The Barren land bridge theory The Barren land bridge is probably the most widely excepted theory for the fist natives being able too come too north America. It is thought people from the old world or what we now know as Europe passed over a land bridge that extended between Europe and Alaska. This was back when glaciers where on north America and various other parts of the world in the northern and southern parts of the world. The glaciers where the most important part too this theory being valid. The theory states that when the glaciers where still there the sea level was lower than it is now because it was trapped in snow. This opened up a bridge as the sea level went down. Later the glaciers melted and the process reversed not allowing the people even if they wanted too back too the Old world because the barren land bridge was now covered by water. These people became the first nations.
The Evidence <ul><li>There are spear and arrow heads found </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions still practiced today are from the time of there coming </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of objects are found in the layer of rock from there era </li></ul>
Terminology (links show images) Geology : The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth. Dispersal : The act or process of spread out or the condition of being disperse Culture : The way a group of people live Maize : Tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears Culture area : An area where people share many features of the same culture Coniferous : Trees that bear cone Democracy : Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representative Wampum : Used among the Iroquoians both as money and as a record of treaties Mohawk : A tribe in the Iroquois Confederacy Nootka : An Aboriginal tribe on the west coast. Potlatch : A feast at which the host gave away many gifts Totem poles : Built by west coast tribes to honor their family Blackfoot : The strongest Aboriginal nation on the Plains Buffalo : The most important source of food on the plains HBC : Hudson Bay Company Travois : Made of two crossed poles pulled behind a horse for carrying loads Sun Dance : A dance where the Plains Indian sought a vision to guide them for the rest of their lives Sub arctic : A huge area of North America which spreads from Alaska in the west to the Maritimes in the East Canoe : They were used by the First Nations and later by the explorers and fur traders for traveling throughout Canada Squash : A field crop grown by the Huron First Nation Igloo : The Inuit word for snow house
The Iroquoians <ul><li>The Iroquoians lived in a environment that 100 days frost free and snow free that allowed them too grow different rare crops such as maize. </li></ul><ul><li>Important foods included maize and squash along with buffalo. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the six nations of the League of Six Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>All the Iroquoian tribes had in common the diplomatic government and the make up of there villages. </li></ul><ul><li>An Iroquoian village consisted of oval shaped buildings and farms. </li></ul><ul><li>The Huron where a sub group of the Iroquois. </li></ul><ul><li>The Huron had a diplomatic government. </li></ul><ul><li>Wampum was jewelry made of beads usually blue and green </li></ul><ul><li>A clan was a family of people. </li></ul><ul><li>A civil chief in Iroquoian society was meant too organize events and speak too the city on events. </li></ul><ul><li>The duties of a war chief among the Iroquoians was too keep the settlement protected and organize war parties against there enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>A civil chief chosen among the Iroquoians by being voted upon. </li></ul><ul><li>The women appointed important members of the society such as the civil chiefs. </li></ul><ul><li>All where able to speak at a council meeting although the elders spoke more often. </li></ul><ul><li>An Iroquoian council would deal with the crime of murder by encouraging the murderers family too give gifts to the family of the murdered. </li></ul><ul><li>An Iroquoian village was moved when the land no longer had nutrients for the plants that happened every 20 too 25 years. </li></ul>
The Plains <ul><li>The most powerful nation on the Plains where the Back Foots. </li></ul><ul><li>Other important groups worth mentioning included the Plains Cree the Assiniboine and the gross ventures. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important food on the plains where the buffalo they also where used for material </li></ul><ul><li>The buffalo where driven too corals or off steep cliffs. </li></ul><ul><li>The horse in the 18th century changed life on the plains tepees got bigger and they could be used too haul large loads. </li></ul><ul><li>The prairies climate was harsh there was little or no shelter from the relentless winds and the summers where hot and the winter just as cruelly cold. </li></ul><ul><li>For a successful hunt the group had too work together too get the buffalo and a position that it had no choice but too fight </li></ul>
The Northwest Coast <ul><li>The climate in the Northwest coast had a mild temperature and very heavy rain fall. </li></ul><ul><li>The important resources taken from the sea where cod and other resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The Northwest coast people also hunted animals such as moose dear and elk. </li></ul><ul><li>In the north there was such a abundance of resources they had a lot of time too build a complex religion. </li></ul><ul><li>They are noted for there carving and masks that where greatly and skillfully decorated. </li></ul><ul><li>Potlatch was a celebration which the host gave away a lot of gifts and it turned into a competition of social status. </li></ul><ul><li>Some major tribes of this region includes the Tlinkit, Haida, Tsimshian, Bella Coola, Kwakiutl, Nootka and finally the Coastal Salish. </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid-1700s the population in this region was estimated too be 75 000 too 100 000 </li></ul><ul><li>A Pacific Coast village lived in houses that where 60 too 100 meters in length these housed several clans </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of totem poles was too depict important members of there family. </li></ul><ul><li>People where ranked, or organized, in Pacific Coast society by birth time and wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>A Pacific Coast house was 60 too 100 meters in length. </li></ul><ul><li>Three classes in society on the Pacific Coast included nobles commoners and slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves treated where treated badly they could be sacrificed too the gods by there owners and had absolutely no Wright they were property. </li></ul><ul><li>The head chief among the people of the Pacific Coast was meant too be generous and give rights and titles and be able too schedule ceremonies. </li></ul><ul><li>A good chief in the Pacific Coast society would be prepared too give privileges and get titles. </li></ul>
The Sub arctic <ul><li>Environment of the Sub arctic was harsh and it contained large forests of jack pine and spruce. </li></ul><ul><li>The two main language groups in the Sub arctic where the Athapaskians and the Algonkians. </li></ul><ul><li>The main sources of food of the people of the Sub arctic where moose caribou and deer. More importantly they gathered certain edible plants during the seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of the Sub arctic used tents as homes. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important forms of transportation Included the canoe sleds and snowshoes. </li></ul><ul><li>The main activities of men and of women included hunting and creating clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs chosen depending on the ceremony they had little power and influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs had no authority except the ceremony they where governing. </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine men where people that cured people and held ceremonies too see old spirits. </li></ul><ul><li>A important ceremony was the shaking tent. </li></ul>