Water management in India: By Gita Kavarana


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  • Water management in India: By Gita Kavarana

    1. 1. The value of a raindrop Programme for Oslo University students New Delhi, March 2007
    2. 2. 1. Growing crisis In 1950, water availability was very low only in North Africa, and was average or above average in the rest of the world. < 1 - catastrophically low; 1.1.-2.0 - very low;  2.1-5.0 - low;  5.1-10 - average;  10.1-20 - high;  > 20 - very high. Source: Source: World water resources at the beginning of the 21st century” prepared in the framework of ihp unesco
    3. 3. 1. Growing crisis In 2001, more than 75% of the world population has low water availability. < 1 - catastrophically low;  1.1.-2.0 - very low;  2.1-5.0 - low;  5.1-10 - average;  10.1-20 - high;  > 20 - very high. Source: Source: World water resources at the beginning of the 21st century” prepared in the framework of ihp unesco
    4. 4. 1. Growing crisis
    5. 5. What has led to this situation? <ul><li>Heavy use of surface water – some rivers have no flow left in summer season </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy use of groundwater without recharging leading to falling water table all over the country </li></ul><ul><li>ADD </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution of ground and surface waters from urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural modernisation. Large stretches of almost all rivers polluted </li></ul>
    6. 6. Most rivers in India have hardly any water left in summer
    7. 7. Groundwater depletion in India
    8. 8. Why is recharging so important? While tubewell use is increasing,tank irrigation is declining
    9. 9. How efficient is the present paradigm? <ul><ul><li>Irrigation efficiency is 36 per cent; I.e, 64 per cent water is lost in transit and due to bad management practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost recovery is 2 to 3 per cent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers at the tail end of a canal depends on the mercy of those at the head end to get even life saving irrigation </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Problem villages in drinking water supply Year of Survey Number of Problem Villages identified   Number of villages covered till the next survey   Number of villages not covered before the next survey 1972   150,000 94,000 56,000 1980   231,000 192,000 39,000 1985   161,722 161,652 70 1994   140,975 110,371 30,604 1997   61,747    
    11. 12. Polluted river stretches … But at a huge cost! 1996 2003
    12. 13. <ul><li>Cities are water stressed; </li></ul><ul><li>Many get water once in 3 days ; </li></ul><ul><li>What we have is fast getting polluted . </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty water is the largest killer of babies . </li></ul>Current scenario.. Drought is becoming more or less permanent Even in “good” rainfall years, there is water stress. Even after a flood there is a drought Nearly 13% of total land area declared drought prone .
    13. 14. Drought in not only about failure of rainfall <ul><li>Believe it or not, Cherrapunji which gets 11000 mm rainfall suffers from serious drinking water shortages </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003 Kerala received 2000 mm, yet there were farmer suicides </li></ul><ul><li>It does not matter how much rain you get, </li></ul><ul><li>if you don’t capture it. </li></ul>
    14. 15. 2. YET ….. <ul><li>Nations still pursuing the same policies. Physical infrastructures (dams, pipes/canals) at huge cost often on borrowed funds </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, most state governments have projects in the pipeline which involve bringing water to cities from distant rivers or digging deep wells. </li></ul><ul><li>These are funded by World bank/ADB </li></ul><ul><li>India has spent till date Rs. 2,92,767 crore ( Planning commission ) on water supply projects. ( US $ 65,000 million ) </li></ul><ul><li>Can such investments be sustained? </li></ul>
    15. 16. Can such investments be sustained? <ul><li>What are the alternatives? </li></ul><ul><li>While developed countries are going in for alternate but costly technologies – desalination, wastewater treatment, fog collection etc </li></ul><ul><li>Technology intensive,expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Can poor countries afford these solutions? </li></ul>
    16. 17. 4. Another answer .. To leapfrog <ul><li>Another solution exists – does not need huge financial or technological investments, does not damage the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Tapping huge amounts of available precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Catch water where it falls </li></ul><ul><li>Water wisdom – traditional but can meet modern day water challenges </li></ul>
    17. 18. 4. Another answer .. To leapfrog
    18. 19. 5. Potential of water harvesting 4 monsoon months 3000 8 remaining months 1000 Total precipitation 4000 Total river flows - 1953 (75% of this only in rainy season) Percolation into soil 2047 Utilisable - less evaporation, flows to sea & other countries 690 Utilisable - less evaporation, soil moisture 396 Total available for irrigation & other uses precipitation 1086 What is lost – evaporation , soil moisture – which can be captured – 1700 (approx ) Source: National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development. All figures in Km3
    19. 20. 5. Potential of water harvesting <ul><li>30,000 tanks measuring 100mx100mx10m= 10 km 3 in 300 </li></ul><ul><li>districts that receives more than 200mm of rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>(Dr. P.R. Pisharoty, Physical Research Laboratory) </li></ul>1 ha of land X 100 mm of rainfall = 1 million litres of water Water stored (depth) Catchment area Evaporation loss Collection efficiency Rainfall Total water harvested = 900 km 3. Surface area covered = 3% of total land area ** Rough estimates 8m 50Xsize of tank 4m 60% 200 mm 10m 30 X size of tank 2m 50% 800 mm
    20. 21. 6. Principles of rainwater harvesting <ul><li>Uses decentralised structures , which reduce cost and losses of delivery. Aids local use and local recharge </li></ul><ul><li>Uses diverse technologies – most appropriate for ecological system </li></ul><ul><li>Uses local communities as managers as scale is too small for centralised bureaucracies </li></ul><ul><li>Uses fiscal incentives to promote rainwater harvesting </li></ul>
    21. 22. 7. Diverse technologies
    22. 24. 8. Ancient wisdom Dated as far back as 5000 years. Dholavira of the Indus Valley Civilisation was harvesting runoff in the dry Thar desert.
    23. 25. 9. Traditional wisdom in the Thar desert A talab is a local reservoir made out of natural depressions on outcrops of hillocks or rocky formations. Usually, only the slope side of the reservoir or talab was provided with strong parapet walls.
    24. 26. 9. Traditional wisdom in the Thar desert <ul><li>Rooftop harvesting was common in cities and towns of Rajasthan. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater collected from roofs was taken to underground tanks, called tankas , built in the courtyard or in the house </li></ul>
    25. 27. 9. Traditional wisdom in the Thar desert <ul><li>Tanks are different from talab s, in that they are constructed in situ with </li></ul><ul><li>impermeable floor and massive masonry stonewalls on all sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bhuj, Jamnagar, Anjar are some of the cities, which, </li></ul><ul><li>till recently were supplied water principally from tanks and lakes </li></ul>
    26. 28. 9. Traditional wisdom in the Thar desert <ul><li>Step wells were another way of harvesting rain and providing drinking water in </li></ul><ul><li>the arid parts of the country. </li></ul>
    27. 29. 9. Traditional wisdom in the Thar desert <ul><li>Jodhpur: </li></ul><ul><li>There were over 200 </li></ul><ul><li>water bodies in all, </li></ul><ul><li>many of them over </li></ul><ul><li>500 years old. The </li></ul><ul><li>city’s 40-odd talab s </li></ul><ul><li>in the city still exist </li></ul><ul><li>today and many of </li></ul><ul><li>them are over 300 </li></ul><ul><li>years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Jodhpur was perhaps </li></ul><ul><li>the only city in India </li></ul><ul><li>where an all out effort </li></ul><ul><li>was made to capture </li></ul><ul><li>all available rainwater . </li></ul>
    28. 30. 9. Traditional wisdom in the Thar desert The Chittor Fort once housed at least 50,000 people. There were more than 80 water bodies which could hold water that would last the citizens for more than 5 years incase of a siege. Even today, there are 22 water bodies. Udaipur, known all over the world as the City of Lakes, has a network of lakes, which provided the city with drinking and irrigation water and also provided water for its numerous wells and step wells. Today, this water wealth is facing destruction. Water bodies in Chittor Fort Water wealth of Udaipur
    29. 31. 9. Traditional wisdom in the Thar desert <ul><li>For irrigation, livestock and </li></ul><ul><li>drinking water in rural areas, </li></ul><ul><li>there were yet other forms of </li></ul><ul><li>water harvesting. Nadis were </li></ul><ul><li>village ponds and tobas were </li></ul><ul><li>watering holes with grass </li></ul><ul><li>around them which pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>used for their livestock. Kundis </li></ul><ul><li>are found all over the region, </li></ul><ul><li>while kuis or beris were dug </li></ul><ul><li>next to tanks to collect their </li></ul><ul><li>seepage. </li></ul>
    30. 32. 9. Traditional wisdom in the Thar desert The khadin is used even today in agriculture in the Thar Desert. It involves harvesting rainwater in farmlands and consists of an embankment built across a slope in such a way that rainwater is collected within an agricultural field. Virdas was developed by the nomadic Maldhari tribes who inhabit the arid-saline regions of the Rann of Kutch. The maldharis identify the natural depressions ( jheels) from the flow of the monsoon runoff, and then dig small wells (virdas ), within the depression, to collect rainwater. The wells lie over the top of the saline layer, with a transition zone of brackish water between. Bushes and trees, planted on the bunds, protect the virdas .
    31. 33. 10. Decline of traditional systems <ul><li>From responsibility to right </li></ul><ul><li>Began with the British – (1) Introduced a taxation system that impoverished the peasantry </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Introduced a bureacracy to manage water resources </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Emphasis on larger irrigation projects like canals. Less emphasis on minor irrigation like bandharas. Destroyed community ownership as well as community responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued by independent Indian policies – Big is beautiful – water bureaucracy completely took over water management </li></ul>
    32. 34. 11. Water and society <ul><li>An integral part of the web of life </li></ul><ul><li>Only special guests offered water; that too, only one glass; second glass will be milk </li></ul><ul><li>In Jaisalmer, people bathe on a wooden platform; water collected from underneath is given to cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Rajasthan has maximum number of folk songs with water/clouds as theme </li></ul><ul><li>Agors (catchment) considered sacred. Defilement was prohibited and thus kept clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Digging of a tank/silting was considered one of the seven great meritorious acts in a lifetime </li></ul>
    33. 35. 11. Water and society <ul><li>Deep knowledge of water and elements </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse systems to suit local ecology, geology, climate: nadi, talab, johad, bandha , etc. Each a definite system. </li></ul><ul><li>From the name of a particular system,(eg. a nadi ) people knew how the water is collected, catchment prepared; embankment constructed, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided the entire Rajasthan into two areas – palar water & wakar water. Palar is rainwater can be stored in underground tankas for up to 3-5 years. Wakar water underground water which has oozed out of earth with minerals etc. </li></ul>
    34. 36. 11. Water and society <ul><li>Astounding diversity </li></ul><ul><li>So many kinds of wells: Dugwells: kua owned by individuals; kohars community wells </li></ul><ul><li>Stepwells: Baolis for drinking; constructed for philanthropic purposes; jhalaras not used for drinking. Different in architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Sagar ka kua : never run dry; Seer ka kua : underground channel opening into a well. </li></ul><ul><li>Deir : water collected in a depression dried up by October; Bier : spread across the land as a huge sheet of water. </li></ul>
    35. 37. <ul><li>Social discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Before the onset of monsoon, agor /paytan (catchment)of tanks would be cleaned by all beneficiaries </li></ul><ul><li>Anga system for rational and equitable distribution. Requirement calculated for each household based on number of humans, cattle and goats. </li></ul><ul><li>Payment for water in terms of voluntary labour to draw out water from its sources </li></ul>11. Water and society
    36. 38. 11. Water and society <ul><li>Social discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Upstream users were not allowed to plant water intensive crops </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of rotational irrigation arrangements were punishable by fines </li></ul><ul><li>Acreage rationing: Every person could hold a certain amount of lands in irrigable area and others in areas with less water </li></ul><ul><li>Water for water-intensive crops rotated from year to year </li></ul><ul><li>Physical policing also done through guards etc. Sometimes the water manager was from the landless class. Had to do his job well. </li></ul>
    37. 39. 11. Water and society <ul><li>Not a free good </li></ul><ul><li>No water body was made for the people by any king/ chief/ chieftain/ jagirdar (revenue collector or government representative) </li></ul><ul><li>Water bodies made by the above was only for their personal use </li></ul><ul><li>People had to construct their water systems themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. In Jodhpur, the Ranisar, situated within the fort was only meant for nobility. People used the Padamsar fed by runoff from the Ranisar. Similarly in Udaipur, the Pichola lake was built by the Banjara gypsies which is used by the public. </li></ul>
    38. 40. 12. Rural poverty <ul><li>In India, nearly 75% of the poor live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly, these rural poor live on fragile and degraded lands. Drought an increasingly frequent phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing population in Asia and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge - Management of its natural resource base at increasing levels of productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Greater challenge – Also in a manner that is sustainable and equitable </li></ul><ul><li>Will require tremendous social discipline, political sagacity and technical ingenuity. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge of the balance </li></ul>
    39. 41. 14. Way ahead – create natural wealth <ul><li>Challenge – Help the poor to get out of their ecological poverty </li></ul><ul><li>The poor and the marginalised do not need aid; they need support to help themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge – Not just to maintain existing natural capital, but to revive degraded lands </li></ul><ul><li>Starting point for biomass regeneration is water </li></ul><ul><li>Good water, land and forest management leads to </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of sustainable livelihoods and regeneration of the rural economy. </li></ul>
    40. 42. 14. Way ahead <ul><li>“ A society is known by the water it keeps” </li></ul><ul><li>Starting point for economic development is water. Starting point for water is land. Start with protecting the catchment. Water harvesting goes hand in hand with watershed management. </li></ul><ul><li>Water harvesting is not a quick-fix solution. Takes time. First step is to create confidence and awareness in people that water harvesting works. </li></ul><ul><li>Create institutions at the village level to undertake water harvesting systems – to decide on type of structure, siting, design, cost, who will pay what, how will the water be shared etc. All must participate. Social fencing – rules for protecting catchment, using water, protecting water. </li></ul><ul><li>Role of government – that of enabler; fiscal incentives; legislations, provide communities with rights over land and water </li></ul>
    41. 43. 15. Community experiences <ul><li>In Gelhar-Choti in Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh, villagers were able to harvest water and irrigate about 91 hectares even though the rainfall was just about half of the usual average. (govt watershed development) </li></ul><ul><li>Thunthi-Kankasiya, village in Dahod district of Gujarat, farmers were able to irrigate 135 ha and all 23 wells had enough water even though the rainfall was just 40% of normal(check dam on a seasonal river) </li></ul><ul><li>In Raj Samdhiyala village, villagers had built 12 check dams. Farmers were able to sow cotton, wheat, groundnut and vegetables even though rainfall was less than 2/3 of normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Many more </li></ul>
    42. 44. 16. 1970s: Transformation of Ralegan Siddhi <ul><li>Ralegan Siddhi, in Ahmednagar district of Maharastra State </li></ul><ul><li>Arid land,average annual rainfall ranging from 450mm to 600mm 1975: hardly one acre of irrigated land per family; </li></ul><ul><li>Food production was only about 30% of the requirements; </li></ul><ul><li>A verage annual income was Rs.270 (US $ 6); high level of distress migration; in the clutches of money lenders and private bankers. </li></ul>
    43. 45. 16. 1970s: Transformation of Ralegan Siddhi
    44. 46. 16. 1970s: Transformation of Ralegan Siddhi <ul><li>1975: Began by constructing storage ponds, reservoirs and gully plugs to catch the rain and moisten the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Very next year after the first check dams were built, the water level in the wells near the barrages started rising. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon, government stepped in with financial help and a total of 47 check dams were built in four micro watershed areas </li></ul><ul><li>Total water storage capacity is 300 cubic metres approximately </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse methods used - percolation tanks, boulder checks, brushwood dams, staggered trenches, nullah bundings, check dams etc </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually, total watershed development activities were undertaken </li></ul><ul><li>Including modern agricultural methods like drip irrigation </li></ul>
    45. 47. 16. 1970s: Transformation of Ralegan Siddhi
    46. 48. 16. 1970s: Transformation of Ralegan Siddhi <ul><li>Some 14 water cooperative societies catering water to 600 acres of 157 farmers in Ralegan Siddhi today. </li></ul><ul><li>Members decide on system for distribution of water equitably to all </li></ul><ul><li>Society determines crops to be sown depending on availability of water </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water is also rationed. </li></ul><ul><li>Water distributed through water ration cards </li></ul><ul><li>Other social disciplining – ban on tree felling; over grazing; too much importance is not given to milk to prevent over grazing </li></ul>
    47. 49. 16. 1970s: Transformation of Ralegan Siddhi
    48. 50. 16. 1970s: Transformation of Ralegan Siddhi <ul><li>In 1998 the top 28 per cent of the households in this village had an annual household income of more than Rs. 4,80,000 a year. </li></ul><ul><li>The village had a branch office of a major bank with nearly Rs. 3 crore in deposits of villagers </li></ul><ul><li>The village today makes use of solar power, biogas, drip irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Took nearly 5 years for first impacts to become visible. </li></ul>From one of the most destitute villages of India to one of the richest 28% of population earn more than Rs. 40,000/month
    49. 51. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua <ul><li>In 1994, the government of Madhya Pradesh started a watershed management programme in the district of Jhabua (now applied to the whole state)to bring economic well-being from environmental regeneration. </li></ul><ul><li>Effort to involve the people in land and water management on a scale and depth that no other government has attempted. </li></ul><ul><li>Result of political will combined with bureaucratic competence and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Some 22% of Jhabua’s land area was brought under the Rajiv Gandhi Watershed Development Mission, covering 374 villages, to develop 249 micro-watersheds. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the programme is being run in all 48 districts, covering 6253 watersheds in 8692 villages. The programme covers 4.2 million hectares, which is a little more than 1% of India’s total land area. The total investment in the programme for the past ten years has been Rs. 1042 crore , which works out a little over Rs. 4000/hectare. </li></ul>
    50. 52. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua <ul><li>Once a heavily forested area, Jhabua lost its natural wealth over the last 50 years. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 30% of its forest lands stood without any tree cover. </li></ul><ul><li>The district was dotted with rock-exposed hillocks. </li></ul><ul><li>This forest degradation meant that the impact was felt most by the tribals who form 83% of the population. </li></ul>
    51. 53. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua <ul><li>What was done </li></ul><ul><li>As a first step to arrest the water falling on the slopes, small tanks were built on the slopes to hold the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Some 143 tanks were built initially </li></ul><ul><li>Land in the watershed was protected </li></ul><ul><li>Pasture improvement through planting pasture grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Community afforestation was undertaken </li></ul><ul><li>Seed banks were set up </li></ul>
    52. 54. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua
    53. 55. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua <ul><li>How was it done </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-layered institutional structure set up </li></ul><ul><li>At the state level was the Chief minister, chief secretary and the Mission in charge </li></ul><ul><li>At the district level was the district collector, CEP of zilla panchayat, advisory committee and technical committee </li></ul><ul><li>At the watershed level was the project implementation officer (govt or NGO) </li></ul><ul><li>At the village level was the village watershed committee, user groups, self-help groups and womens’ groups </li></ul>
    54. 56. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua <ul><li>How was it done </li></ul><ul><li>Once the plans prepared by the watershed committee are approved, the govt releases 75% of the total budget to the committee </li></ul><ul><li>Every fortnight the watershed committee together with the villagers decide on the expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>The watershed committee maintains two accounts – one for expenditures and 10% of the project money is set aside as a fixed deposit. This is meant for post project maintenance & repairs </li></ul><ul><li>When villagers volunteer labour a part of the wages is also set aside in this account. </li></ul><ul><li>The district or zilla parishads also keep some money for their expenditures </li></ul>
    55. 57. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua <ul><li>Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in groundwater levels </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in wasteland area up to 66% in 11 micro watersheds </li></ul><ul><li>2 million trees regenerated </li></ul><ul><li>Cropped area increased by 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Food availability increased from 1 month to 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>313 grain banks established </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in grass up to 5-6 times </li></ul>
    56. 58. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua
    57. 59. 17. Temple of modern India - Jhabua
    58. 60. Challenge of wealth-waste <ul><li>Cities and industries growing. Need water. Increasing stress on rural water. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities are sourcing their water from further and further away. </li></ul><ul><li>Use clean water and discharge polluted water. Adding to water stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to reinvent the water paradigm for urban India. Desperately. </li></ul>
    59. 61. The water-sewage connection <ul><li>The conventional way: </li></ul><ul><li>Bring water into the city – storage, diversion, pipe, pump, treat – from further and further away. </li></ul><ul><li>Flush and carry the waste out of the city – pipe, pump, divert, treat – further and further away. </li></ul>
    60. 62. Cities search for water <ul><li>Chennai: 235 km (Veeranam lake) and now planning to go farther 300 Km (Veeranam extension project). </li></ul><ul><li>Bangalore: 95 km (Cauvery) pumping 1000 m elevation. </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi : from Tehri dam (450 to 500 km) . </li></ul>Chennai Veeranam lake Map of Tamil Nadu
    61. 63. Manjira dam Hyderabad Nagurjuna 105 km 100 km Himayat Sagar Osman Sagar
    62. 64. Vaitarna cum Tansa 90 km 105 km Mumbai Bhatsa
    63. 65. Narmada river 70 km 30 km INDORE INDORE YASHWANT SAGAR
    64. 66. Indira Gandhi canal 204 km Rajivgandhi lift canal Jodhpur JODHPUR
    65. 67. Bangalore..
    66. 68. <ul><li>Dipping watertable </li></ul>Cities depend on groundwater: but do not recharge.
    67. 69. Urban lakes are sponges of cities. To hold water and recharge groundwater. But neglected. Dirty. Dead. Destroyed for land. No land for water.
    68. 70. Inefficiencies are high <ul><li>Huge distribution losses in water supply – between 20-50 per cent. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pollution in source water adds to cost of treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost recovery is difficult because of the huge distribution losses and inequity in supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot invest in efficiencies and clean water for all. </li></ul>
    69. 71. 3% population Water costs are high. Distribution costs high. Cannot be recovered. Subsidy to some. Water inequity in Delhi .
    70. 72. <ul><li>DELHI </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita availability 211 lpcd </li></ul><ul><li>2011 Master plan targets 363 lpcd </li></ul>Urban water norms need reform Need answers that are different. Less wasteful.
    71. 73. More water means more sewage. <ul><li>No estimation of how much we produce, how much we treat, how we dispose.. </li></ul><ul><li>We do not discuss human excreta and its disposal. That is an untouchable subject . </li></ul><ul><li>Flush and forget mindset . Drains will carry it. Somebody will treat it. Somebody will build sewage treatment plant. Clean it. Dispose it. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of this our rivers polluted..waterbodies polluted .. </li></ul>
    72. 74. Cost of system is high. Cannot pay. Cannot subsidise all. <ul><li>This is the political economy of defecation. </li></ul><ul><li>The rich use water. Are connected to sewage system. Waste is collected. Even treated. </li></ul><ul><li>But they cannot pay for full costs.. </li></ul>
    73. 75. Subsidy to the rich to excrete in convenience. <ul><li>River action programmes. All sewage treatment plants built in river cleaning programmes as grants/loans/public investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Even when capital cost paid. No money to run. Governments subsidises again. </li></ul><ul><li>Massive subsidy to sewered populations. Polluters never pay </li></ul>
    74. 76. <ul><li>Flush toilets that do not destroy the country’s hydrological systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Flush toilets that do not destroy the world’s nitrogen cycle; </li></ul><ul><li>Flush toilets that are hygienic and equitous. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sewage everybody’s business </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralised sewage management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Small, alternative systems that can be operated in each building </li></ul><ul><li>CSE has its own sewage treatment system </li></ul>Sewage excreta: biggest challenge for modern India
    75. 77. Challenge for science: national toilet mission