Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

ESS Topic 7 Environmental Value Systems

14,982 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • where did you get the information???
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • where are yours referens???
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

ESS Topic 7 Environmental Value Systems

  1. 1. VALUE SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTALBy Peter Stanley International School of Tanganyika 2008 updated 2011 Brad Kremer Topic 7
  2. 2. VALUE SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTALBy Peter Stanley International School of Tanganyika 2008 updated 2011 Brad Kremer Topic 7
  3. 3. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1)
  4. 4. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues
  5. 5. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include:
  6. 6. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion)
  7. 7. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion) •economy
  8. 8. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion) •economy •socio-politics
  9. 9. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion) •economy •socio-politics
  10. 10. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion) •economy •socio-politics
  11. 11. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion) •economy •socio-politics
  12. 12. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion) •economy •socio-politics •System = inputs and outputs:
  13. 13. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion) •economy •socio-politics •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media
  14. 14. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  15. 15. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  16. 16. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  17. 17. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  18. 18. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  19. 19. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  20. 20. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  21. 21. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  22. 22. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  23. 23. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  24. 24. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  25. 25. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  26. 26. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  27. 27. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  28. 28. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action
  29. 29. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action •Ecosystems can cross borders leading to conflict •ie: whaling, wildlife protection/hunting areas
  30. 30. 7.1.1: What is an environmental value system? “State what is meant by an environmental value system.” (1) •How we see/value environmental issues •Influences include: •culture (including religion) •economy •socio-politics •System = inputs and outputs: •Inputs: education, religious doctrine, media •Outputs: decisions, perspectives , action •Ecosystems can cross borders leading to conflict •ie: whaling, wildlife protection/hunting areas
  31. 31. 7.1.2: Environmental philosophies Figure 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ECOCENTRISM ANTHROPOCENTRISM TECHNOCENTRISM “Outline the range(people centred) (nature centred) of environmental philosophies with reference to figure 6.” (2) (page 38) (technology centred) Holistic world view. Minimum People as environmental managers of Technology can keep pace with and disturbance of natural processes. sustainable global systems. Population provide solutions to environmental Integration of spiritual, social control given equal weight to resource use. problems. Resource replacement and environmental dimensions. Strong regulation by independent authorities solves resource depletion. Need Sustainability for the whole required. to understand natural processes Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers Cornucopians 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic human morality. 2 Integration of concepts of adjustments to taxes, technological. 3 Biorights—the right of work and leisure through fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- endangered species or a process of personal and b improvements in growth goals define the unique landscapes to communal improvement. the legal rights to rationality of project remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation a minimum level of appraisal and policy in community affairs, environmental quality formulation. and of guarantees of the c compensation rights of minority interests. arrangements 3 Optimism about the Participation seen as both a satisfactory to those ability of man to improve continuing education and a who experience the lot of the world’s political function. adverse environmental people. and/or social effects. 4 Faith that scientific and 2 Acceptance of new project appraisal technological expertise techniques and decision provides the basic review arrangements to foundation for advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state or genuine search for authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. economic growth, public consensus among 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. representative groups of that economic growth can be geared to providing for the interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts basic needs of those below subsistence levels. to widen basis for participation and lengthy discussion in project appraisal and policy review. 6 Belief that all impediments can be overcome given a will, ingenuity and sufficient resources arising out of growth. Adapted from Figure 10.1: The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies in the seventies, page 372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited.
  32. 32. Figure 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ECOCENTRISM ANTHROPOCENTRISM TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred) Holistic world view. Minimum People as environmental managers of Technology can keep pace with and disturbance of natural processes. sustainable global systems. Population provide solutions to environmental Integration of spiritual, social control given equal weight to resource use. problems. Resource replacement and environmental dimensions. Strong regulation by independent authorities solves resource depletion. Need Sustainability for the whole required. to understand natural processes Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers Cornucopians 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic human morality. 2 Integration of concepts of adjustments to taxes, technological. 3 Biorights—the right of work and leisure through fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- endangered species or a process of personal and b improvements in growth goals define the unique landscapes to communal improvement. the legal rights to rationality of project remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation a minimum level of appraisal and policy in community affairs, environmental quality formulation. and of guarantees of the c compensation rights of minority interests. arrangements 3 Optimism about the Participation seen as both a satisfactory to those ability of man to improve continuing education and a who experience the lot of the world’s political function. adverse environmental people. and/or social effects. 4 Faith that scientific and 2 Acceptance of new project appraisal technological expertise techniques and decision provides the basic review arrangements to foundation for advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state or genuine search for authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. economic growth, public consensus among 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. representative groups of that economic growth can be geared to providing for the interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts basic needs of those below subsistence levels. to widen basis for participation and lengthy discussion in project appraisal and policy review. 6 Belief that all impediments can be overcome given a will, ingenuity and sufficient resources arising out of growth.Adapted from Figure 10.1: The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies in the seventies, page372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited.
  33. 33. Syllabus content Figure 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ECOCENTRISM ANTHROPOCENTRISM TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred)Figure 6 Holistic world view. Minimum disturbance of natural processes. People as environmental managers of sustainable global systems. Population Technology can keep pace with and provide solutions to environmental Integration of spiritual, social control given equal weight to resource use. problems. Resource replacement and environmental dimensions. Sustainability for the whole Earth. Self-reliant communities Strong regulation by independent authorities required. ENVIRONMENTAL solves resource depletion. Need to understand natural processes in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. ECOCENTRISM Deep ecologists 1 Intrinsic importance of Self-reliance soft ecologists 1 Emphasis on smallness Environmental managers 1 Belief that economic ANTHROPOCENTRISM Cornucopians 1 Belief that man can TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred) nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic Holistic world view. Minimum of human morality. 2 Integration of concepts work and leisure through People as environmental managers of adjustments to taxes, fees, etc technological. 2 Acceptance that pro- Technology can keep pace with and 3 Biorights—the right of disturbancespeciestoor endangered of natural processes. unique landscapes a process of personal and communal improvement. b sustainable global systems. Population improvements in the legal rights to growth goals define the provide solutions to environmental rationality of project Integration of spiritual, social remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation in community affairs, controlquality appraisal and weight to resource use. a minimum level of environmental given equal policy problems. Resource replacement formulation. and environmental dimensions. and of guarantees of the rights of minority interests. Strong regulation by independent authorities c compensation arrangements 3 Optimism about the solves resource depletion. Need Participation seen as both a ability of man to improve Sustainability for the whole and a continuing education required. satisfactory to those who experience the lot of the world’s to understand natural processes political function. adverse environmental Earth. Self-reliant communities and/or social effects. people. 4 Faith that scientific and in order to control them. Strong 2 Acceptance of new within a framework of global project appraisal technological expertise emphasis on scientific analysis and techniques and decision provides the basic citizenship. in modern large-scale technology and its 4 Lack of faith Self-imposed review arrangements to foundation for advice prediction prior to policy-making. allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state restraint on resource use.institutions. authority and inherently anti-democratic or genuine search for consensus among economic growth, public Importance of market, and economic 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. that economic growth can be geared to providing for the representative groups of interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts growth. basic needs of those below subsistence levels. to widen basis for participation and lengthy Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists discussion in project Environmental managers Cornucopians appraisal and policy 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness review. 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can 6 Belief that all impediments nature for the humanity of scale and hencebe overcome given can growth and resource always find a way out of a will, ingenuity and of man. community identity in arising sufficient resources exploitation can continue out of growth. any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies inand other settlement, work assuming: Adapted from Figure 10.1: the seventies, page leisure. 372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic
  34. 34. Syllabus content Figure 6 Syllabus content ENVIRONMENTAL ECOCENTRISM ANTHROPOCENTRISM TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred)Figure 6 Holistic world view. Minimum People as environmental managers of Technology can keep pace with and Figure 6 disturbance of natural processes. Integration of spiritual, social sustainable global systems. Population control given equal weight to resource use. provide solutions to environmental problems. Resource replacement and environmental dimensions. Strong regulation by independent authorities ENVIRONMENTAL solves resource depletion. Need ENVIRONMENTAL Sustainability for the whole required. to understand natural processes Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. ECOCENTRISM Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers ANTHROPOCENTRISM Cornucopians TECHNOCENTRISM ECOCENTRISM 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic ANTHROPOCENTRISM 1 Belief that man can TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred) nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred) of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic Holistic world view. Minimum of human morality. 2 Integration of concepts People taxes, environmental managers of adjustments to as technological. Technology can keep pace with and Holistic world view.and of personal and 3 Biorights—the right of work Minimum leisure through People as environmental managers of fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- Technology can keep pace with and disturbancespeciestoor endangered of natural processes. a process b sustainable global systems. Population improvements in growth goals define the provide solutions to environmental disturbance of naturalimprovement. unique landscapes communal processes. the legal rights to sustainablerationality of project global systems. Population provide solutions to environmental Integration of spiritual, social remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation Integration of spiritual, of the in community social affairs, controlqualitygiven equal weight to resource use. a minimum level of control environmental given appraisal and weight to resource use. equal policy problems. Resource replacement problems. Resource replacement formulation. andand environmentalofdimensions. c Strong regulation byby independent authorities environmental dimensions. and guarantees rights of minority interests. Strong regulation to independent authorities compensation arrangements 3 Optimism about the solves resource depletion. Need solves resource depletion. Need Participation seen as both a ability of man improve Sustainability for forcontinuing education and a thethe whole Sustainability political function. whole required. satisfactory to those required. the lot of the world’s who experience to understand natural processes to understand natural processes adverse environmental Earth. Self-reliant communities Earth. Self-reliant communities 2 Acceptance of new and/or social effects. people. 4 Faith that scientific and in order to control them. Strong in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global within a framework of global project appraisal technological expertise emphasis on scientific analysis and emphasis on scientific analysis and techniques and decision provides the basic citizenship. in modern large-scale technology and its 4 Lack of faith Self-imposed citizenship. Self-imposed review arrangements to foundation for advice prediction prior to policy-making. prediction prior to policy-making. allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state restraint on resource use.institutions. restraint on resource use. authority and inherently anti-democratic or genuine search for consensus among economic growth, public Importance of market, and economic Importance of market, and economic 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. that economic growth can be geared to providing for the representative groups of interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts growth. growth. basic needs of those below subsistence levels. to widen basis for participation and lengthy Deep ecologists Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists discussion in project Environmental managers Environmental managers Cornucopians Cornucopians appraisal and policy 1 Intrinsic importance of of 1 Emphasis onon smallness 1 Intrinsic importance 1 Emphasis smallness review. 1 1 Belief that economic Belief that economic 11 Belief that man can Belief that man can 6 Belief that all impediments nature for for the humanity nature the humanity of scale and hencebe overcome given of scale and hence can growth and resource growth and resource always find a way out of a will, ingenuity and always find a way out of of man. of man. community identity in in arising community identity sufficient resources exploitation can continue exploitation can continue out of growth. any difficulties, either any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and The evolution of environmentalistsettlement, work and page 2 Ecological (and other other settlement, work and assuming: assuming: Adapted from Figure 10.1: objectives and strategies in the seventies, leisure. leisure. political, scientific or political, scientific or natural) laws dictate 372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited. natural) laws dictate a asuitable economic suitable economic
  35. 35. Figure 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ECOCENTRISM ANTHROPOCENTRISM TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred) Holistic world view. Minimum People as environmental managers of Technology can keep pace with and disturbance of natural processes. sustainable global systems. Population provide solutions to environmental Integration of spiritual, social control given equal weight to resource use. problems. Resource replacement and environmental dimensions. Strong regulation by independent authorities solves resource depletion. Need Sustainability for the whole required. to understand natural processes Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers Cornucopians 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic human morality. 2 Integration of concepts of adjustments to taxes, technological. 3 Biorights—the right of work and leisure through fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- endangered species or a process of personal and b improvements in growth goals define the unique landscapes to communal improvement. the legal rights to rationality of project remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation a minimum level of appraisal and policy in community affairs, environmental quality formulation. and of guarantees of the c compensation rights of minority interests. arrangements 3 Optimism about the Participation seen as both a satisfactory to those ability of man to improve continuing education and a who experience the lot of the world’s political function. adverse environmental people. and/or social effects. 4 Faith that scientific and 2 Acceptance of new project appraisal technological expertise techniques and decision provides the basic review arrangements to foundation for advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state or genuine search for authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. economic growth, public consensus among 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. representative groups of that economic growth can be geared to providing for the interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts basic needs of those below subsistence levels. to widen basis for participation and lengthy discussion in project appraisal and policy review. 6 Belief that all impediments can be overcome given a will, ingenuity and sufficient resources arising out of growth.Adapted from Figure 10.1: The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies in the seventies, page372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited.
  36. 36. 7.1.2: Environmental philosophies Figure 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ECOCENTRISM ANTHROPOCENTRISM TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred) Holistic world view. Minimum People as environmental managers of Technology can keep pace with and disturbance of natural processes. sustainable global systems. Population provide solutions to environmental Integration of spiritual, social control given equal weight to resource use. problems. Resource replacement and environmental dimensions. Strong regulation by independent authorities solves resource depletion. Need Sustainability for the whole required. to understand natural processes Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers Cornucopians 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic human morality. 2 Integration of concepts of adjustments to taxes, technological. 3 Biorights—the right of work and leisure through fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- endangered species or a process of personal and b improvements in growth goals define the unique landscapes to communal improvement. the legal rights to rationality of project remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation a minimum level of appraisal and policy in community affairs, environmental quality formulation. and of guarantees of the c compensation rights of minority interests. arrangements 3 Optimism about the Participation seen as both a satisfactory to those ability of man to improve continuing education and a who experience the lot of the world’s political function. adverse environmental people. and/or social effects. 4 Faith that scientific and 2 Acceptance of new project appraisal technological expertise techniques and decision provides the basic review arrangements to foundation for advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state or genuine search for authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. economic growth, public consensus among 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. representative groups of that economic growth can be geared to providing for the interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts basic needs of those below subsistence levels. to widen basis for participation and lengthy discussion in project appraisal and policy review. 6 Belief that all impediments can be overcome given a will, ingenuity and sufficient resources arising out of growth. Adapted from Figure 10.1: The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies in the seventies, page 372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited.
  37. 37. 7.1.2: Environmental philosophies Figure 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ECOCENTRISM ANTHROPOCENTRISM TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred) Holistic world view. Minimum People as environmental managers of Technology can keep pace with and disturbance of natural processes. sustainable global systems. Population provide solutions to environmental Integration of spiritual, social control given equal weight to resource use. problems. Resource replacement and environmental dimensions. Strong regulation by independent authorities solves resource depletion. Need Sustainability for the whole required. to understand natural processes Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers Cornucopians 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic human morality. 2 Integration of concepts of adjustments to taxes, technological. 3 Biorights—the right of work and leisure through fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- endangered species or a process of personal and b improvements in growth goals define the unique landscapes to communal improvement. the legal rights to rationality of project remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation a minimum level of appraisal and policy in community affairs, environmental quality formulation. and of guarantees of the c compensation rights of minority interests. arrangements 3 Optimism about the Participation seen as both a satisfactory to those ability of man to improve continuing education and a who experience the lot of the world’s political function. adverse environmental people. and/or social effects. 4 Faith that scientific and 2 Acceptance of new project appraisal technological expertise techniques and decision provides the basic review arrangements to foundation for advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state What is your environmental philosophy? authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and that economic growth can be geared to providing for the or genuine search for consensus among representative groups of interested parties. economic growth, public health and safety. 5 Suspicion of attempts basic needs of those below subsistence levels. Circe (pencil) 3 points on the list that apply to to widen basis for participation and lengthy discussion in project appraisal and policy you. Be prepared to explain why you chose review. 6 Belief that all impediments can be overcome given these points. a will, ingenuity and sufficient resources arising out of growth. Adapted from Figure 10.1: The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies in the seventies, page 372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited.
  38. 38. 7.1.2: Environmental philosophies Figure 6 ENVIRONMENTAL ECOCENTRISM ANTHROPOCENTRISM TECHNOCENTRISM (nature centred) (people centred) (technology centred) Holistic world view. Minimum People as environmental managers of Technology can keep pace with and disturbance of natural processes. sustainable global systems. Population provide solutions to environmental Integration of spiritual, social control given equal weight to resource use. problems. Resource replacement and environmental dimensions. Strong regulation by independent authorities solves resource depletion. Need Sustainability for the whole required. to understand natural processes Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers Cornucopians 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic human morality. 2 Integration of concepts of adjustments to taxes, technological. 3 Biorights—the right of work and leisure through fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- endangered species or a process of personal and b improvements in growth goals define the unique landscapes to communal improvement. the legal rights to rationality of project remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation a minimum level of appraisal and policy in community affairs, environmental quality formulation. and of guarantees of the c compensation rights of minority interests. arrangements 3 Optimism about the Participation seen as both a satisfactory to those ability of man to improve continuing education and a who experience the lot of the world’s political function. adverse environmental people. and/or social effects. 4 Faith that scientific and 2 Acceptance of new project appraisal technological expertise techniques and decision provides the basic review arrangements to foundation for advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state or genuine search for authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. economic growth, public consensus among 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. representative groups of that economic growth can be geared to providing for the interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts basic needs of those below subsistence levels. to widen basis for participation and lengthy discussion in project appraisal and policy review. 6 Belief that all impediments can be overcome given a will, ingenuity and sufficient resources arising out of growth. Adapted from Figure 10.1: The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies in the seventies, page 372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited.
  39. 39. Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and citizenship. Self-imposed prediction prior to policy-making. restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic growth. Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers Cornucopians 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of of man. community identity in exploitation can continue any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and other settlement, work and assuming: leisure. political, scientific or natural) laws dictate a suitable economic human morality. 2 Integration of concepts of adjustments to taxes, technological. 3 Biorights—the right of work and leisure through fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- endangered species or a process of personal and b improvements in growth goals define the unique landscapes to communal improvement. the legal rights to rationality of project remain unmolested. 3 Importance of participation a minimum level of appraisal and policy in community affairs, environmental quality formulation. and of guarantees of the c compensation rights of minority interests. arrangements 3 Optimism about the Participation seen as both a satisfactory to those ability of man to improve continuing education and a who experience the lot of the world’s political function. adverse environmental people. and/or social effects. 4 Faith that scientific and 2 Acceptance of new project appraisal technological expertise techniques and decision provides the basic review arrangements to foundation for advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state or genuine search for authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. economic growth, public consensus among 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. representative groups of that economic growth can be geared to providing for the interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts basic needs of those below subsistence levels. to widen basis for participation and lengthy discussion in project appraisal and policy review. 6 Belief that all impediments can be overcome given a will, ingenuity and sufficient resources arising out of growth.Adapted from Figure 10.1: The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies in the seventies, page372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited.
  40. 40. Earth. Self-reliant communities in order to control them. Strong within a framework of global emphasis on scientific analysis and Deep ecologists citizenship. Self-imposed Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers prediction prior to policy-making. Cornucopians restraint on resource use. Importance of market, and economic 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can growth. nature for the humanity of scale and hence growth and resource always find a way out of Deep ecologists Self-reliance soft ecologists Environmental managers Cornucopians of man. community identity in exploitation can continue 1 Intrinsic importance of 1 Emphasis on smallness 1 Belief that economic 1 Belief that man can any difficulties, either 2 Ecological (and nature for the humanity other scale and hence of settlement, work and growth and resource assuming: always find a way out of of man. community identity in leisure. exploitation can continue political, scientific or natural) laws dictate settlement, work and assuming: a difficulties, economic any suitable either 2 Ecological (and other 2 Integration of suitable economic political, scientific or adjustments to taxes, technological. natural) lawsmorality. human dictate leisure. a concepts of human morality. 2 Integration of concepts of adjustments to taxes, technological. 3 Biorights—the rightwork and leisurework and leisure through of fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- 3 Biorights—the right of through fees, etc 2 Acceptance that pro- endangered species species endangered or aor a process of b improvements in process of personal and personal and b improvements in growth goals define the growth goals define the unique landscapes to communal improvement. communal improvement. the legal rights to unique landscapes to the legal rights rationality of projectto rationality of project 3 Importance of participation remain unmolested. a minimum level of appraisal and policy 3 Importance ofenvironmental quality remain unmolested.in community affairs, participation a minimum level of and of guarantees of the formulation. appraisal and policy in communitycompensation c affairs, environmental quality rights of minority interests. arrangements 3 Optimism about the formulation. Participation seen as bothguarantees of the and of a satisfactory to those c compensation ability of man to improve continuing education and a minorityexperience rights of who interests. the lot of the world’s 3 Optimism about the political function. adverse environmental arrangements Participation seen as both a and/or social effects. people. satisfactory to those ability of man to improve continuing education and a 4 Faith that scientific and 2 Acceptance of new who experience technological expertise the lot of the world’s political function.appraisal project adverse environmental techniques and decision provides the basic people. review arrangements to foundation forsocial effects. and/or advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its associated demands on elitist expertise, central state allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to 4 Faith that scientific and or genuine search for 2 economic growth,of new Acceptance public authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. technological expertise consensus among 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and project appraisal health and safety. representative groups of that economic growth can be geared to providing for the interested parties. 5 Suspicion of attempts decision techniques and provides the basic basic needs of those below subsistence levels. review arrangements to to widen basis for foundation for advice 4 Lack of faith in modern large-scale technology and its participation and lengthy allow for wider discussion on matters pertaining to associated demands on elitist expertise, central state discussion in project or genuine search for authority and inherently anti-democratic institutions. appraisal and policy economic growth, public consensus among review. 5 Implication that materialism for its own sake is wrong and health and safety. representative groups of 6 Belief that all impediments that economic growth can be geared to providing for the interested parties. can be overcome given 5 Suspicion of attempts basic needs of those below subsistence levels. a will, ingenuity and to widen basis for sufficient resources arising out of growth. participation and lengthyAdapted from Figure 10.1: The evolution of environmentalist objectives and strategies in the seventies, page discussion in project372. First published in O’Riordan, T. 1981. Environmentalism. London, UK. Pion Limited. appraisal and policy

×