G10 genetics

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These are the key concepts for the genetics unit of the grade 10 biology sequence.

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  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Marfan syndrome disorder of connective tissue gene alteration or mutation causes defect in growth hormone production
  • Marfan wrists
  • carcinogens can interfere with DNA replication radiation may alter nucleotides in DNA
  • achondroplasia (dwarfism)
  • Trisomy 21 aka Down Syndrome
  • drought- and disease-resistance growth patterns
  • once planted in a field, pollination occurs naturally - can’t control which genes are transported to non-GMO plants
  • G10 genetics

    1. 1. Grade 10 BiologyGenetics and Inheritance PatternsMr KremerGrade 10 BiologyGenetics and Inheritance PatternsMr Kremer
    2. 2. Genetics: Key concepts• Mendel’s experiments with pea plants• Dominant, recessive, + codominant traits• Sex linkage of genetic disorders• Biotechnology + its consequences
    3. 3. Mendellian Genetics
    4. 4. MendellianGeneticsGregor Mendel + his pea plantsAlleles + traitsDominant, recessive, +codominantHeterozygous + homozygousPhenotype + genotype
    5. 5. Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk
    6. 6. Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants
    7. 7. Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants
    8. 8. Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants
    9. 9. Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants
    10. 10. Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants• Identified patterns inoffspring
    11. 11. Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants• Identified patterns inoffspring• Developed Law ofSegregation and Lawof IndependentAssortment
    12. 12. Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants• Identified patterns inoffspring• Developed Law ofSegregation and Lawof IndependentAssortment
    13. 13. Inheritance Patterns
    14. 14. Dominant +RecessiveTraitsAlleles, chromosomes, + lociTraits + characteristicsDominant vs recessiveHeterozygous + homozygousMonohybrid cross
    15. 15. Essential Vocabulary• Locus = place on achromosome where aspecific gene is found• Gene = combination ofalleles controlling atrait• Allele = one form of agene (basically, half agene)fromMom!fromDad!
    16. 16. Essential Vocabulary• Genotype = alleliccomposition• Phenotype = physicalexpression of genotype• Bb = genotype• brown eyes =phenotype
    17. 17. Dominant + Recessive Traits• Dominant = alwaysexpressed• Recessive = onlyexpressed ifhomozygous
    18. 18. Dominant + Recessive Traits• Dominant = alwaysexpressed• Recessive = onlyexpressed ifhomozygous• Homozygous = bothalleles are the same
    19. 19. Dominant + Recessive Traits• Dominant = alwaysexpressed• Recessive = onlyexpressed ifhomozygous• Homozygous = bothalleles are the same• Heterozygous =different alleles
    20. 20. Dominant + Recessive Traits• Dominant = alwaysexpressed• Recessive = onlyexpressed ifhomozygous• Homozygous = bothalleles are the same• Heterozygous =different alleles
    21. 21. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    22. 22. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    23. 23. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    24. 24. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    25. 25. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    26. 26. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    27. 27. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    28. 28. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    29. 29. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    30. 30. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
    31. 31. Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes3:1ratio
    32. 32. 3:1ratioMonohybrid Crosses
    33. 33. Codominance + Blood Types
    34. 34. Codominance +Blood TypesCodominanceIncomplete dominanceBlood typesCrosses involving codominanttraitsImage credit: http://www.joannelovesscience.com
    35. 35. Codominance + Incomplete Dominance• Codominance = bothheterozygous allelesfully expressed
    36. 36. Codominance + Incomplete Dominance• Codominance = bothheterozygous allelesfully expressed
    37. 37. Codominance + Incomplete Dominance• Codominance = bothheterozygous allelesfully expressed
    38. 38. Codominance + Incomplete Dominance• Codominance = bothheterozygous allelesfully expressed• Incomplete dominance =a blend of eachcharacteristic isexpressed
    39. 39. Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
    40. 40. Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
    41. 41. Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
    42. 42. Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
    43. 43. Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
    44. 44. Sex Linkage
    45. 45. Sex LinkageSex LinkageX + Y chromosomesColorblindnessHemophiliaImage credit: http://www.biologycorner.com
    46. 46. Sex Linkage• Gene carried on Xchromosome• Women = XX• Men = XY• women need 2 copies ofrecessive allele• men need only 1 copy
    47. 47. Sex Linkage• Gene carried on Xchromosome• Women = XX• Men = XY• women need 2 copies ofrecessive allele• men need only 1 copy
    48. 48. Sex Linkage• Gene carried on Xchromosome• Women = XX• Men = XY• women need 2 copies ofrecessive allele• men need only 1 copy
    49. 49. Sex Linkage• Colorblindness
    50. 50. Sex Linkage• Hemophilia
    51. 51. Genetic Disorders
    52. 52. Genetic Disorders• Caused by gene variationor mutation• Environmental mutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
    53. 53. Genetic Disorders• Caused by genevariation or mutation• Environmentalmutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
    54. 54. Genetic Disorders• Caused by genevariation or mutation• Environmentalmutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
    55. 55. Genetic Disorders• Caused by genevariation or mutation• Environmentalmutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
    56. 56. Genetic Disorders• Caused by genevariation or mutation• Environmentalmutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
    57. 57. Biotechnology
    58. 58. BiotechnologyGenetic screeningDNA profilingGMO’sStem cell research
    59. 59. Genetic Screening• Examine DNA forgenetic disorders• Good for preventativecare + treatment• Ethics of use forinsurance + healthcare?• May be used in jobplacement
    60. 60. Genetic Screening• Examine DNA forgenetic disorders• Good for preventativecare + treatment• Ethics of use forinsurance + healthcare?• May be used in jobplacement
    61. 61. Genetic Screening• Examine DNA forgenetic disorders• Good for preventativecare + treatment• Ethics of use forinsurance + healthcare?• May be used in jobplacement
    62. 62. Genetic Screening• Examine DNA forgenetic disorders• Good for preventativecare + treatment• Ethics of use forinsurance + healthcare?• May be used in jobplacement
    63. 63. DNA Profiling• aka DNA fingerprinting• Compare samples todatabase• Forensics (CSI)• Questions aboutlegality/ownership ofinformation
    64. 64. DNA Profiling• aka DNA fingerprinting• Compare samples todatabase• Forensics (CSI)• Questions aboutlegality/ownership ofinformation
    65. 65. Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity
    66. 66. Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity
    67. 67. Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity
    68. 68. Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity
    69. 69. Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity

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