1045 2 bb presentation vancouver


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1045 2 bb presentation vancouver

  1. 1. The Resilience ofIndigenous Menwith a Same SexAttractionClive AspinNgati Maru
  2. 2. NE2SS• On the land we know as North America, there were approximately 400distinct indigenous Nations. Of that number, 155 have documentedmultiple gender traditions. Two Spirit is a contemporary term that refersto those traditions where some individuals’ spirits are a blending of maleand female spirit. The existence of Two Spirit people challenges the rigidbinary view of the world of the North American colonizers andmissionaries, not just of a binary gender system, but a binary system ofthis or that, all together. The Two Spirits’ mere existence threatened thecolonizers’ core beliefs; the backlash was violent. Sketches, housed at theNew York City public library, depict Two Spirit people being attacked bycolonizers’ dogs. Word of this brutal treatment spread quickly from nationto nation. Many nations decided to take actions to protect their honoredand valued Two Spirit people. Some nations hid them by asking them toreplace their dress, a mixture of men and women’s clothing, with theattire of their biological sex. After years of colonization, some of thosevery same nations denied ever having a tradition that celebrated andhonored their Two Spirit people
  3. 3. The truth about Māori sexuality…Sexuality was enjoyed in many forms. People chosepartners of either sex for pleasure, and same-sexlove was not condemned or vilified.Over the decades of colonisation the homosexual,and more certainly the lesbian, became invisible.Little is known of homosexuality as it occurred intraditional Māori society. My informantsunanimously assure me that the incidence of it, bothmale and female, was marked.Ngahuia Te Awekotuku
  4. 4. Takatapui - historical usage“An intimate companion of the same sex.”Williams, H. (1844) Dictionary of the MaoriLanguageHinemoa, Tutanekai and Tiki
  5. 5. Takatapui - contemporary usage• Encompasses sexual and cultural componentsof one’s identity• Used by men, women, transgender• Preferred to terms such as gay, lesbian andtranssexual• Increasing usage within Maori community
  6. 6. AIDS 2004“We have to put sex back into the epidemic ratherbeyond just a root of transmission. There was nocelebration of positive sexuality, no celebration oflesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered identities, nocelebration or discussion of diverse sexuality or oursexual rights. Although the issue of male to malesexual behaviour made it onto the program and we arevery grateful for that, the sessions covered it from abehavioural or intervention perspective and did notnecessarily address the sexuality and identity.”Shaun Mellors, Community Rapporteur
  7. 7. Human flourishing…We must not shy away from protectingvulnerable populations. Their vulnerabilityshould not reduce their intrinsic worth ashuman beings.Social justice demands that everyone beassisted to flourish regardless of their state inlifeDr Stephen Sodeke, 2004
  8. 8. Indigenous peoples and HIV• Disproportionate rates of HIV• Poor access to services• Culturally inappropriate services• High rates of discrimination and stigma• Room for us all• Late testing• Treatment as prevention
  9. 9. QuestionsHow do we move Beyond Behaviours?How can social sciences (or emerging theorieson health) help illuminate socially producedinfluences on the health of indigenous men?What kind of solutions emerge when we goBeyond Behaviours?
  10. 10. Indigenous paradigms and world views• Decolonising methodologies• Kaupapa Maori• Indigenous research• Building indigenous capacity• Improving and facilitating access to services• Eliminating disparities
  11. 11. Kia oracaspin@internode.on.net