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  1. 1. Importance of Communication <ul><li>The five most important skills recruiters look for when hiring college and university students. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#5 – Teamwork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#4 – Critical thinking & leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#3 – Interpersonal/social </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#2 – Computer literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#1 – Oral and written communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Learning Objectives slide 1 of 2 <ul><li>Explain the role of communication in the organization and why it is so complex for managers to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Define communication and explain how to achieve high-quality communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the components of the communications process. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the primary categories of interpersonal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the role of technological communication and information use in the workplace. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives slide 2 of 2 <ul><li>Address the primary reasons why managers communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the barriers that interfere with effective communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the types of formal communication channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the principles for effective feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Specify the guidelines for becoming a good listener. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communication Complexity <ul><li>Communication is complicated and dynamic with many factors influencing its effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senders, messages, channels, and receivers do not remain constant or static. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even a simple two-person interactions involving multiple variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is symbolic with the meaning of most of our words and signs changing over time. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Communication Defined <ul><li>Communication stems from the Latin root word communicare , which means “to make common.” </li></ul><ul><li>A process in which one person or group evokes an identical meaning in a second person or group. </li></ul><ul><li>Defining communication is relatively simple, but achieving high-quality communication is both complicated and difficult. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Communication Process Components Context /Sender
  7. 7. Social Context and Sender <ul><li>Social Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The setting in which the communication takes place. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sender initiates the communication process by encoding his or her meaning and sending the message through a channel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding translates the sender’s ideas into a systematic set of symbols or a language expressing the communicator’s purpose. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Communication Process Components Message/Channel
  9. 9. Messages and Channel <ul><li>Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tangible forms of coded symbols that are intended to give a particular meaning to the information or data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The carrier of the message or the means by which the message is sent. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Communication Process Components Receiver/Feedback
  11. 11. Receiver and Feedback <ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The receiving person or group must make sense of the information received. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding the translation of received messages into interpreted meanings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of verifying messages and the receiver’s attempts to ensure that the message he or she decoded is what the sender really meant to convey. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Communication Process Components Noise
  13. 13. Noise <ul><li>Any internal or external interference or distraction with the intended message that can cause distortion in the sending and receiving of messages. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interpersonal Communication Categories <ul><li>Oral Communication ……. </li></ul><ul><li>Written Communication …… </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Communication ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Communication………… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Oral and Written Communication <ul><li>Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All forms of spoken information; by far the most preferred type of communication used by managers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters, memos, policy manuals, reports, forms, and other documents used to share information in an organization. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Kinesic behavior, or body motion, such as gestures, facial expressions, and eye behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics, such as body shape, physique, posture, height, and weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage, such as voice quality, speech rate, pitch, and laughing. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment, such as building and room design, furniture, light, noise, and cleanliness. </li></ul><ul><li>Time, such as being late or early, keeping others waiting. </li></ul><ul><li>Proxemics, such as the way people perceive space, seating arrangements, and conversational distance. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Technological Communication <ul><li>Telecommuting or “telework” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The practice of working at a remote site by using a computer linked to a central office or other employment location. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic mail (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending messages through computerized text-processing and communication networks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An umbrella term for technologies that use live video to unite widely dispersed company operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially, “everything” can be done on the internet. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Why Managers Communicate <ul><li>To motivate </li></ul><ul><li>To inform </li></ul><ul><li>To control </li></ul><ul><li>To satisfy social needs </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sources of Communication Barriers <ul><li>Cross-cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Trust and credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul><ul><li>Language characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors </li></ul>
  20. 20. Communication Channels <ul><li>Formal Communication Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal communication follows the chain of command and is recognized as official. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direction of Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One way to view formal communication within organizations is to examine how it flows - vertically and horizontally.………… </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Formal Communication Flows
  22. 22. Spontaneous Communication Channels <ul><li>Opportunistic and informal paths for communication that arise from the social relationships that evolve in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The Grapevine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An informal method of transmitting information depicted as the wandering of messages throughout the organization </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Communication Competency Challenges <ul><li>Expect to be misunderstood by at least some listeners and readers. </li></ul><ul><li>Expect to misunderstand others. </li></ul><ul><li>Strive to reduce the degree of such misunderstandings, but never expect total elimination of them or the ability to anticipate all possible outcomes. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Principles of Effective Feedback <ul><li>Give feedback that is specific rather than general. </li></ul><ul><li>Give feedback when the receiver appears ready to accept it. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus feedback on behavior rather than the person, and focus it on behavior that can be changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback using descriptive information about what the person said or did. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid feedback using evaluative inferences about motives, intent, or feelings. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Advanced Listening Skills <ul><li>Listen for message content. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sensitive to both the nonverbal and the verbal content of messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect back to the sender, in your own words, what you think you are hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Be attentive and listen to understand, not to reply. </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient. Don’t interrupt the speaker. Take time to digest what has been said before responding. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Implications for Leaders: Communication Points slide 1 of 2 <ul><li>You spend most of your time at work communicating. </li></ul><ul><li>Your success is based on strong communication skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is becoming increasingly important in view of recent trends, such as increased globalization, diversity, and workplace specialization. </li></ul>