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• Philip Tellis
• @bluesmoon
• ptellis@soasta.com
• SOASTA
• boomerang

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person

1
FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy
Person
Philip Tellis / ptellis@soasta.com

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person

2
Get the most benefit with the least effort

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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3
0

Beginning Web Performance

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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4
Start with a really slow site

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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5
0.1

Start Measuring

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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6
Or use RUM for real user data (boomerang/mPulse)

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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0.2

enable gzip

http://slideshare.net/billwscott/improving-netflix-performance-experience
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You can pre-gzip

gzip_static in nginx

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9
0.3

ImageOptim

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0.4

Cache

Cache-control: public, max-age=31415926

http://www.mnot.net/cache_docs/

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person

11
Yes, that was 10 million pies

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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0

Congratulations

You’ve just been promoted

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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1

What the Experts Do

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1.1

CDN

Serve your root domain through a CDN

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1.1

CDN

And make sure your CSS is on the same domain

http://www.jonathanklein.net/2014/02/revisiting-cookieless-domain.html

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1.2

Split JavaScript

"critical": in the HEAD,
"enhancements": loaded async

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1.3

Audit your CSS

Chrome WebDev tools
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1.4

Parallelise downloads

You can have higher bandwidth, you cannot have lower latency.
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1.5

Flush Early and Often

Get bytes to the client ASAP to avoid TCP Slow
Start, and speed up CSS

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20
1.6

Increase initcwnd

Initial Congestion Window: Number of packets to
send before waiting for an ACK

http://www.cdnplanet.com/blog/tune-tcp-initcwnd-for-optimumperformance/

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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21
1.6

Increase initcwnd

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22
1.6b

Also...

net.ipv4.tcp_slow_start_after_idle=0

http://www.lognormal.com/blog/2012/09/27/linux-tcpip-tuning/

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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1.7

PageSpeed

mod_pagespeed and ngx_pagespeed

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24
Relax

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25
2

You’ve reached crazyland

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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26
Sort in ascending order of signal latency

• Electrons through copper
• Light through fibre
• Pulsars
• Station Wagons
• Smoke Signals

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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27
Study real user data

Look for potential places to parallelise, predict or
cache

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28
2.1 Pre-load

Pre-fetch assets required for the next page in a
process flow

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2.1b pre-render

<link rel="prerender" href="url">

https://developers.google.com/chrome/whitepapers/prerender

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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2.2 Post-load

Fetch optional assets after onload

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2.3 Detect broken accept-encoding

Many Windows anti-viruses and firewalls disable
gzip by munging the Accept-Encoding header

http://www.lognormal.com/blog/2012/08/17/accept-encoding-stats/

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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32
2.4 Prepare for HTTP/2.0

Multiple assets on the same connection and TLS by
default.
Breaks many of our rules.

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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33
2.5 Understand 3PoFs

Use blackhole.webpagetest.org

http://blog.patrickmeenan.com/2011/10/testing-for-frontend-spof.html

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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34
2.6 Understand the IFrame Loader Technique

Take required but non-critical assets out of the
critical path

http://www.lognormal.com/blog/2012/12/12/the-script-loader-pattern/

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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35
Can you predict round-trip-time?

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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36
Can you predict round-trip-time?

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

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37
References

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

WebPageTest – http://webpagetest.org
Boomerang – http://lognormal.github.io/boomerang/doc/
SOASTA mPulse – http://www.soasta.com/free
Netflix gzip study – http://www.slideshare.net/billwscott/improving-netflix-performance-experience
Nginx gzip_static – http://wiki.nginx.org/HttpGzipStaticModule
ImageOptim – http://imageoptim.com/
Caching – http://www.mnot.net/cache_docs/
Same domain CSS – http://www.jonathanklein.net/2014/02/revisiting-cookieless-domain.html
initcwnd – http://www.cdnplanet.com/blog/tune-tcp-initcwnd-for-optimum-performance/
Linux TCP Tuning – http://www.lognormal.com/blog/2012/09/27/linux-tcpip-tuning/
Prerender – https://developers.google.com/chrome/whitepapers/prerender
FE SPoF – http://blog.patrickmeenan.com/2011/10/testing-for-frontend-spof.html

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person

38
Thank You!
Questions?

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person

39
• Philip Tellis
• @bluesmoon
• philip@bluesmoon.info
• www.SOASTA.com
• boomerang
• LogNormal Blog

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person

40
Image Credits

• Apple Pie
http://www.flickr.com/photos/24609729@N00/3353226142/
• Kittens in a PC
http://www.flickr.com/photos/43525343@N08/6417971383/

Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27

FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person

41

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Frontend Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person

  • 1. • Philip Tellis • @bluesmoon • ptellis@soasta.com • SOASTA • boomerang Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 1
  • 2. FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person Philip Tellis / ptellis@soasta.com Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 2
  • 3. Get the most benefit with the least effort Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 3
  • 4. 0 Beginning Web Performance Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 4
  • 5. Start with a really slow site Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 5
  • 6. 0.1 Start Measuring Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 6
  • 7. Or use RUM for real user data (boomerang/mPulse) Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 7
  • 8. 0.2 enable gzip http://slideshare.net/billwscott/improving-netflix-performance-experience Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 8
  • 9. You can pre-gzip gzip_static in nginx Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 9
  • 10. 0.3 ImageOptim Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 10
  • 11. 0.4 Cache Cache-control: public, max-age=31415926 http://www.mnot.net/cache_docs/ Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 11
  • 12. Yes, that was 10 million pies Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 12
  • 13. 0 Congratulations You’ve just been promoted Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 13
  • 14. 1 What the Experts Do Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 14
  • 15. 1.1 CDN Serve your root domain through a CDN Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 15
  • 16. 1.1 CDN And make sure your CSS is on the same domain http://www.jonathanklein.net/2014/02/revisiting-cookieless-domain.html Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 16
  • 17. 1.2 Split JavaScript "critical": in the HEAD, "enhancements": loaded async Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 17
  • 18. 1.3 Audit your CSS Chrome WebDev tools Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 18
  • 19. 1.4 Parallelise downloads You can have higher bandwidth, you cannot have lower latency. Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 19
  • 20. 1.5 Flush Early and Often Get bytes to the client ASAP to avoid TCP Slow Start, and speed up CSS Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 20
  • 21. 1.6 Increase initcwnd Initial Congestion Window: Number of packets to send before waiting for an ACK http://www.cdnplanet.com/blog/tune-tcp-initcwnd-for-optimumperformance/ Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 21
  • 22. 1.6 Increase initcwnd Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 22
  • 24. 1.7 PageSpeed mod_pagespeed and ngx_pagespeed Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 24
  • 25. Relax Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 25
  • 26. 2 You’ve reached crazyland Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 26
  • 27. Sort in ascending order of signal latency • Electrons through copper • Light through fibre • Pulsars • Station Wagons • Smoke Signals Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 27
  • 28. Study real user data Look for potential places to parallelise, predict or cache Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 28
  • 29. 2.1 Pre-load Pre-fetch assets required for the next page in a process flow Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 29
  • 30. 2.1b pre-render <link rel="prerender" href="url"> https://developers.google.com/chrome/whitepapers/prerender Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 30
  • 31. 2.2 Post-load Fetch optional assets after onload Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 31
  • 32. 2.3 Detect broken accept-encoding Many Windows anti-viruses and firewalls disable gzip by munging the Accept-Encoding header http://www.lognormal.com/blog/2012/08/17/accept-encoding-stats/ Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 32
  • 33. 2.4 Prepare for HTTP/2.0 Multiple assets on the same connection and TLS by default. Breaks many of our rules. Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 33
  • 34. 2.5 Understand 3PoFs Use blackhole.webpagetest.org http://blog.patrickmeenan.com/2011/10/testing-for-frontend-spof.html Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 34
  • 35. 2.6 Understand the IFrame Loader Technique Take required but non-critical assets out of the critical path http://www.lognormal.com/blog/2012/12/12/the-script-loader-pattern/ Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 35
  • 36. Can you predict round-trip-time? Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 36
  • 37. Can you predict round-trip-time? Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 37
  • 38. References • • • • • • • • • • • • WebPageTest – http://webpagetest.org Boomerang – http://lognormal.github.io/boomerang/doc/ SOASTA mPulse – http://www.soasta.com/free Netflix gzip study – http://www.slideshare.net/billwscott/improving-netflix-performance-experience Nginx gzip_static – http://wiki.nginx.org/HttpGzipStaticModule ImageOptim – http://imageoptim.com/ Caching – http://www.mnot.net/cache_docs/ Same domain CSS – http://www.jonathanklein.net/2014/02/revisiting-cookieless-domain.html initcwnd – http://www.cdnplanet.com/blog/tune-tcp-initcwnd-for-optimum-performance/ Linux TCP Tuning – http://www.lognormal.com/blog/2012/09/27/linux-tcpip-tuning/ Prerender – https://developers.google.com/chrome/whitepapers/prerender FE SPoF – http://blog.patrickmeenan.com/2011/10/testing-for-frontend-spof.html Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 38
  • 39. Thank You! Questions? Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 39
  • 40. • Philip Tellis • @bluesmoon • philip@bluesmoon.info • www.SOASTA.com • boomerang • LogNormal Blog Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 40
  • 41. Image Credits • Apple Pie http://www.flickr.com/photos/24609729@N00/3353226142/ • Kittens in a PC http://www.flickr.com/photos/43525343@N08/6417971383/ Confoo 2014 / 2014-02-27 FE Performance: Beginner to Expert to Crazy Person 41