1. Office Automation:
These are labour saving devices. All factories have offices.
The offices concentrate on mental work. It is an age of
mechanisation. Nowadays, machineries have replaced
workmen in factories.
Advantages of employing machines in an office
1. They are labour saving devices
2. They work at a great speed with little error.
2. Objectives of Introducing Machines:
Machineries do work at ``` great speed.
Mechanization involves capital
Machines wont complain of fatigue.
Work that is complained as monotonous by workers can be carried Work that is complained as monotonous by workers can be carried
out well by machines.
There is accuracy.
1. Work can be done at a greater speed
2. It is labour saving thus labour cost saving.
3. 3.Idle time is reduced.
4.Standardisation is possible.
5. The information stored and produced by machines are accurate.
6. The computer records enormous information in discs.
7. No overtime pages have to paid.
8. Quality of work is also enhanced.
9. It is easy to control machines than controlling men.
10. It is said that a machine will replace three men
1. Mechanization will lead to termination of employment.
2. Machines are not flexible
3. Machines have to properly maintained involving overheads3. Machines have to properly maintained involving overheads
4. Office machine may not be used to its fullest
5. When machineries are big they need extra space
6. Machines cannot adopt itself to changes.
5. Factors to consider before purchasing a machine:
1. Cost – an investment decision is always based on cost-benefit
2. Utility of machinery- the office shall never purchase a machinery
which it can never be use.
3. Availability of spare parts – it has to be seen that the spare parts3. Availability of spare parts – it has to be seen that the spare parts
must be available in the local market.
4. Operating cost – machine cost should be minimum
5. Electricity consumption- electricity consumption / hour must also
6. 6. Size of the machine- big sized machineries will occupy more space
leading to congestion.
7. Life of the machine- the life of the machinery is also to be
considered. It must be durable
8. Easy to handle- the machinery shall not involve more complex
9. Appearance – the style of the machinery also adds beauty to an9. Appearance – the style of the machinery also adds beauty to an
7. OFFICE EQUIPMENT LEASES:
Advantages of Leasing
1. Efficient use of funds- leasing arrangement allow the lessee to
acquire the use of the asset without having to own it.
2. Cheaper source- leasing as a mode of financing for the use of
office machines/equipments, is found to be less expensive asoffice machines/equipments, is found to be less expensive as
compared to other modes such as the buying option.
3. Enhanced borrowing capacity- leasing is considered
advantageous to the lessee since it helps enhance the ability to
borrow in a diversified way.
8. 4. Tax benefit – the extent of benefit that would be derived by
owning an asset.
5. Guards against obsolescence- always possible for the lessee to
terminate the existing lease arrangement anytime.
Disadvantages of LeasingDisadvantages of Leasing
1. Unfavorable terms
2. Rental money on outdated equipment
3. Poor quality
9. Machines used in an office:
A. Machines for Communication
Typewriter - most common machines used by offices in India.
1. Electronic typewriter- it is leather touch. The operator need not1. Electronic typewriter- it is leather touch. The operator need not
2. Variables type machines- the style, size of the letters can be
adjusted like that of in a computer
3. Silent typewriter- noise proof
4. Portable typewriter- light in weight and portable like personal
10. Device for oral communication:
1. Telephone – it facilitate direct communication, company and
costumer can talk directly
2. Headsets- it must be compatible with the company current phone
3. Cellular phones- cell phones are now used everywhere by everyone3. Cellular phones- cell phones are now used everywhere by everyone
4. Private branch exchange- system fills the needs of the largest
5. Intercom- it is also a telephone with extension to various
6. Dictaphones – these are dictating machines
11. 4 Types of Dictating machines:
1. Electronic type
2. Disc type
3. Cylinder type
4. Acoustic cylinder type
Dictaphones require two machine
1. Dictating machines
2. Transcription machine
7. Recording and digital equipment- tape machines now come with
special features such as capability to screen out background
12. 8. Telephone with voicemail- a special arrangement is made to the
telephone. Whenever the receiver of the message is away the
telephone will record the message and the telephone number of the
caller to be heard later by the receiver of the message.caller to be heard later by the receiver of the message.
9. Projectors – computers can produced amazing presentation with
colours, graphics, sounds and animation.
13. C. Duplicating Machines
When more than one copy of letter or document is required duplicating
machines are used.
Types of Duplicating Machines
1. Spirit duplicator (Hectograph)- make copies of matter typewritten
and handwritten including drawingsand handwritten including drawings
2. Stencil duplicator or Mimeograph-a stencil is a cut on typewriter or
by hand. Special stencil sheet and pen are used for cutting the
stencil by hand. The pen creates impression of the letters on the
14. 3. Electronic stencil duplicator- is the latest innovation, the master
sheets are electronically scanned.
4. Photocopying machine- it is used when exact copy of any material
printed/written is required.
D. Machines for Accounting MethodD. Machines for Accounting Method
1. Calculator – useful for adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing or
doing arithmetical operations.
2. Accounting machines- these are like typewriters. They are used for
15. 3. Bookkeeping machine – with the help of books, machines, account
books and final accounts are prepared. There are no mistake such as
error of omission. Commission etc.
E. Machines for Handling Cash
1. Cash register-it is a device for recording and checking cash receipts1. Cash register-it is a device for recording and checking cash receipts
2. Coin Counter- this machine counts the coin.
3. Cheque protector-cheque writing machines- the machine writes the
amount , does crossing etc… on the surface of the cheque.
16. 4. Fake note detector- it is a box like machine. It is used to detect good
notes from fake currency notes.
5. Currency Sorting Machines- multifunctional parallel working desktop
banknote processing system for counting and sorting of mixed
bundles of notes by currency, denomination, orientation and
suspected counterfeits.suspected counterfeits.
Other Office Machines
1. Addressing Machine –it is used to print the address on envelopes,
labels, postcards, wage sheet, invoices, notices, dividends and
17. Three type of addressing machine:
Metal plate machine – the addresses are stenciled or embossed on a
Film stencil machine – film stencil machine uses a film stencil
mounted in a cardboard frame.
Spirit master process addressing machine- these machine work on
the same principle as the spirit duplicators
2. Letter openers
It is a machine having a revolving knife edge which can cut open
envelop at a great speed.
18. 3. Franking machine- these are used to affix stamps on the envelops.
Where there are hundreds of outgoing letters, franking machines are
4. Paper folding machine- these are used by large business houses to
fold papers, circulars, documents, etc..
5. envelope-sealing machine- this machine automatically seals the5. envelope-sealing machine- this machine automatically seals the
6. Time recording clock- it records the time of entry or exit of worker by
inserting a card in the machine.
7. Card punching machine- they are used in invoicing, calculating wages,
stocks control, budgeting etc.
19. Computers :
Computers have also replaced many types of machinery hitherto used
in offices such as calculators, adding machine, punched card
Given the amount of documentation created in business, a printer is theGiven the amount of documentation created in business, a printer is the
most necessary piece of equipment needed next to the computer.
Following points are to be considered before choosing a printer
1. Printing speed- this is the number of pages the printer can print
out per minute.
20. 2. Paper tray capacity – a capacity of up to 250 pages in one tray is
adequate for some and not for others.
3. Black and white versus colour – graphic artist and people involved in
marketing communications probably have a regular need for colour
A scanner is a device that can read text and graphics. A copy of the
scanned image is stored on magnetic media as it simultaneously
reproduces on a monitor.
21. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
This device contains a large battery and circuitry.
When the circuitry detects a surge or spike, it switches the computer
from AC to DC power.
Value added data communication servicesValue added data communication services
The communications software handles logging on and off the
communications network, dialing, saving messages and sending or
receiving information from a central computer.
1. E-mail- is becoming a necessity for many of todays businesses.
22. 2. Electronic Data Interchange(EDI)
A worldwide movement, is the computer-to-computer exchange of
3. Fax machines- are installed with telephone connections at both end
(sending end and receiving end)the document paper is inserted(sending end and receiving end)the document paper is inserted
into the machine.
4. Telex- it is an improved version of the electro-mechanical teleprinter.
Telex machines have to be registered with the public telex
exchange operated by Telecommunications Department.
23. 5. High speed digital duplicators
This new Risograph offers proprietary technologies to achieve
outstanding results with the speed and ease.
6. Cheque encoders
Specially designed for high volume cheque processingSpecially designed for high volume cheque processing
7. Table top reader sorter
Reading and sorting of all encoded bank items
Processing of medical prescriptions
24. 8. Signature imprinting machines- is an automatic signature printing
machine used for signing cheques, documents etc. when the
volume is high.
9. Table top cheque scanner- designed for banking documents
processing MICR, OCR, barcode reading, endorsing , front and rear
10. Network document scanner for cheque processing- on board
image compression for a faster transmission to the computer
25. 11. Digital electronic safe
Safety lockers can be kept as table top.
Ideal for storage of cas, documents etc..
Electronically operated with master code and password.
12. Multitier storage- these systems are highly versatile and modular
in nature and can be configured anytime to your changing needs.in nature and can be configured anytime to your changing needs.
13. Drawing file cabinet- designed specifically to store A1 to A5 sized
safely and systematically.
14. Vertical drawing storage- designed specifically for filing & storing
architectural plans, construction drawings, blueprints, engineering
drawings, charts, maps, arts graphics and other organized sheets.