Nuclear Project


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Nuclear Project

  1. 1. Nuclear energy<br />By :-<br />Fenil Doshi<br />HuzaifaPorbanderwala<br />
  2. 2. Nuclear energy<br />Nuclear energy is released by the splitting (fission) or merging together (fusion) of the nuclei of atom(s). The conversion of nuclear mass to energy is consistent with the mass-energy equivalence formula E = m.c², in which E = energy release, m = mass defect, and c = the speed of light in a vacuum (a physical constant). Nuclear energy was first discovered byFrench physicist Henri Becquerel in 1896, when he found that photographic plates stored in the dark near uranium were blackened like X-ray plates, which had been just recently discovered at the time 1894.[1]<br />Nuclear chemistry can be used as a form of alchemy to turn lead into gold or change any atom to any other atom (albeit through many steps).[2] Radionuclideproduction often involves irradiation of another isotope rays. Iron has the highest binding energy per nucleon of any atom. If an atom of lower average binding energy is changed into an atom of higher average binding energy, energy is given off. The chart shows that fusion of hydrogen, the combination to form heavier atoms, releases energy, as does fission of uranium, the breaking up of a larger nucleus into smaller parts. <br />-<br />decays spontaneously by emitting either particles, electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays), neutrinos (or all of them)<br />-<br />
  3. 3. Ways of release<br />-<br />Nuclear energy is released by three exoenergetic (or exothermic) processes:<br />Radioactive decay, where a neutron or proton in the radioactive nucleus decays spontaneously by emitting either particles, electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays), neutrinos (or all of them)<br />Fusion, two atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus<br />Fission, the breaking of a heavy nucleus into two (or more rarely three) lighter nuclei<br />
  4. 4. Nuclear power<br />-<br />Nuclear power is energy produced from controlled (i.e., non-explosive) nuclear reactions. Commercial plants currently use nuclear fissionreactions to generate electricity. Electric utility reactors heat water to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity.<br />In 2009, 15% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. Also, more than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built.<br />
  5. 5. -<br />1) Nuclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of green house gases and therefore the contribution of nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little.<br />2) This technology is readily available, it does not have to be developed first.<br />3) It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant.<br />Advantages of<br /> nuclear power<br />
  6. 6. DISADVANTAGES OF NUCLEAR ENERGY<br />the problem of radioactive waste is still an unsolved one. The waste from nuclear energy is extremely dangerous and it has to be carefully looked after for several thousand years (10'000 years according to United States Environmental Protection Agency standards).<br />High risks: Despite a generally high security standard, accidents can still happen. It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security. A small probability of failure will always last. The consequences of an accident would be absolutely devastating both for human being as for the nature. The more nuclear power plants (and nuclear waste storage shelters) are built, the higher is the probability of a disastrous failure somewhere in the world.<br />Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks. No atomic energy plant in the world could withstand an attack similar to 9/11 in Yew York. Such a terrorist act would have catastrophic effects for the whole world.<br />During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste is produced, which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons. In addition, the same know-how used to design nuclear power plants can to a certain extent be used to build nuclear weapons (nuclear proliferation).<br />The energy source for nuclear energy is Uranium. Uranium is a scarce resource, its supply is estimated to last only for the next 30 to 60 years depending on the actual demand.<br />The time frame needed for formalities, planning and building of a new nuclear power generation plant is in the range of 20 to 30 years in the western democracies. In other words: It is an illusion to build new nuclear power plants in a short time.<br />-<br />
  7. 7. -<br />Power Plants In India<br />
  8. 8. -<br />THE END<br />-<br />