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Soccer nutrition

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Soccer nutrition

  1. 1. Optimizing Soccer PerformanceThrough NutritionBrendan Mc Manus M.Ed1
  2. 2. Performance Goals• Improve performance forcareer productivity• Decrease injury potential for career longevity• Maintain education to improve your strategy forsuccess• Work your strategy to attain your goals2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Recognizing the Type of Fatigue1. Metabolic:demanding training session (>1hr), several sessions aday or successive days, cumulative if nutritional and hydration strategiesare inadequate.2. Psychological:cause varied, usually through loss in self-confidence, self-esteem, change in attitude and behavior towardsothers.3. Neurological:result from short HI sessions, strength work andplyometrics.4. Environmental: due to travelling or changing climate –disruptions in biological patterns, change in timezones, inconsistent wake up times, changing meal times, disturbedsleep patterns.4
  5. 5. Defining Optimal NutritionWhat are the most important nutritionaloutcome categories?1. Health: Blood Lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure, liver function,blood hormones.2. Body Composition: Body mass, lean mass, fat mass.3. Performance: Muscular strength, power, anaerobic & aerobiccapacity.5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Breaking Down Nutrition“Nutrition can make agood athlete great, or agreat athlete good.”7
  8. 8. Do athletes want to be educated?According to a study by Athletes Performance:90.6% of athletes responded yes to:“Does your knowledge of nutrition affect what you eat?”91.7% of athletes agreed with:“Learning facts about nutrition is the best way to achieve favorable changes infood habits”61.7% of athletes indicated an increased interest innutrition over the course of the previous yearsince the study.8
  9. 9. Stages of ChangeThinkingabout itPreparing foractionTakingActionMaintaininga goodthing for lifeNot ready yet!The best science means nothing……….If they DON’T CHANGE BEHAVIORRelapsing or slidingbackwards is not unusual9
  10. 10. Everyday Nutrition/Hydration: The foundation to performance nutritionFuel/FluidPerformance NutritionTimingRecoveryisalimitingfactortoperformance:Training&RecoveryGameDay:Stayingfueledandhydratedoptimizesperformance10
  11. 11. Breaking Down PerformanceNutritionVs.11
  12. 12. Nutrition PeriodizationYear Round Nutritional PrinciplesMacrocycle Preparation Competition TransitionMesocyleMacronutrient & Fluid quantityGeneral & Specific eatingGuidelines-quality & typesWeightmanagement &varietyMicrocycleDaily macronutrients & fluid needs &recovery nutritionCalorie Control12
  13. 13. Nutrition for Intermittent High-Intensity SportsEnergy Systems Used• Train to improve endurance along with musclestrength and conditioning• Anaerobic and aerobic systems are taxed• 150-250 short bursts of activityDuration (secs) Anaerobic (%) Aerobic (%)30 80 2060-90 45 55120-180 30 7013
  14. 14. Game is averaged at 70% of V02 MaxMuscle EnergyPathwayDuration of Activity Type of Activity (%MHR)ImmediateATP in musclesATP+PCrATP+PCr+Muscle Glycogen1-6 sec7-20 sec20-45 secSurges and sprints(>80-90)Short-TermMuscle GlycogenMuscle Glycogen +Lactic Acid45-120 sec120-180 secModerate Intensityrunning(70-79)Long-TermMuscle Glycogen +Free Fatty Acids>30 minLimited by OxygenLow-moderate-intensity running(<69)14
  15. 15. Soccer Specific DemandsOptimal performance in soccer demandsoptimal fuel and hydration• Field players:5-7 miles per 90 min game• Drains energy stores (glycogen) and breaks down muscleprotein.• The intermittent (stop & go) nature of soccer often impairsperformance towards the end of competition and afterperiods of intense effort.• Soccer players lose an average of 1.5L of fluid over the courseof a game.15
  16. 16. What does this mean to the soccerplayer?• Under-Fueled: Soccer players who don’t eat enough tendto cover less ground in the second half.• Optimally Fueled: Soccer players who follow nutritionalguidelines are able to perform 33% more HI running duringgames and practices.• Dehydrated: Soccer players who are even slightlydehydrated experience– Slower running speeds– Deteriorated dribbling skills– “Training and play seemed harder”16
  17. 17. Soccer Game - Running Work andDistanceWalkingDefenders 0.62 mileMidfielders 1.62 milesAttackers 2.11 milesVerheijen (1998)17
  18. 18. Soccer Game - Running Work andDistanceJoggingDefenders 1.2 milesMidfielders3.2 milesAttackers1.2 milesVerheijen (1998)18
  19. 19. Soccer Game - Running Work andDistanceRunningDefenders 0.9 mileMidfielders1.1 milesAttackers1 mileVerheijen (1998)19
  20. 20. Soccer Game - Running Work andDistanceSprintingDefenders 0.87 mileMidfielders0.64 mileAttackers1.1 milesVerheijen (1998)20
  21. 21. Soccer Game - Running Work andDistanceTotal DistanceDefenders5.2 milesMidfielders6.8 milesAttackers6.1 milesVerheijen (1998)21
  22. 22. Summary of Soccer Game RunningWork and DistancePosition Walking Jogging Running SprintingTotalDistanceDefenders 0.62 1.2 0.9 0.87 5.2Midfielders 1.62 3.2 1.1 0.64 6.8Attackers 2.11 1.2 1 1.1 6.1Data from “Conditioning for Soccer” – Raymond Verheijen (1998)22
  23. 23. Soccer Game - Sprint Work OverVarious DistancesTotal Number of Sprints between 1-5 YardsDefenders 83 (51%)Midfielders70 (55%)Attackers76 (42%)Data from “Conditioning for Soccer” – Raymond Verheijen (1998)23
  24. 24. Soccer Game - Sprint Work OverVarious DistancesTotal Number of Sprints between 5-10 YardsDefenders 47 (29%)Midfielders31 (24%)Attackers59 (32%)Data from “Conditioning for Soccer” – Raymond Verheijen (1998)24
  25. 25. Soccer Game - Sprint Work OverVarious DistancesTotal Number of Sprints between 10-20 YardsDefenders 18 (11%)Midfielders11 (9%)Attackers28 (15%)Data from “Conditioning for Soccer” – Raymond Verheijen (1998)25
  26. 26. Soccer Game - Sprint Work OverVarious DistancesTotal Number of Sprints between 20-30 YardsDefenders8 (5%)Midfielders6 (5%)Attackers14 (8%)Data from “Conditioning for Soccer” – Raymond Verheijen (1998)26
  27. 27. Soccer Game - Sprint Work OverVarious DistancesTotal Number of Sprints between 30-40 YardsDefenders 4 (3%)Midfielders6 (5%)Attackers4 (2%)Data from “Conditioning for Soccer” – Raymond Verheijen (1998)27
  28. 28. Soccer Game - Sprint Work OverVarious DistancesTotal Number of Sprints between 40+ YardsDefenders2 (1%)Midfielders3 (2%)Attackers2 (1%)Data from “Conditioning for Soccer” – Raymond Verheijen (1998)28
  29. 29. Summary of Soccer Game Sprint WorkPosition 5-10 yard 10-20 yard 20-30 yard 30-40 yard 40+ yardDefenders 47 18 8 4 2Midfielders 31 11 6 6 3Attackers 59 28 14 4 2Data from “Conditioning for Soccer” – Raymond Verheijen (1998)29
  30. 30. Energy Expenditure Vs. IntakeTraining Day (German Football Club, 2006)• Energy Expenditure = 3,859+ 823 kcal/day• Energy Intake = 2,780 + 823 kcal/day• CHO Expenditure = 444.57 + 18.2 g/day• CHO Intake = 327.00 + 168.3 g/day30
  31. 31. Energy Expenditure Vs. IntakeMatch Day (German Football Club, 2006)• Energy Expenditure = 5,021 + 1,269 kcal/day• Energy Intake = 2,809 + 1,178 kcal/day• CHO Expenditure = 663.93 + 338.57 g/day• CHO Intake = 318.62 + 132.87 g/day• Energy expenditure was significantly higher during thesecond half (717kcal) vs. the first half (622 kcal)• CHO expenditure was significantly higher during thesecond half (152g) vs. the first half (125g).31
  32. 32. Energy Expenditure Vs. IntakeRest Day (German Football Club, 2006)• Energy Expenditure = 2,985 + 434 kcal/day• Energy Intake = 2,485 + 857 kcal/day• No significant difference between CHO intakeand expenditure32
  33. 33. Energy Expenditure Vs. Intake• Every players basal metabolic rates are different• Men: BMR = 66 + ( 6.23 x weight in pounds ) + (12.7 x height in inches ) - ( 6.8 x age in year )• Women: BMR = 655 + ( 4.35 x weight in pounds )+ ( 4.7 x height in inches ) - ( 4.7 x age in years )• Male Example = 66 + ( 6.23 x weight in pounds165 ) + ( 12.7 x height in inches 68 ) - ( 6.8 x age inyear 25 ) = 1787.55x 1.725 (Harris Benedictformula) = 308333
  34. 34. Nutritional RecommendationsWhere dotheymatch up?CarbohydrateProteinFatRecoveryVitaminsMineralsWater34
  35. 35. Nutritional RecommendationsCarbohydrate• Normal Day = 6g/kg/d• During Training & Competition = 8-10g/kg/dProtein• 1.4-2.2 g/kg/dFat• ~1g/kg/d (focus on healthy fats)Example• A male soccer player weighing 75 kg should therefore have:– Carbohydrate: 600 – 750g– Protein: 105 – 165g– Fat: 75g35
  36. 36. Energy Expenditure Vs. IntakeUS Professional Soccer Club (2007)• 6 players of similar size and energy needsNutrient Intake NeedsEnergy (Kcal) 2617 3500Carbohydrate (g) 333.9 5g/kg= 443.2 (51% Kcal)Dietary Fiber (g) 31.0 25-35 for healthProtein (g) 129.9 1.4g/kg = 124Fat (g) 66.7 n/aSat Fat (g) 18.7 n/a36
  37. 37. CarbohydratesWhat are they?• Carbohydrates = FuelHow much do you need?• 5-7g/kg/d• 8-10g/kg/d during high intensity training/match play• Cutting body fat: watch out for cutting too much carb.What do they do for your performance?• A 70kg player can lose 100-200g of glycogen during a match (300-400gstorage capacity, MacLaren, 2003)• Decreased glycogen is a major reason for fatigue at the end of a game.37
  38. 38. CarbohydratesResearch: High Carb Vs. Normal Carb Diet forintermittent exercise• High-carbohydrate diet allowed the subjects to improve theirintermittent recovery timesby 3.3 min, nearly 20%.• Evidence suggests increasing the consumption of dietarycarbohydrate can enhance performance of endurance activities andsports that involve intermittent running at various intensities.• Many soccer players - males and females, at all levels of competition– continue to consume too little carbohydrate in their diets (RicoSanz et al. 1998).38
  39. 39. Carbohydrates• Not enough Carbohydrates in the diet =decrease in performance.• You don’t need to stock up on onlycarbohydrate rich foods, but they should be~60% of total caloric intake.• Fuel your body according to the size of yourgas tank. The more you train and the biggeryou are the larger your fuel and carbohydrateneeds.39
  40. 40. CarbohydratesFiber is a type of carbohydrate that is vital toyour health.• Average fiber consumption = 11-13g/d• Recommended consumption = 25-35g/d• Foods that contain a lot of fiber include– Fruits & Vegetables (5-9 servings a day)– Whole grains– Oats– Supplements40
  41. 41. Carbohydrates• Mean serum insulin levels after 30 minutes ofingestion. 60g of carbohydrates as apples, applepuree, and apple juice. (Heaton, 1978).• This shows the effect of fiber in reducing the amountof insulin released into the blood.Form Insulin (mu/l)Apple 23Apple Puree 32Apple Juice 4441
  42. 42. ProteinWhat are they?• Important structural elements of cells, hormones and enzymes.How much do you need?• Ensuring you get enough protein in your diet each day helps preventthe body from breaking down it’s muscle.• Consume about 1g per pound of lean body mass (1.4-2.2g/kg bodyweightWhat do they do for your performance?• Protein is critical in building and maintaining muscle; andstrengthening the immune system.• Protein is only useful if you consume enough Carbs to provide thebody with energy.42
  43. 43. Protein – Kent University StudyPurpose: To discover the amount of dietary proteinnecessary for protein synthesis.• 3 variables, both sedentary and strength traininggroups– Low protein diet (0.4g/kg BW)– Medium protein diet (0.9g/kg BW)– High protein diet (1.2g/kg BW)Results: Protein synthesis was observed in themedium and high groups. However, the 0.9g/kggroup did not see any more increased proteinsynthesis than the 1.2g group.43
  44. 44. Protein & Vegetarianism• By combining protein sources, a vegetarianwho consumes no animal by products can beassured of getting all of the amino acidsneeded.• Legumes can be combined with foods madewith grains or nuts/seeds.• E.g. A meal of baked beans, wheatbread, or, bean burrito and a corn tortilla willprovide all the amino acids your body needs.44
  45. 45. FatWhat are they?• Lipids are a structurally diverse group of organic moleculesthat are insoluble in water.Why are they important?• Structural components of cells and important energy richmolecules that serve as storage depots.What do they do for your performance?• During high intensity exercise fat is needed to help accessthe stored carbohydrate (glycogen).• Repair cells• Regulate blood sugar and glycemic response• Aids cognitive ability, mental clarity, memory retention.45
  46. 46. Beneficial Vs. Non-Beneficial Fats• Healthy behavior options– Eliminate: cut out completely– Substitute: e.g. mustard for mayo– Decrease frequency: 2x/week to 1x/week– Decrease Amount: 2tbsp to 1tbspUnsaturated Fats Saturated FatsNuts & Seeds ButterFish/Fish Oil MayonnaiseOlive Oil Most Salad DressingsFlaxseed Oil Partially Hydrated Vegetable Oils (Trans fat)46
  47. 47. Omega Fatty Acids• Omega-3 and-6 must be obtained from yourdiet (essential fatty acids).• They are polyunsaturated fats that may helpto lower cholesterol and improve your hearthealth.• The modern western diet involves too muchomega-6 and too little omega-347
  48. 48. Omega-6Pro-Inflammatory fats• Produce arachidonic acid leading to increasesin pro-inflammatory chemicalssuch asprostaglandins and leukotrienes• Sources include corn, fried foods & vegetableoils• Reduce intake48
  49. 49. Omega-6: Uncontrolled BG & Insulin49
  50. 50. Omega-3Anti-inflammatory fats• Decrease production of AA and pro-inflammatorychemicals• Increase nitric oxide and other anti-inflammatoryagentsOmega-3 Deficiency• Single most widespread essential nutrient deficiency(95-99% of population)• Increased consumption improves virtually all majordiseases and inflammatory condition• Take 3-6g of flax seed oil daily50
  51. 51. Fat Soluble VitaminsFatSolubleVitaminsMajor Dietary Sources Major Functions Signs of severe,prolonged deficiencyA Fat-containing andfortified diaryproducts; liver; orangeand deep green fruits& vegetablesHelps make whiteblood cells for fightinginfection; repair micro-tears.Night blindness;permanent blindness,scaling skin,susceptibility toinfectionD Fortified and full fatdiary products, eggyolkPromotes absorptionand use of calcium andphosphorusRickets (bonedeformities),osteomalacia (bonesoftening).E Vegetable oils, nuts,seedsPrevent cell membranedamagePossible Anemia;neurologic effectsK Green Vegetables; tea Aids in formation ofproteins crucial forblood clottingDefective bloodcoagulation causingsevere bleeding orinjury 51
  52. 52. Water Soluble VitaminsWater SolubleVitaminsMajor DietarySourcesMajor FunctionsSigns of severe,prolongeddeficiencyB-2 (Riboflavin)Diary products,meats, eggs, greenleafy vegetablesCoenzyme used inenergy metabolismSkin LesionsNiacin Nuts, meats PellagraB-6High protein foods ingeneralCoenzyme used inamino acidmetabolismNervous, skin,muscular disorders;anemiaFolic AcidGreen vegetables,orange juice, nuts,legumes, grainsCoenzyme used inDNA & RNAmetabolismMegablasticanemia; GIdisturbances;nervous systemdamageB12 Animal productsPantothenic AcidAnimal products,grainsCoenzyme used inenergy metabolismFatigue, numbness52
  53. 53. Water Soluble VitaminsWater SolubleVitaminsMajor Dietary Sources Major FunctionsSigns of severe,prolonged deficiencyBiotinWidely distributed infoodsCoenzyme used inenergy metabolismScaly DermatitisC (AscorbicAcid)Broccoli, cabbage,cantaloupe,cauliflower, citrusfruits, green pepper,kiwi fruit, strawberriesSynthesis ofcollagen;antioxidant; aids indetoxification;improvesabsorption of iron;facilitates healingprocessesScurvy; weakness;delayed woundhealing; impairedimmune response53
  54. 54. Major MineralsMajorMineralsMajor Dietary Sources Major FunctionsSigns of severe,prolonged deficiencyCalciumMilk, cheese, dark greenvegetables, legumesBone &toothformation, bloodclotting; nervetransmissionStunted growth; lessbone massPhosphorusMilk, cheese, meat,poultry, whole grainBone & toothformation, acid-basebalance, coenzymesWeakness;demineralization ofbonesMagnesiumWhole grains, green leafyvegetablesComponent ofenzymesNeurologicdisturbancesSodiumSalt, soy sauce, curedmeats, pickles, soups Body water balance,nerve functionMuscle cramps;reduced appetitePotassiumMeats, milk, fruit &vegetables, whole grainsMuscular weakness,paralysisChlorideSame as sodium Acid-base balance,formation of gastricjuiceMuscle cramps;reduced appetite,poor growth54
  55. 55. Trace MineralsTrace MineralsMajor DietarySourcesMajor FunctionsSigns of severe,prolongeddeficiencyIron Meats, eggs,legumes, wholegrains, green leafyvegetablesComponent ofhemoglobin,myoglobin&enzymesIron-deficiencyanemia; weakness;impaired immunefunctionIodine Marine fish &shellfish; diaryproducts; iodizedsalt; some breadsComponent ofThyroid hormonesGoiter (enlargedthyroid)Fluoride Drinking water, tea,seafoodMaintenance oftooth/bonestructureHigher frequency oftooth decay (gumdisease iscorrelated withheart disease)55
  56. 56. Label Readings Serving Size:The serving size is usually given inhousehold measurements such ascups. It is then followed by its metricequivalent.Servings per Container:The nutrition information is based onone serving but a lot of productscontain more than one serving, sothink about how much you wouldreally eat when choosing a product.56
  57. 57. Eating Strategy• People tend to focus more on “the diet” vs.the “components of a healthy diet”.• Optimal nutrition should focus more on thefoods that you should be eating rather thanthe foods you shouldn’t be eating• The key is to not diet, JUST EAT!!!• “Eating something is better than nothing”.57
  58. 58. Eating Strategy• Aim to eat 6 times a day (meals, snacks, any food cominginto your mouth).• Eat smaller meals more often:– To control appetite and regulate blood sugar (stay energized andalert)– Gain muscle mass– Improve concentration– Eliminate mood swings/over eating• Player should aim to eat something as soon as they wakeup to get their metabolism started. Try not to eat a lot ofcalories after 8pm.• Try to eat something every two hours to boost metabolismand promote glycogen stores, and resynthesis.58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. Barriers to SuccessWhat will keep you from attaining your goal(s)?• Poor Planning– Lack of good quality, accessible food.• Poor Implementation– Make the effort to eat– Starvation Lost Muscle Slow Metabolism(promotes body to store energy)60
  61. 61. BreakfastWhy is Breakfast Important?It IS the more important meal of the day• Think “break-the-fast”• Breakfast increases the metabolism, fuels the brain, and providesenergy• There are links with breakfast consumption and total caloric intake(Nicklas et al., 2001).What do I eat?• MUST contain protein & carbohydrates, balanced with fruit &vegetables.– Toast and Peanut Butter, Yogurt– A boiled egg & English Muffin– Fruit juices (unsweetened)– Something is better than nothing61
  62. 62. Lunch & DinnerWhy is Lunch and Dinner important?A balanced diet will provide maximum energy, build leanmass, and regulate blood sugar.What do I eat?Look for a combination of wholesome carbohydrates,lean protein with fruit &veg• Deli sandwich with mustard/side salad• Spinach salad with chicken/Egg, whole wheat roll• Burrito with light sour cream/guacamole• Can of Tuna on crackers/whole wheat bread, side ofvegetables & dip.62
  63. 63. Strategies for Success• Preparation– Prepare meals in advance– Bulk preparation (week ahead)– Well stocked refrigerator• “The will to eat right”– Fast food is easy – fight the temptation withproper planning• Take the time to eat– Do not skip meals63
  64. 64. Dietary Example 3100 kcalMeal Consists of:Breakfast2 Tbsp Peanut Butter, 1 PktKashi Instant Oatmeal, 4 egg whites, 1cup of non fat yogurt, 12 oz fruit juice.Snack 1 1 Granola Bar, 1 cup fat free yogurt, 4 pecans, 1 small apple.Lunch1 six inch whole wheat pita, 6 oz turkey lunch meat, 1 slice reducedfat cheese, 1 cup lettuce, 3 tomato slices, 1 cup chopped greenpepper, ⅛ avocado, 1 large Kiwi.PWO 1 Protein Shake, 1 small bananaDinner1 ½ cups whole wheat pasta, 6 oz chicken breast, ½ cup marinarasauce, 2 cups raw spinach, 1 tbsp olive oil, 1 tbsp balsamic vinegar,1 cup cantaloupe (cubed), 8 oz skim milkSnack 2 1 cup Oat Bran, 8 oz skim milk, ¼ cup of raisins64
  65. 65. Dietary Example – Perfect DayTime Consists of:7:00am 2 pieces of Rye Toast with PBJ, Fruit, 3 hard boiled eggs9:15am Apple with almonds, granola bar12:15pm 6 oz Turkey, 2 slices of whole wheat bread, baked chips, fruit3:00pm Pre-practice: PBJ, Milk5:00pm Chocolate Milk/Bar or Gatorade immediately after7:00pm3 cups pasta, 2 chicken breasts, red sauce, steamed veggies, Salad with lowfat dressing9:30pm 1 cup low fat yogurt mixed with cereal & fruit65
  66. 66. HydrationHow much water can I really lose?• Soccer player’s lose an average of 1.5L of fluid over the course of agame• The U.S. National Women’s team lost one average .5-9 pounds offluid per player in a match setting• 2005 University of Florida Women’s Soccer team illustrated that onaverage player’s lost 5.5 pounds in the first preseason trainingsession.What happens if I am not properly hydrated?Soccer players who are just slightly dehydrated experience:• Slower running speeds• Deteriorated dribbling skills• Training and play seem harder66
  67. 67. HydrationHow do I stay hydrated throughout the day?• Drink ½-1 oz/lb/d• 76kg athlete = 2500-5000mL/dWhat should I drink?• Water and other non-caloric beverages should be firstchoice• Avoid sodas & fruit drinks with little nutritional value• Watch out for sweet coffee drinks (caffeine overload)• Drink 100% fruit juices in moderation (eat the fruit)• Go for sports drinks, before, during, and after exercise• Keep water handy (Case, Water bottle, Brita container)67
  68. 68. Dehydration68
  69. 69. Dehydration69
  70. 70. Dehydration70
  71. 71. RehydrationWhat do I look for in a sports drink?• Carbohydrates for fuel (glucose/fructose mix)• Sodium to help your body absorb the fluid– At least 110mg of sodium per 250m– If you are a salty sweater, 180-200mg/250mLHow much do I need?• Weight yourself in and out of games and practices. Youshould weigh the same• Match fuel and fluid needs• 30-60g CHO/hour during to enhance performance• 500-1000mL of Gatorade/hour will provide the CHO71
  72. 72. Timing of HydrationResearch• When dehydrated impaired performance includes impairedlateral movement, impaired shooting by 15%, impairedsprinting.• Using a Water/Gatorade combination improved efficiencyof movement, improved shooting by 10%, and improvedsprinting by 7% (or 3 seconds faster).72
  73. 73. Recovery• Recovery starts before you begin training. It can bebroken down into 3 parts:– 1. Pre– 2. During– 3. Post• Recovery varies depending on the type of session e.g.Strength Vs. Endurance– The amount of energy depletion determines the amountof repetition required.– Timing is critical for recovery to serve its purpose– Recovery is a complete solution addressing how you brokeyour body down.73
  74. 74. Recovery SupplementsPhase Supplementation Purpose1. Pre Pre-workout shooter (CHO,Protein, Creatine, BetaAlanine).•Muscle damage can be reduced andthe decrease of muscle strengthinhibited.• During strenuous exercise the bodybegins to decompose proteins andconsume BCAA’s in order tocompensate for insufficient energysupplies.• Improved recovery times, lesssoreness and strength gains.2. During CHO & Electrolyte (dependingon duration, intensity,environment).3. Post - Post workout shakes (CHO 4g– Protein 1g)- Multi-vitamin withantioxidants & Fish Oils***When in doubt, don’t take it!!!!!!***74
  75. 75. Creatine• Willoughby & Colleagues (2009) reported that6g/day during 12 weeks of training was sufficientto promote positive changes in strength andmuscle mass.• Some athletes cycle on and off Creatine by takingloading doses of Creatine monohydrate for 3-5days every 3-4 weeks during training.• Theoretically, since it takes 4-6 weeks for elevatedCreatine levels to return to baseline, this protocolwould be effective in increasing and maintainingelevated creatine stores over time.75
  76. 76. Types of Creatine1. Creatine Monohydrate– Is creatine mixed with water (It is usually made up of 88%creatine and 12% water).– Not so effective when studied on the molecular level, it ishydrophilic meaning there is no penetration into the lipidcells or indeed muscle cells, and it requires CHO to betransported.2. Creatine Citrate– Is a product of binding citric acid with creatine molecules.Theory states that the combination of citric acid andcreatine gives relatively greater muscle energy than citrinealone. However, it is not practically proved.– 40% less creatine and more expensive than monohydrate.76
  77. 77. Types of Creatine3. Creatine Phosphate (CP)– Creatine bonded with a phosphate molecule acting as a sourceof ATP (energy).– Research shows its less effective than monohydrate and is moreexpensive.4. Creatine Ethyl Ester (CEE)– Ethyl Ester is formed by the binding of an ester molecule tocreatine.– It is more readily absorbed into the muscle cells, it requires lessdosage, and has no “bloating” effects like monohydrate.5. Creatine Hydrochloride (CrHCl)– Is a hydrochloride Salt which is 59 times more soluble in waterthan monohydrate.– It has similar benefits that are attributed to CEE.77
  78. 78. Creatine• When supplementing creatine take 5g/day with30/g of Carbohydrate.• Data suggests that creatine increases musclepower output and augments muscle adaptationsto training (Hespel et al., 2006; Terjung et al.,2000; Kreider, 2003).• Furthermore, creatine can improve repeatedsprint, jumping, ability, and agility tasks insimulated soccer match play depsite an increasein body mass (Cox et al., 2002; Mujika et al.,2000).78
  79. 79. Beta-Alanine• Is a naturally occurring beta amino acid.• Stout (2006) found that b-Alasupplementation (3.2 g·d-1) for 28 days maydelay the on-set of neuromuscular fatigue andimprove physical working capacity duringcycle ergometry.79
  80. 80. “Fatigue makes cowards of us all” –Vince LombardiDelaying fatigue is important in order to:• Improve performance– Good technical execution– Proper tactical decisions– Maintain frequency of high quality actions• Improve exercise capacity– Recover quickly between runs– Actions happening more often, maintain frequency ofactions– More time unmarked (offense), apply pressure (defense)• Augment the effects of training through greaterintensity and training volume80
  81. 81. Potential Causes of Muscle Fatigue1. Dehydration: ~ 1-2%2. Energy Depletiona) Glycogen: Moderate Exercise Intensity @ 75% V02 MAX lasting~2hrsb) Phosphocreatine: Explosive exercise ~ 15 secs3. Metabolite Accumulation from HI Exercise– Rapid use of ATP/Glycogen anaerobically leads to an increasein H+ concentration resulting in a drop in intramuscular pH(acidosis).– Metabolic acidosis interferes with the muscles contractileprocess and ability to generate ATP.– E.g. Soccer, Repeated Sprinting, Resistance training forhypertrophy gains, wrestling.81
  82. 82. Muscle Buffering Capacity• MBC is the capacity/ability to buffer or regulate H+ accumulation during HIexercise.• 1st Line of Defense– Intracellular Bicarbonate buffering system (Bicarbonate, amino acids, inorganicphosphates, creatine phosphates etc.)– Carnosine: may buffer H+ at a higher rate during HI exercise compared toBicarb system.• 2nd Line of Defense– Export of H+ out of the muscle cell– Extracellular Bicarbonate buffering system (blood pH)• MBC is related to Intracellular pH Threshold– It is the maximum exercise intensity that can be maintained without exceedingMBC.– Increasing Intracellular pH Threshold would increase MBC– Research suggests that indirect anaerobic threshold measures (Lactate &Ventilatory Thresholds) may reflect intracellular pH threshold (Marsh et al.1991).82
  83. 83. Results of Increasing MBCImprovements have been shown in:• Short (30-60 sec) to long (1-2 min) sprint performance.• Repeated sprint performance• Time to exhaustion• Peak power output• Anaerobic threshold measures– OBLA– Ventilatory Threshold– Lactate Threshold– Neuromuscular fatigue thresholdRaymer et al. (2007), Bell et al. (1988), Juel et al. (1989), Susuki et al. (2004),Edge et al. (2007, 2008), Shout et al. (2007), Hill et al. (2007) 83
  84. 84. How can we increase MBC?84
  85. 85. Increase Skeletal Muscle CarnosineContent (β-alanyl-L-histidine)• Carnosine is a di-peptide primarily found in slow and fast twitch skeletalmuscle– 2x higher in fast twitch muscle• Very effective intra-muscular H+ buffer– 15% contribution to intra-muscular buffering capacity in Type I– 40% contribution to intra-muscular buffering capacity in Type II• Carnosine concentration in skeletal muscle (VastusLateralis)– Males have ~18% greater levels compared to females (mmolkg-1 dm)– Vegetarians, on average have 40% less compared to a composite meanof men and women omnivores, athletes, and physically active collegekids.• Suzuki et al. (2002) observed a significant and positive relationshipbetween carnosine in human skeletal muscle and high intensity exerciseperformance.85
  86. 86. Supplementing β-alanine to IncreaseSkeletal Muscle Carnosine Content• Supplementing 3-6 g/day of β-alanine for ~28 days maysignificantly increase skeletal muscle carnosine contentfor both trained and untrained males and females.• These increased levels through supplementationappears to delay fatigue by increasing the MBC.• There appears to be a significant effect of β-alanine onAnaerobic Threshold measures and time to exhaustionin men and women (both trained and untrained).• There may be an additive effect of supplementing β-alanine during HI training, and with creatine during aresistance training program (improvements seen intraining volume, body fat %, and muscle mass gains).86
  87. 87. Supplementing β-alanine to IncreaseSkeletal Muscle Carnosine ContentHarris et al. 2006 showed:• 3.2 g/day for 28 days  42.1% increase• 5.2 g/day for 28 days  64.2% increase• A further 6 weeks supplementation of 6.4 g/day 80.1% boost in muscle carnosine frombaseline levels.Derave et al. (2007) examined 15 male 400msprinters (Time < 52 sec)• 4.8 g/day for 28 days  45% increase in Soleus&37% in Gastrocnemius87
  88. 88. Supplementing β-alanine to IncreaseSkeletal Muscle Carnosine ContentKim et al. (2005) examined Olympic Sprint Cyclists• 2 groups (1. BA group, 2. Placebo 4.8g/day• Results: BA group (46% increase), Placebo (7% increase)in Carnosine• Performance: BA group demonstrated significantincreases in anaerobic threshold, and time to exhaustionduring testing.• No significant performance changes in Placebo group• Enhanced exercise performance appears to be due to theincrease in muscle (H+) buffering capacity, resulting fromthe increase in carnosine.88
  89. 89. The Effect of Combined β-Alanine&CreatineMonohydrate on Exercise Performance• Harris et al. (2003) studied 32 male subjects (21-31 yrs)• 3 groups– Creatine&β-alanine (CrBA): 4x800mg/day x 5 weeks of BA, 4x5gCrM/day during 5th week.– Creatine (CrM): 4x800mg/day x 5 weeks ofmaltodextrin, 4x5g/day CrM during 5th week.– Placebo (PL): 4x800mg/day x 5 weeks of maltodextrin, 4x5gmaltodextrin during 5th week.Exercise test – Power output on a 4 min all out maximal ergometerexercise.Results: CrBA illustrated a 4 fold improvement in change in averagepower output than CrM. CrM had a 10 fold improvement comparedto the placebo which illustrated no change.89
  90. 90. The Effect of Combined β-Alanine&CreatineMonohydrate on Exercise Performance• Hoffman et al. (2006) studied 33 male collegiate football players on 10 week overloadresistance training program.• 3 groups (supplementing 2xday for 10 weeks)• Placebo (PL) – 34g flavored dextrose (powder)• CrM– 5g Cr & 34g flavored dextrose (powder)• CrBA– 1.6g BA, 5g Cr, & 34g flavored dextrose (powder)• Testing– Body Compositon– Strength Measures (1RM & Squat)– Training Log (track training volume)– Dietary recall• Results– CrBA showed highest increase in weekly training volume on the bench press andsquat.– CrBA showed highest increase in fat free mass, and highest decrease in body fat %.90
  91. 91. The Post Exercise CatabolicEnvironment• Dehydrated• Blood insulin low• Cortisol and other catabolic hormoneselevated• Immune system suppressed• Muscle and liver glycogen reduced ordepleted• Muscle is in a catabolic state with increasedproteolysis. 91
  92. 92. Converting to a Post Exercise AnabolicState• Rehydrate• Increase blood insulin levels• Lower blood cortisol levels and other catabolichormones• Strengthen the immune system• Restore liver and muscle glycogen• Stimulate muscle protein synthesis and tissuerepair92
  93. 93. Metabolism of Whey & Casein ProteinSupplements0501001502002503003504004500.25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7WheyCaseinHoursBloodPlasmaConcentrationofAminoAcidsumDangin et al. (2001)93
  94. 94. Post Workout ShakeWhat should I put into them/look for?• 1.2-1.5g/kg repletion factor• 20-40g Protein (Whey/Casein) (0.3-0.4g/kg lean bodyweight)• 2:1 or 3:1 CHO to protein ratio• Glutamine = 5g (spares muscles, reduces infection)• Leucine = 1g and Taurine = 1g• 1-2g Fish Oil• Shake should be followed by a meal in 60 mins• It can be something easy e.g. Chocolate Milk94
  95. 95. Metabolic Window for Anabolism01020304050607080901000 15 30 45 60 75 90 120Series 1Series 1Minutes of RecoveryPotentialAnabolicActivity(%)*** Without nutrient intervention, the metabolic window begins to closewithin 45 mins of exercise *** 95
  96. 96. Post Training/GameWindow Open for Nutrient Delivery to Muscle/Cells• Shake/Meal within 10 mins of finishing exercise– Re-hydrate– Decrease core temperature– Replace muscle glycogen• CHO need = LBM (kg) x 0.8-1.2 g– Begin muscle repair• Protein need = LBM (kg) x 0.3-0.4 g96
  97. 97. Summary of Potential effects on aspects of recoverywith immediate and delayed post exercisesupplementation-200-1000100200300400500600700ImmediateDelay (3+ hrs)Stout, J., (2007)97
  98. 98. Post Workout Shake: Whats thehurry?• Recovery is optimized within the first 2 hours = the sooner thebetter (anabolic potential).010203040506070CHO Protein CHO/ProteinPeakInsulinPlasmaLevels(um)Zaeadzki et al., (1992)98
  99. 99. Post Workout Shake: Whats thehurry?• Repairing the muscle after resistance and aerobic exercise(Repair, Rebuild, Replete…..)020406080100120CHO EAA CHO/EAAProteinSynthesisMiller et al. (2003)*** Saunders, M.J. et al., (2007) illustrated that CHO/PRO supplementation reducesMuscle damage after aerobic exercise. *** 99
  100. 100. Effect of CHO/PRO Supplementationon Immune SystemVanderbilt Marine Recruit Study; Flakoll, PJ et al.,(2004)• Post Exercise Supplement for 45 days• 3 groups (1) Placebo (2) CHO (3) CHO/PRO• CHO/PRO groups exhibited:– 33% fewer medical visits– 28% fewer visits regarding bacterial/viral infections– 37% fewer visits due to muscular joint problems– 83% fewer visits due to heat exhaustion• There was an indication that greater availability to aminoacids especially glutamine were the prominent factorscontributing to these results.100
  101. 101. Exercise & Immune FunctionNieman (1995)101
  102. 102. CHO/PRO SupplementationProviding a CHO/PRO supplement post exercisewill:1. Raise blood insulin levels, reduce bloodcortisol levels2. Provide fuel for the immune system and limitexercise-induced immune systemsuppression3. Possibly reduce the risk of bacterial, and viralinfection and muscle and joint problems.102
  103. 103. Effect of CHO/PRO Supplementationon Recovery & Performance051015202530CHO/PRO CHOPerformanceTime(min)Supplement***The rate of recovery was significantly faster after the intake of the CHO-PROsupplement as compared with the CHO.*** 103
  104. 104. Nutrition/Supplementation forRecovery“Recovery is just like fixing a house. A crack in thefoundations requires raw materials to patch thingsback together. In the body, those raw materials comefrom what we eat.” – Cynthia Sass, RDProviding a post exercise CHO/PRO supplementimmediately will:1. Increase the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis2. Increase the rate of muscle protein synthesis3. Limit the suppression of the immune system4. Reduce muscle damage and speed its repair5. Increase performance in a subsequent exercise bout104
  105. 105. Work Rate In Soccer• 2005-2006 Premiership Season (16 Games)– Avg. Distance Covered = 9.96 - 11.49km– Avg. HI Activities = 88-147– Avg. Sprint Distance (all positions) = 162-310m– Avg. Recovery Time (all positions) = 39-70sec105
  106. 106. Goals Scored In Games051015202530354045500-15 16-30 31-45 46-60 61-75 76-90GoalsScoredTime (Minutes)106
  107. 107. Muscle Glycogen Stores DuringGames020406080100120Before Game Half Time After GameGlycogen(%ofPre-MatchValue)Figure 1: Effect of match play in soccer on stores of glycogen in leg musclesModified from Agnevik (1970) 107
  108. 108. Demands of Training & Games• Soccer is an intermittent sprint sport in which theaerobic system is highly taxed with a mean HR (85%)and peak HR (98%).• 150-250 HI actions indicates the rates of PCr utilizationand glycolysis are high during the game.• Muscle glycogen is the most important substrate forenergy production and fatigue towards the end of thegame maybe related to depletion of glycogen in somemuscle fibers.• Blood FFA’s increase progressively during a gamecompensating for the lowering of muscle glycogen.108
  109. 109. Game Day NutritionInadequate Nutrition = glycogen= average speed= ground covered= decreased performance• The days before: make sure adequate CHOintake = 5-10g/kg• The day before: 300g CHO & lean proteinsource109
  110. 110. Nutrition for HI Intermittent SportsTiming CHO ConditionsTraining Diet 5-7g/kg8-10g/kg during HIAdequate EnergyPre-game meal>200g3-4 hours prior; lowglycemic index; solid carbwith a lean proteinBefore Game 30-60gCaffeine1 hour before1 hour before 200-400mgDuring Game 30-60g/hour(Halftime)6-8% CHO solutionRefuel/RehydrateAfter Game1.2g/kg + Protein (0.3g/kg)Immediately – follow witha meal 60-90 minutes later.Then continue withpatterns of meals every2.5-3 hours.110
  111. 111. Game Day Nutrition• Night Before• 3-4 hours before– 3-4g/kg (1.5-2g/lb)• 1-2 hours before– 1.2g/kg (.5-1g/lb)• Less than an hour before– Sports Drinks/Gels• During the Game– As dictated but refuel at halftime• After the Game– 3:1 to 4:1 CHO to Protein ratio (e.g. Chocolate Milk)111
  112. 112. Travelling Considerations• Achieve your CHO & Protein Needs– Shakes, bars, food you bring with you• Meeting daily vitamin and mineral needs• Adequate Hydration– Carry your own water bottle– For every 3 glasses of water, have a sports drink• Food Safety• Plan Ahead112
  113. 113. Post Game Alcohol ConsumptionPost Game: Make sure to Refuel & Rehydratefirst if considering drinking alcohol.Alcohol consumption causes acidosis and will:1. Impair recovery and repair (muscle glycogenand muscle)2. Impair rehydration3. Impair healing (soft tissue, bruising, and mayincrease swelling) – delaying recovery.113
  114. 114. Organic FoodsWhy choose Organic Foods?1. Health Benefits – Lower amounts of pesticides &insecticides in your diet which have been linked to therapid increase in certain types of cancers and diseasesin the western diet.2. Environmental Benefits – Promotesbiodiversity, protects local ecosystems from harmfulchemicals & limits amount of petroleum used totransport non local food products.3. Human & Animal Benefits – Workers & animals notexposed to harmful chemicals, better living &treatment for animals.114
  115. 115. Reasons for Vegetarian/Vegan Diets115
  116. 116. 116
  117. 117. Plant Vs. Meat117
  118. 118. Food for Thought1. Eat plants. No animal products are necessary formaintaining a healthy athletic lifestyle. Whole plant foodsare nutritionally superior to meat, dairy, and eggs.2. Eat organic foods. Organic foods support ecologicallyresponsible farming practices and have been scientificallyshown to contain more nutrients.3. Choose whole foods. Processed and fractionated foodsoffer less nutritional value compared to their whole foodcounterparts.4. Eat a varied diet. No matter how healthy a food is, eatingthe same food all the time is a nutritional stalemate.118
  119. 119. Food for Thought5.Eat immediately after you work out. Its important toreplenish glycogen stores after exercising.6. Raw is good. Fresh uncooked fruits and vegetables arethe most nutritionally complete foods you can eat.7. Shop local. Buying locally grown produce keeps themoney in our communities, uses less energy and isoften fresher.8. Drink plenty of fluids. Drink before, during and afterworking out. Dehydration can greatly diminish athleticperformance.119
  120. 120. “Football is not Science, butScience may improve the level ofFootball” (Bangsbo, 1993)“We are what we repeatedly do.Excellence then, is not anact, but a habit.” - Aristotle120

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