2. Fear based learning inIndian Residential Schools
• The first Indian Residential School opened in the 1870’s, and the last school closed in 1996• 130 Indian Residential Schools were located across Canada• More than 150,000 Aboriginal children attended Indian Residential Schools• There are about 80, 000 Indian Residential School survivors alive today
The nature of oppression occurred through targeting thesexuality of children who lacked the intellectual and emotionalcapacity to understand what was happening to them, theirbrothers and sisters, and their identity as Indigenous people
Fear based learning is a unique process thatdeveloped in Indian Residential Schools
It occurred in the relationship between Indian ResidentialSchool administrators (Priests, Nuns, Support Staff) andchildren
Children who did not die in school because of sexualabuse, malnutrition, or murder were not provided withemotional tools to resolve multiple traumaticexperiences
Fear based learning spread from the residential school intothe family home, into the community, intoadministrations, and into the First Nations psyche
As one person puts it,Self-hate is necessary for fear based learning tocontinue to exist
3. Impact of Fear basedlearning on Indigenous GLBTleadership in Canada
When Indigenous GLBT Human Rights leadership issuesare absent in academic materials, where does one beginto right the wrong?
“we center knowledges produced by Indigenous GLBTQ2 people in order tocounter colonial representation, affirm Indigenous GLBTQ2 intellectualhistories, and foreground multiplicity among Indigenous people to criticallyexamine their production within power relations”(Driskill, Finley, Joespeh, Morgensen. (2011). P.4)
“we center knowledges produced by Indigenous GLBTQ2 people in order tocounter colonial representation…”• Giving Indigenous GLBT men a moment in time to reconcile their truth with the GLBT community provides healing desperately needed by such men, creates opportunities to reestablish a connection with culture• Indigenous GLBT men need to reconcile their coming out experience with two different communities--tribal communities--GLBT communities
4. Subjectless Critique and itsuse in policy development
What is required for bringing Indigenous GLBT leadership out of the closet is arelational position that does not isolate men from the rest of society
“What might be called the subjectless critique of queer studies disallowsany positing of a proper subject of or object for the field by insisting thatqueer has no fixed political referent…a subjectless critique establishes…afocus on a wide field of normalization as the site of social violence” (Smith,A. (2011).
An Indigenous GLBT man from Vancouver Island may beCanadian/First Nations/Coast Salish/Gay, bisexual, ortransgender, and possibly transitioning into male or female whiletransitioning into same-sex sexuality
Relational RegionalismThe “framework is not actually coherent without more specific tribalstudies that serve to buttress and challenge it
Pragmatic• There are three First Nations on Vancouver Island alone; the Kwakwaka’wakw Nation, Nuu- chah-nulth Nation, and the Coast Salish Nation. Each nation is home to several different tribes.• Each tribe may have differing dialects compared to its nearest neighbors• The power relations between tribes and between nations can serve as a powerful analytical tool in policy development for Indigenous GLBT people, but such material remains in the closet.
“the nature of survivance creates a sense of narrativeresistance to absence, literary tragedy, nihility, andvictimry,” (Vizenor, G. (2009). P.36).
“Through acts of sexual survivance, Two-Spirit men extend Indian-specific meanings about conquest, race, colonialism, and sovereignty todesire, whereby the Two-Spirit sexual encounter is governed by sexualhistoricity rendered modern.”
Material needs to be generated that invites more Indigenous GLBTmen into academia and activism. Work needs to focus on the ability“to create theory from Indigenous self-representation that reflectsIndigenous people’s complexity” (Driskill, Finley, Gilley, Morgensen.(2011). P.6).