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ESS Topic 5.6 Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone

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This is a quick summary of the major points in the IBDP Environmental Systems and Societies Topic 5 on Pollution Management, specifically 5.6 Ozone Depletion.

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ESS Topic 5.6 Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone

  1. 1. Depletion ofStratosphe IBDP EnvironmentalSystems and Societies - SL Topic 5.6 http://www.physicscentral.com
  2. 2. 5.6.1 Outline the overall structure andcomposition of the atmosphere.Troposphere:0-12km highall weather herehigher = colderStratosphere:12-50km highjet stream herecontains ozone layerhigher = warmer Image source:Outer layers: csep10.phys.utk.eduMesosphere: 50-80km high; meteor showersIonosphere: auroras here; reflect radio waves forcommunication
  3. 3. 5.6.1 Outline the overall structure andcomposition of the atmosphere.
  4. 4. 5.6.1 Outline the overall structure andcomposition of the atmosphere.
  5. 5. 5.6.1 Outline the overall structure andcomposition of the atmosphere.A closer look atthe processeswithin theNote theinteraction ofhuman andWhere dopeople live andbreathe in thisimage? Image source: oceanworld.tamu.edu
  6. 6. 5.6.2 Describe the role of ozone in theabsorption of ultraviolet radiation.How ozone isformed:energy fromincoming UV light Image source: http://ozone.meteo.be
  7. 7. 5.6.2 Describe the role of ozone in theabsorption of ultraviolet radiation.How ozone isformed:energy fromincoming UV lightWhen ozone is splitinto O2 and atomicO, that processMore ozone = more Image source: http://ozone.meteo.beUV absorbed Image source: http://www.meteor.iastate.edu
  8. 8. 5.6.2 Describe the role of ozone in theabsorption of ultraviolet radiation. 3 Kinds of UV radiation: UVa: wrinkles UVb: skin cancer Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org
  9. 9. 5.6.2 Describe the role of ozone in theabsorption of ultraviolet radiation. 3 Kinds of UV radiation: UVa: wrinkles UVb: skin cancer Which kind of UV light is absorbed least by stratospheric ozone? Which kind of UV light Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org is absorbed most by stratospheric ozone?Based on this pattern, whatconsequences could weexpect if stratospheric
  10. 10. 5.6.3 Explain the interaction betweenozone and halogenated organic gases.HOGHOGs: Halogenated OrganicHalogens Organic: Gases:: highly carbon- quicklyreactive based movingGroup 7 moleculeelements sHOGs: quickly moving,highly-reactive carbon-based molecules
  11. 11. 5.6.3 Explain the interaction betweenozone and halogenated organic gases.HOGHOGs: quickly moving,highly-reactive carbon-based ChloroFluoroCarbonsCFCs: molecules Image source: http://www.dynamicscience.com.auChloro: Fluoro: Carbon:chlorine fluorine organic!(a (also a CFChalogen) halogen) s = HOG s!
  12. 12. 5.6.3 Explain the interaction betweenozone and halogenated organic gases.HOGs: Halogenated CFCs: Image source: http://www.theozonehole.com
  13. 13. 5.6.4 State the effects of ultravioletradiation on living tissues andRemember this?UVa: wrinklesUVb: skin cancerUVc: damages organs/
  14. 14. 5.6.4 State the effects of ultravioletradiation on living tissues andRemember this?UVa: wrinklesUVb: skin cancerUVc: damages organs/ Image source: http:// hardinmd.lib.uiowa.edu
  15. 15. 5.6.4 State the effects of ultravioletradiation on living tissues andRemember this?UVa: wrinklesUVb: skin cancerUVc: damages organs/reacts with melanin inskin: sunburn & skincancerdegrades immune Image source: http:// hardinmd.lib.uiowa.edusystemproduces vitamin D(good)interferes withphotosynthesis (esp.
  16. 16. 5.6.5 Describe three methods ofreducing the manufacture and releaseof ozone-depleting substances. 1.gas-blown plastics3-tiered (styrofoam) outTier 1: Replace 2.CFC’s → CO2, propane,Tier 2: Regulate or air 3.aerosol propellants →Tier 3: Restore non-aerosols 4.methylbromide pesticides → something other than GHG’s 5.don’t use aerosol hair products or deodorant: use alternatives (gel, mousse, roll-ons)
  17. 17. 5.6.5 Describe three methods ofreducing the manufacture and releaseof ozone-depleting substances. CFCs 1.recover/recycle3-tiered from refrigerators and ACsTier 1: Replace 2.HCFC’s better becauseTier 2: Regulate they don’t last as long,Tier 3: Restore but still harmful to the ozone layer (just less so than CFC’s) 3.legislate to return refrigerators to manufacturer to recover materials 4.capture CFC’s from scrap cars and AC units
  18. 18. 5.6.5 Describe three methods ofreducing the manufacture and releaseof ozone-depleting substances. 1.remove chlorine from3-tiered the stratosphere or addTier 1: Replace ozone (not exactlyTier 2: Regulate feasible!)Tier 3: Restore 2.ozone layer is slowly replenishing itself as long as we continue the ban (see below)
  19. 19. 5.6.6 Describe and evaluate the role ofnational and internationalorganizations in reducing theMontreal Protocol (1987) Positives?international agreement international agreementfroze production + use of it worked!CFC’s LEDCs more timeLEDCs granted more time successful cooperativeto implement the treaty effortChina + India have not Negatives?met quotas China + India still notprime example of a compliantsuccessful international limits could have beencooperative effort to alter strongerhuman impact on the
  20. 20. 5.6.6 Describe and evaluate the role ofnational and internationalorganizations in reducing theUNEP (United Nations Positives?Environment Program) international agreementITIHC (International Trade policy based onin Harmful Chemicals) scientific dataforges rules on… air pollution contamination of Negatives? international enforceability: waterways recommendations onlyprovides information to not much more than acountries and public on think tank/windowdisadvantages of pollution dressing

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