand 28 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  29. 29. COUNTRY OF ANDOTHER 2 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 29
  30. 30. Country of Origin  BMW  Germany  Nike  America  Sony  Japan  Chanel  France  Gucci  Italy B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 30
  31. 31. 3 CHANNELS OF 31 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  32. 32. Channels of Distribution  Customers might perceive a same brand differently depending on where it is sold. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 32
  33. 33. 4 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 33
  34. 34. Co-Branding  Also called brand bundling or brand alliance Occurs when two or more existing brands are combined into a joint product or are marketed together in some fashion  Examples:  Sony Ericsson  Acer Ferrari  Siemens and Porsche design which produce a range of kettles, toasters and coffee machines  Star Alliance which includes 16 different airlines such as Lufthansa, Singapore Airlines  The Smart Car : Swatch and Mercedes Benz B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 34
  35. 35. Advantages of Co-Branding  Borrow needed expertise  Leverage equity you don’t have  Reduce cost of product introduction  Expand brand meaning into related categories  Broaden meaning  Increase access points  Source of additional revenue B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 35
  36. 36. Disadvantages of Co-Branding  Loss of control  Risk of brand equity dilution  Negative feedback effects  Lack of brand focus and clarity  Organizational distractions B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 36
  37. 37. Ingredient Branding  A special case of co-branding that involves creating brand equity for materials, components, or parts that are necessarily contained within other branded products  Examples:  Intel inside B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 37
  38. 38. 5 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 38
  39. 39. Licensing  Involves contractual arrangements whereby firms can use the names, logos, characters, and so forth of other brands for some fixed fee  Examples:  Entertainment (Star Wars, Spider Man, Shriek , Micky Mouse of Disney etc.)  Television and cartoon characters (The Simpsons)  Designer apparel and accessories (Calvin Klein, Pierre Cardin, Ralph Lauren etc.)  Corporate Trademark Licensing  Standard & Poor’s and Dow Jones 39 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  40. 40. 6 CELEBRITY B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 40
  41. 41. BLAH BLAH BLAH BLAH BLAH BLAH BLAH B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 41
  42. 42. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 42
  43. 43. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 43
  44. 44. Celebrity Endorsement  Draws attention to the brand  Shapes the perceptions of the brand  Celebrity should have a high level of visibility and a rich set of useful associations, judgments, and feelings  Q-Ratings to evaluate celebrities B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 44
  45. 45. Celebrity Endorsement: Potential Problems  Celebrity endorsers can be overused by endorsing many products that are too varied.  There must be a reasonable match between the celebrity and the product.  Celebrity endorsers can get in trouble or lose popularity.  Many consumers feel that celebrities are doing the endorsement for money and do not necessarily believe in the endorsed brand.  Celebrities may distract attention from the brand. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 45
  46. 46. Sporting Culture Or Other Events B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 46
  47. 47. Sporting, Cultural, or Other Events • Sponsored events can contribute to brand equity by becoming associated to the brand and improving brand awareness, adding new associations, or improving the strength, favorability, and uniqueness of existing associations. • The main means by which an event can transfer associations is credibility. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 47
  48. 48. third party sources B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 48
  49. 49. Third-Party Sources • Marketers can create secondary associations in a number of different ways by linking the brand to various third-party sources. • Third-party sources can be especially credible sources. • Marketers often feature them in advertising campaigns and selling efforts . – Example: J.D. Power and Associates’ well-publicized Customer Satisfaction Index B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 49
  50. 50. Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) It is a way of assessing the value of a brand in customers' minds. Branding can increase profitability in large and small-scale businesses by filling in gaps in customers' knowledge and by offering assurances. The CBBE model centers that value in the minds of customers. It compels businesses to define their brands according to a defined hierarchy of qualitative, or common-sense, customer impressions. These impressions are often laid out in pyramid-shaped levels; they consist of salience, performance, imagery, meaning, judgments, feelings, and resonance. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 50
  51. 51. Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 51
  52. 52. 52 B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  53. 53. Equity Equity Can be considered the sum total of values associated with a brand. These might include awareness, loyalty, and recognition. The greater the equity, the more likely customers will trust and choose the company's product or service. Additionally, equity capitalizes on normal psychological tendencies, such as the sometimes longer memory about negative experiences or the cognitive laziness that creates loyalty through a customer's unwillingness to choose unfamiliar products over familiar brand products. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 53
  54. 54. Brand Salience Achieving right brand identity involves creating right brand salience. It relates to the aspects of consumer awareness/salience of the brand. It includes the place that is been occupied by brand in the minds of the consumers. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 54
  55. 55. Key Points 1. Brands can “borrow” equity from their association with people, places, programs, and other non-product-based sources. 2. Secondary associations are strongest when consumers have awareness and strong, favorable, and unique perceptions of the external source. 3. Secondary associations are most likely to affect evaluations when consumers lack the ability or motivation to judge product attributes. 4. Leveraging secondary associations can be problematic because it requires marketers to give up some degree of control over the branding process. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 55
  56. 56. Brahman's Branding Mind-Map B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 56
  57. 57. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 58

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