The questions will be characterised by: • balance and weighting; • sequential order; • simple and direct wording; • wording which clearly indicates how many points are required in. a complete response; • the clear instruction "in your own words" when a lift gets no reward at all; • the use of the term "expression" to allow for extended quotation to be accepted as correct; • line numbers to guide candidates to appropriate part(s) of the passage; • emboldening of key words in the question as a help to candidates.Key Strategies for candidates: • Acquire and develop, through vide reading, the vocabulary and vicarious experiences necessary to grasp the main ideas presented in passages chosen for Intermediate examinations. • Develop analytical reading skills so that questions on tone, structure. word choice. imagery, etc can be recognized and answered confidently and correctly. • Read questions carefully so that obvious errors can be avoided. Both the passage and the questions should be read equally carefully. • Answer clearly and concisely using own words as indicated on the front cover of the examination paper. • Answer fully, analysis or evaluation questions requiring identification of a feature of technique and where required explication of its effect or effectiveness.
Intermediate 2 Close Reading • The non - fiction text should convey complex information. • The total number of marks allocated to each paper is 30. • Assessment consists of sequential questions with a code to indicate the focus of each question. • The main focus of each question should be clear by the words used in the question and by the use of a code CU, A, E). • Understanding (content), Analysis (style) and Evaluation ( effectiveness) are "what matters" and questions should be derived from these reading purposes. • There should be a balance of questions covering Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation, but the marks awarded should be no more than 40% for Understanding and no less than 60% for Analysis / Evaluation (i.e. no candidate should pass Close Reading on Understanding alone.)The passage will be characterised by: • information and ideas at a sophisticated level; • consistent and varied use of paragraphs to support line of thought and structure; • varied use of sentence structure; • a numberof key ideas or facts presented in detail; • straightforward layout; • apt choice and skilful use of words.
Intermediate 1 and 2 Close Reading - Study SupportALWAYS READ THE WHOLE PASSAGE THROUGH PROPERLY BEFORE YOULOOK AT THE QUESTIONS. Work out what the text is about FIRST.Marks and CodesAll questions are given a potential mark and a code. Look at this when considering what thequestion wants.Look at the codes. U = UNDERSTANDING = WHAT?These questions are testing your ability to understand the text/passage. These questions are askingyou to show WHAT THE PASSAGE IS ABOUT. These questions will be about WHAThappens. A = ANALYSIS = HOW?These questions are asking you to work out HOW the writer tells you something. HOW thewriter makes the reader know the writers point of view. These questions will often talk abouttechnique, structure, tone or word choice. E = EVALUATION = DOES IT WORK FOR YOU?These questions are asking you for your response to the passage and whether you agree with it.You will have to say WHY it works ..Look at the marks.If the question only has ONE mark then you will probably only have to make one point. If thequestion gives FOUR marks then you will probably have to find TWO words or techniques ANDcomment on BOTH of them.If you find a question hard then leave a gap and go back to it later BUT always give some sort ofanswer before handing in your paper. An educated guess is better than nothing, and you may belucky.General hints.• If a question says "What single word ... " then just give a single word. Do not be tempted to copy half a paragraph in the hope that the answer is in there somewhere.• If the question says "In your own words ... " do not write the quotation down but what the quotation means.• If the question says "What facts ... " then give the facts from the passage.• Remember that the word "expression" means a short quotation; either one word or a phrase (= 2 or 3 words).• Most questions relate to a particular paragraph or just a few lines. Whilst you think about the question mark the paragraph or lines in question to avoid any confusion.• When you have finished the paper do not rush to leave the room but read over the paper once more. Try to fill in any gaps. Although these papers are not marked for technical accuracy you must make sure that your meaning/answer is clear.
UNIT 1 LANGUAGE STUDY PUNCTUATION1. "For example, the local yokel in the cartoon in the Wigtown Free Press may be standing in anisolated field and using the vocabulary of the area, but he has a mobile telephone to communicatewith a nearby airbase."Q. Why has the writer placed the phrase local yokel in inverted commas? (2 A) *****2. "I hired one and went to try it on a mountain. Of course you cant ride it up trackless slopes ofheather, peat hags and boulder fields - in fact you have to carry it on your shoulder as soon as youleave any kind of track at all- but it performed brilliantly on the rocky Land-Rover track back downfrom the hill."Q. Explain why dashes are used in this paragraph? (2 A) *****3. "I had big plans for the morning: I was going to go to the bank, buy some plastic vomit, have alook at the local art gallery, perhaps take another stroll along the lovely River Ness, but I woke lateand had no time to do anything but fumble my way into clothes, check out of the hotel and waddlein a sweat to the station .. Beyond Inverness trains run infrequently - just three times a day toThurso and Wick - so I couldnt afford to be late."Q What is the function of the dashes in the final sentence of this paragraph. (2A) *****4. "My car was an island and my junkyard a sea, and I was all alone and full of warm.The mornings brightness drew me awake and I was surrounded with strangeness. I had slid downthe seat and slept the night through in an ungainly position. Wrestling with my body to assume anupright arrangement. I saw a collage of Negro, Mexican and white faces outside the windows. Theywere laughing and making mouth gestures of talkers but their sounds didnt penetrate my refuge.There was so much curiosity in their features that I knew they wouldnt just go away before theyknew who I was, so I opened the door, prepared to give them any story (even the truth) that wouldbuy my peace.The windows and my grogginess had distorted their features. I had thought they were adults.Standing outside, I found there was only one person taller than I, and that I was only a few yearsyounger than any of them.After I explained who I was and that I had no place to stay, Bootsie (the tall boy) welcomed meand said I could stay as long as I honoured their rule."Q. Explain the different uses of the brackets in the extract above. (2 A) *****5. In case youve never seen an episode - and its not entirely outwith the realms of possibility sinceit gets bounced around BBC2s schedule with ever-increasing unpredictability and is available on a
regular basis only on Sky - heres the basic outline. The Simpsons are a family of five: dopey dadHomer works as a safety inspector at the local nuclear plant; blue beehive-sporting mom Marge isa housewife and the voice of reason; Bart is a 10-year old fiend with a dastardly laugh; Lisa is aprecociously intelligent and morally-upstanding eight-year-old; and Maggie is a dummy-suckingbaby.Q. Show how the writer uses punctuation in lines 9-15 ("In case ... baby") to assistthe readers understanding of what she is saying. (4 A) *****6. Testifying to this "communist" appeal is Mike Adelman, who owns Barnets shoe-shop inEdinburgh. A vendor of DMs for the past 30 years, Adelman says that, despite the contemporarytrainer trend, his customers remain faithful to the "hard-wearing and basic" qualities of the sensibleboots, attributes that appeal to students, skinheads, and businessmen alike. He says: "In one waythe DM is a great British cult item. We get people coming from America to buy their DMs here."This traditional aficionado, make and female, remains largely impervious to DMss latest efforts tomodernise with what Adelman describes as the "buckles, trims, Velcro straps, mules, and built-upsoles". Pledging his belief in the boots continued longevity, he says: "I believe the trainer is justflavour-of-the-month in comparison to the 40 years of Dr Martens."Q. Why are inverted commas used for "communist" (line 23) and "hard-wearingand basic" (line 25)? (2 A) *****7. "In this extract from his book "A Walk in the Woods ", Bill Bryson tells of his reaction tosome of the books he read before beginning his walk along the Appalachian Trail in NorthAmerica.Through long winter nights in New Hampshire, while snow piled up outdoors and my wifeslumbered peacefully beside me, I lay saucer-eyed in bed reading clinically precise accounts ofpeople gnawed pulpy in their sleeping bags, plucked whimpering from trees, even noiselesslystalked (I didnt know this happened) as they sauntered unawares downleafy paths or cooled their feet in mountain streams. People whose one fatal mistake was tosmooth their hair with a dab of aromatic gel, or eat juicy meat, or tuck a chocolate bar in their shirtpocket for later, or in some small, inadvertent way irritate the olfactory properties of the hungrybear. Or, come to that, whose fatal failing was simply to be very, very unfortunate - to round a bendand find a moody male blocking the path, headrocking appraisingly, or wander unwittingly into the territory of a bear too slowed by age oridleness to chase down fleeter prey."Q. "(I didnt know this happened!)" (line 4)Explain the use of the brackets round this expression. (1 A)Explain the use of the exclamation mark (1 A) *****8. "Well-meaning but misinformed people think animals in the wild are "happy" because they are"free". These people usually have a large, handsome predator in mind, a lionor a cheetah (the life of a gnu or of an aardvark is rarely exalted). They imagine this wild animalroaming about the savannah on digestive walks after eating a prey that acceptedits lot piously, or going for training runs to stay slim after overindulging. They imagine this animaloverseeing its offspring proudly and tenderly, the whole family watching
the setting of the sun from the limbs of trees with sighs of pleasure. The life of the wild animal issimple, noble and meaningful, they imagine. Then it is captured by wicked men and thrown intotiny jails. Its "happiness" is dashed. It yearns mightily for "freedom"and does all it can to escape. Being denied its "freedom" for too long, the animal becomes ashadow of itself, its spirit broken. So some people imagine."Q. What two different reasons might the writer have for using inverted commasaround certain words in this paragraph. (2 A) *****
UNIT 1 LANGUAGE STUDY STRUCTURE - Word Choice Sentence Structure1. "If you saw an advert for a mikki wing song bing bong, would you rush out and buy one?"Q. By referring to word choice and sentence structure, show how the first sentence effectivelyattracts the readers attention. *****2. "It is, of course, an uncontrollable bouncing ball for dogs, heavy duty."Q. Comment on the writers use of the phrase "of course". *****3. "Yet now everybody under the age of 30 is wearing them. Weird. Liam Gallagher and thegloomy Verve bloke were the first to endorse the public warning of these tasteless titlers, but morerecently any number of indie guitar-janglers have sported them on CD covers and posters"Q. Describe one aspect of sentence structure in this paragraph which emphasises the way thewriter feels about the trend to wear "Floppy Hats". *****4. "The trouble is that Brigadoon sells. Anyone working at the coal face of tourism can tell youthat. Leaf through a holiday brochure produced in Germany, France or Italy and you can almostguarantee that the picture accompanying the description of Scotland will be one of a kiltedbagpiper with Glencoe or Loch Ness as a backdrop. Its what overseas visitors expect when theycome here: stunning scenery, men in kilts, romantic ruined castles, myths and legends."Q. Comment on the structure and effect of the sentence "The trouble is that Brigadoon sells." *****5. "He moves elegantly, to the pizzicato strings of the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra. Two, Two-and-a-half inches long. Tall, remarkably regular features, narrow white fangs, nice smile, sort of shy.You can see how he got the part. So he comes down the pillow - the violins stop - and steps on toher shoulder. How he lifts and curls his front legs. Its so graceful.And they never see it. The audience. They dont see the grace, the elegance. They see ... I dontknow what they see. Usually they are disgusted, revolted, repelled, nauseated - any word of loathingyou want to use. They dont even notice his lovely smile."Q. How do the structure and word choice of lines 75-80 reinforce this change. *****6. "They are the kind of drivers that are imported for the purpose of scaring you witless. It works."Q. What aspect of these sentences makes them effective? *****7. "Oh, you enemy, you enemy, I thought. Oh, you enemy. The enemy in question was a wee fatlassie called June: she had pigtails, infuriating priggish pigtails. She had got me belted months
before for telling a lady teacher that I had muttered "Hells Bells in her ear and the shocked ladyteacher was so shocked that she belted lumps out of me and sent me home with a letter for myfather who laughed himself sick, saying the woman was a vinegary old maid. June had caused theoutrage upon my person, and she was a fat lassie with fat pigtails, and the wickedness was in methat day. It was the work of seconds to dunk one pigtail into the inkwell."Q. How does the structure of the second last sentence help you to understandwhy the writer dunked Junes pigtail? *****8. "The origins of high technology footwear goBack to the Mexico Olympics in 1968 when tartan athletics tracks were introduced for the firsttime. Fourteen world records fell that year, and the trend continued as more and more stadiumsadopted the new surface. But there was a price to pay. Athletes werent used to competing on hardsurfaces, and before long doctors noticed a marked increase in the number of injuries such asAchilles tendon and cartilage problems. The nicknamed it the "tartan syndrome"."Q. Think about the way this paragraph is organised. What aspects of the structureof the paragraph help the writer to convey her meaning effectively? *****9. "It is safe to say that controversial pop singer Sinead OConnor and His Holiness the Pope arenot kindred spirits, at least on matters religious. However, they are united in choice of footwear.The Irish pop star and the Polish pontiff are both fans of Dr Martens. The Pop was apparently soimpressed with his pair of white, comfy brogues he ordered further pairs for the Vaticans Swissguards. The "alternative priest", OConnor is often spotted with the clumpy airwear soles peekingout of her cassock." The "alternative priest", OConnor is often spotted with the clumpy airwearsoles peeking out of her cassock.Q. Explain what this word-choice suggests about(a) Sinead OConnor;(b) Dr Martens. *****10. "The DM story began in Germany in 1945. Recovering from a skiing accident, Dr Maertensfilled his time inventing an air-cushioned sole using salvaged Luftwaffe rubber and old soldiersuniforms. The shoes stayed a prototype until a chance meeting with Dr Maertens old universitychum and mechanical engineer, Dr Herbert Funck, led to mass production of the DM. Theinventive duo made the most of post-war restrictions, seizing upon the tonnes of rubber fromabandoned Luftwaffe airfields at rock-bottom prices and converting them into the bouncy shoesoles."Q, "salvaged Lufwaffe rubber" "old soldiers uniforms"What does this choice of words suggest about the original materials used to make Dr Martens? *****11. "His arrows were cut from shoots of Viburnum lantana, the large shrub commonly known asthe wayfaring tree. Of all the astonishing facts about the Iceman - the Neolithic human whose body
was discovered emerging from a glacier in the Alps in 1991 - none hit me harder than this, for as aboy I myself used to seek out that shrub for arrowshafts. When I read that the same wood hadbeen first choice in the Stone Age, I suddenly felt an affinity with the lone hunter-gatherer whodied 5,000 years ago.The preservation of his body was in itself a miracle: so efficiently did the glacier freeze him thatspecialists have been able to deduce an amazing amount about his physical condition - and now theleader of the scientific investigation, Dr Konrad Spindler, has produced a gripping account of theirdiscoveries in his book The Man in the Ice.Q. By referring to an example of the writers word choice in paragraphs 1 and 2 (lines 1-10) explainhow he reveals his own attitudes to the discovery of the Iceman. *****12. "As for its larger value - Ive found a way of keeping on the move that works, or seems to.Accommodation sufficient to contain an ordinary daily working life. A suitable speed at which tomeet the world. Just enough danger to keep ones wits sharp. A vehicle dependent on the randomchances and decisions of the weather.It travels at a Victorian pace. Under way, with a friendly tide and wind behind it, it will manageseven to eight knots over the ground - say nine m.p.h. at most. At this speed, you can get to knoweach wave on intimate terms, and if land is in sight you can study it - you have to study it as closelyas a book. Searching for marks, taking bearings, you get to know a coast in the purposeful way ofsomeone whose living literally depends on his comprehension of his own exact place in thelandscape."Q. Comment on the sentence structure used in presenting the writers reasons for believing "Ivefound a way of keeping on the move that works ... " *****13. "Well-meaning but misinformed people think animals in the wild are "happy" because they are"free". These people usually have a large, handsome predator in mind, a lionor a cheetah (the life of a gnu or of an aardvark is rarely exalted). They imagine this wild animalroaming about the savannah on digestive walks after eating a prey that acceptedits lot piously, or going for training runs to stay slim after overindulging. They imagine this animaloverseeing its offspring proudly and tenderly, the whole family watchingthe setting of the sun from the limbs of trees with sighs of pleasure. The life of the wild animal issimple, noble and meaningful, they imagine. Then it is captured by wicked men and thrown intotiny jails. Its "happiness" is dashed. It yearns mightily for "freedom"and does all it can to escape. Being denied its "freedom" for too long, the animal becomes ashadow of itself, its spirit broken. So some people imagine."Q. Explain how any aspect of the structure of the first paragraph reinforces the writers attitude? *****14. "But let me pursue for a moment only one aspect of the question. If you went to a home,kicked down the front door, chased the people who lived there out into the street and said, "Go!You are free! Free as a bird! Go! Go! - do you think they would shout and dance, for joy? Theywouldnt. Birds are not free. The people youve just evicted would splutter, "With what right do youthrow us out? This is our home. We own it. We have lived here for years. Were calling the police,you scoundrel."
Dont we say, "Theres no place like home"? Thats certainly what animals feel.Animals are territorial. That is the key to their minds. Only a familiar territory will allow them tofulfil the two relentless imperatives of the wild: the avoidance of enemies and the getting of foodand water. A biologically sound zoo enclosure - whether cage, pit, moated island, aviary oraquarium - is just another territory, peculiar only in its size andin its proximity to human territory. That it is so much smaller than what it would bein nature stands to reason. Territories in the wild are large not as a matter of taste but of necessity.In a zoo, we do for animals what we have done for ourselves with houses: we bring together in asmall space what in the wild is spread out."Adapted from Life of Pi by Yan MartelQ. Why is the word "splutter" (line 43), an effective one to use at this point?
UNIT 1 LANGUAGE STUDY CONTEXT In a context question you are expected to do two things; a) Give the meaning of the word or phrase underlined in this exercise. b) By reference to the context, the words before or after, explain how this helped you arrive at the meaning. Dressed to HillLeki poles in Lennoxtown, Mera Peak in Milngavie ... David Mc Vey watches amused and aghastas the trendy set gear up for extreme conditions on the street.1. "Those of us who use public transport to get to and from the hills often observe a quaint ritualtowards the end of the day. At some point we have to re-enter an outpost of civilisation. On theoutskirts of the village we pause to remove our standard-issue, warm, woolly, incredibly stupid-looking hillwalkers hat. No-one wants to be laughed at by teenagers or mistaken for an Aran-knitted folk-singer belting out The Happy Wanderer. So off comes the hat and home safely wego, anonvymouslv, unstereotvped."Q. How do the ideas in the second half of paragraph one help you to work outthe meaning of the words "anonymously" and "unstereotyped" (line 6) *****2. "Admittedly there is a line between genuine sentiment and kitsch, and it has been crossed toooften in the past. Anyone involved in the tourist industry will have sat through some toe-curlinglyawful "Scottish Evenings". These roaming-in-the-gloaming extravaganzas tend to feature girls inmini-kilts and too much make-up dancing - allegedly - the Highland Fling. The star turn is usuallya portly singer who struts about the stage wiggling his hops to swing his kilt. A whole hutch of whiterabbits have laid down their lives to provide his sporran."Q. Explain carefully how the context of lines 36-41 helps you to understand themeaning of "kitsch" (line 36). *****3. "It took the band just three weeks to sell out this tour and rather less than that for their fansscreams to give me raging tinnitus.RONAN! RO-O-ONAAN! I am standing in the photographers pit, preparing to watch the show.In the front row a 10-year-old reeking of Impulse body spray screeches with bloodcurdlingintensity directly into my ear. Any more of that and the Amnesty people will be round to see whosbeing tortured."Q. How do the words round about "tinnitus" help you to work out what it is? *****4. "With black bears, however, playing dead is futile since they will continue chewing on you untili+5 you are considerably past caring. It is also foolish to climb a tree because black bears are adroitclimbers and you will simply end up fighting the bear in a tree."
Q. Give the meaning of the word "adroit" and explain how lines 45 and 46 helpyou to work it out.5. "If a man, boldest and most intelligent of creatures, wont wander from place to place, a strangerto all, why would an animal, which is by temperament far more conservative? For that is whatanimals are, conservative, one might even say reactionarv. The smallest changes can upset them.They want things to be just so, day after day, month after month. Surprises are highly disagreeableto them. You see this in the way they move around their territory. An animal inhabits its space,whether in a zoo or in the wild, in the same way chess pieces move about a chessboardsignificantly. There is no more happen-stance, no more freedom, involved in the whereabouts of alion or a bear or a deer than in the location of a knight on a chessboard. Both speak of pattern andpurpose. In the wild, animals stick to the same paths for the same pressing reasons, season afterseason. In a zoo, if an animal is not in its normal place in its regular posture at the usual hour, itmeans something. It may be the reflection of nothing more than a minor change in theenvironment.Q. How do the words round about it help you to work out the meaning of"reactionary"?
UNIT 1 LANGUAGE STUDY LINKSet about these questions in this way: • read carefully the link sentence to which you have been directed by the question; • look at the first few words of the sentence: work out to which preceding words or ideas they refer; • look at the remainder of the link sentence: work out which words in this part of the sentence refer to ideas still to come; • now you are ready to answer: quote the actual words from the beginning of the link sentence and show to which actual ideas or words they refer, and then quote the words from the end of the sentence and show to which actual ideas these words refer.1. And now, heaven help us, we have the Year of the Floppy Hats. From T in the Park 1999, theyouth of today returned wearing those loose, brimmed sunhats usually associated with the thin,intense, middle-aged walkers who frequent the Lake District fells in their thousands. I used to ownsuch a hat, being prone to sunstroke (even in Scotland), but felt so gormless that I would whip it offwhen other walkers approached.Yet now everybody under the age of 30 is wearing them. Weird. Liam Gallagher and the gloomyVerve bloke were the first to endorse the public wearing of these tasteless titfers, but more recentlyany number of indie guitar-janglers have sported them on CD covers and posters.Q. The word "Yet" at the beginning of paragraph ten (line 47) provides a link with the previousparagraph. What is the effect of opening paragraph ten with this particular word? *****2. They live in the town of Springfield, a town run by the nefarious nuclear plant owner Mr. Burns- an old-fashioned hands-rubbing-with-glee kind of villain. In addition to the fab five, there arearound 60 other characters who make up the Simpsons . soap-opera-like menagerie of regulars -from grouchy Grandpa Simpson to Homers colleagues at the plant. The plots range from thenormal fare of American family situation comedy to a kind of fantasy that could be pulled off onlyin a cartoon form.But The Simpsons isnt merely a sitcom translated into cartooneze. Nor is it a kids’ show. Like 22any normal sitcom, the show wouldnt have been a hit without strong characters and ingeniousplots, but the key factor in its success and its longevity is undoubtedly its unique ability to operateon many different levels and, in so doing, to appeal to the broadest-possible audience. Childrenenjoy the more obvious jokes, while adults enjoy picking up on the many clever references and slyhomages that are packed into every show.Q. Show how the sentence "But The Simpsons isnt merely a sitcom translatedinto cartooneze." (line 22) acts as a link in the writers line of thought at thispoint in the article. You must refer to specific words or phrases in your answer. *****3. Who could have guessed that inventor Dr Klaus Maertenss sensible Gennan hausfrau shoeswould one day span the chasms of pop, philosophy, and fashion? An observation borne out by theconveyor belt of high-profile wearers: Pete Townsend, Noddy Holder, Madness, The Clash, P JHarvey, Blur, Elastica, A Clockwork Oranges Alex Delarge, and Jo Brand.
This timeless flexibility and universal appeal have led to DMs celebrating their 40th birthday thisSaturday.Q. ~ What is the link between these two paragraphs?Passage4. Well-meaning but misinformed people think animals in the wild are "happy" because they are"free". These people usually have a large, handsome predator in mind, a lionor a cheetah (the life of a gnu or of an aardvark is rarely exalted). They imagine this wild animalroaming about the savannah on digestive walks after eating a prey that acceptedits lot piously, or going for training runs to stay slim after overindulging: They imagine this animaloverseeing its offspring proudly and tenderly, the whole family watchingthe setting of the sun from the limbs of trees with sighs of pleasure. The life of the wild animal issimple, noble and meaningful, they imagine. Then it is captured by wicked men and thrown intotiny jails. Its "happiness" is dashed. It yearns mightily for "freedom"and does all it can to escape. Being denied its "freedom" for too long, the animal becomes ashadow of itself, its spirit broken. So some people imagine. This is not the way it is.Animals in the wild lead lives of compulsion and necessity in an environment wherethe supply of fear is high and the supply of food is low and where territory must constantlybe defended. What is the meaning of freedom in such a context? Animals in the wild are, inpractice, free neither in space nor in time, nor in their personal relations. In theory- that is, as simple physical possibility - and animal could pick up and go, flaunting allthe social conventions and boundaries proper to its species. But such an event is less likely tohappen than for a member of our own species, say a shopkeeper with all the usual ties - to family,to friends, to society - to drop everything and walk away from his life with only the spare change inhis pockets and the clothes on his frame. If a man, boldest and most intelligent of creatures, wontwander from place to place, a stranger to all, why would an animal, which is by temperament farmore conservative? For that is what animals are, conservative, one might even say reactionary. Thesmallest changes can upset them.They want things to be just so, day after day, month after month. Surprises are highly disagreeableto them. You see this in the way the move around their territory. An animal inhabits its space,whether in a zoo or in the wild, in the same way chess pieces move about a chessboard -significantly. There is no more happen-stance, no more freedom, involved in the whereabouts of alion or a bear or a deer than in the location of a knighton a chessboard. Both speak of pattern and purpose. In the wild, animals stick to the same pathsfor the same pressing reasons, season after season. In a zoo, if an animal is not in its normal placein its regular posture at the usual hour, it means something. It may be the reflection of nothingmore than a minor change in the environment.Q. In what ways is the second paragraph (line 12) an effective link between paragraphs 1 and 3?
UNIT 1 LANGUAGE STUDY TONE Tone is the term used to indicate the emotion or mood conveyed by the author. This may vary from humour, to sarcasm, to contempt etc. Tone is created in a combination of ways, such as through word choice, sentence structure, rhythm and rhyme. In the examples which follow you will find a variety of tones being used. In each case you ;must identify the tone or tones and by quotation and comment explain how and / or why these tones are used. It can be more accurate to use an adjective to identify a tone ego Sarcastic, critical, humorous etc.1. "The appeal is hipness yet, when combined with baggy combat trousers (as such hats often are)the 50 effect is to turn our nations youth into thousands of replicas of Henry Fonda in On GoldenPond*. Not, I am sure, the desired effect, but to point this out to the wearers would provoke onlythe response: "Henry Fonda? Who does he play for?""*On Golden Pond - film starring Henry Fonda, who wore a floppy hat in his old age.Q.In Paragraph 11 the writer uses a humorous tone in order to express hisfeelings about "our nations youth" (line 51).Explain the way in which this feature is used to convey the writers attitude. *****2. "Black bears rarely attack. But heres the thing. Sometimes they do. All bears are agile, 30cunning and immensely strong, and they are always hungry. If they want to kill you and eat you,they can, and pretty much whenever they want. That doesnt happen often, but - and here is theabsolutely salient point - once would be enough."Q.Identify any one technique used by the writer in this paragraph and explainhow this technique helps him to create an appropriate tone. *****3. "A more significant intrusion into the wilds, certainly in terms of numbers, is the fashion ofmountain biking. Ive always ridden bikes off the road on to trails to get far into the heart of thecountry, but they were big, creaky, clanking, old things that had to have a puncture repaired every20 minutes. So I, foolishly, welcomed the invention of the tough trail bike, designed as it is tohandle exactly the kind of forest trails and dirt tracks I had previously navigated, on something thegrocers boy in a Hovis advert would have ridden."Q. One aspect of Muriel Grays style is her use of exaggeration. Using twoexamples from paragraph 5, what effect does this technique have on the tone ofthe article? *****4. "After I explained who I was and that I had no place to stay, Bootsie (the tall boy) welcomed meand said I could stay as long as I honoured their rule: No two people of the opposite sex slepttogether. In fact, unless I rained, everyone had their own sleeping accommodation. Since some ofthe cars leaked, bad weather forced a doubling up. There was no stealing, since that would bring
the police to the yard; and since everyone was underage, there was the likelihood that theyd besent off to foster homes or the juvenile courts. Everyone worked at something. Most of the girlscollected bottles and worked weekends in greasy spoons. The boys mowed lawns, swept out poolhalls and ran errands for small Negro-owned stores. All money was held by Bootsie and usedcommunally."Q. How does the writers tone in lines 25 - 33 reflect her attitude to the lifestyleof her new friends? *****5. "Admittedly there is a line between genuine sentiment and kitsch, and it has been crossed toooften in the past. Anyone involved in the tourist industry will have sat through some toe-curlinglyawful "Scottish Evenings". These roaming-in-the-gloaming extravaganzas tend to feature girls inmini-kilts and too much make-up dancing - allegedly - the Highland Fling. The turn is usually aportly singer who struts about the stage wiggling his hips to swing his kilt. A whole hutch of whiterabbits have laid down their lives to provide his sporran."6. What tone does the writer use in lines 36 - 41?Show how the writers language achieves this tone. *****
UNIT 1 LANGUAGE STUDY IMAGERYSet about these questions in the following way: • Analyse the imagery used. This could include simile, metaphor, personification, alliteration, onomatopoeia etc. • Decide what effect is achieved by the writers word choice.1. "A tall-bodied grey car near the fence caught my eye. Its seats were untorn, and although it hadno wheels or rims it sat easily on its fenders. The idea of sleeping in the near open bolstered mysense of freedom. I was a loose kite in a gentle wind floating with only my goodwill for an anchor.After deciding upon the car. I got inside and ate the tuna sandwiches and then searched thefloorboards for holes. The fear that rats might scurry in and eat off my nose as I slept was morealarming than the shadowed hulks in the junkyard or the quickly descending night. My grey choice,however, seemed rat-tight, and I abandoned my idea of taking another walk and decided to sitsteady and wait for sleep."Q. Explain the image that the writer creates.How effective is this image in describing her circumstances to the reader?2. "Eleanora was not only the prettiest girl in the class, she was the only pretty girl in the class. Shehad golden ringlets (which I later discovered are created by twisting the hair in strips of rags), andnice fresh clothes worthy of Princess Grace of Monaco. And she spoke nice. And her daddy - whowas an officer in the Merchant Navy and something of a prince himself - was better off than mostother parents and Heaven knows what she was doing in that school or district. And though she wasnice and pleasant to the other girls, nobody ever sat beside her because she was, after all, aprincess…She had these fair ringlets and wore, I remember, a print frock the cornflower blue of her eyes.Hands like little pink roses. But the badness was in me. Even this angel could not restrain thebadness. For right in front of me, right in the seat before me, was an enemy."Q. How effectively does the simile in this last extract develop the writers earlier impressions ofElla? *****3. "Who could have guessed that inventor Dr Klaus Maertenss sensible Gem1an Hausfrau shoeswould one day span the chasms of pop, philosophy, and fashion? An observation borne out by theconveyor belt of high-profile wearers: Pete Townsend, Noddy Holder, Madness, The Clash, PJHarvey, Blur, Elastica, A Clockwork Oranges Alex Delarge, and Jo Brand."Q. "Who could have guessed ... would one day span the chasms of pop,philosophy, and fashion?" What does this image suggest about the power of DMs? *****4. "As the UK manufacturers boast in their anniversary book, "like the subcultures that createdthem, they are scruffy, smart, sexy, macho, fashionable, fashionless, classy, classless, uniform, andunique". From sixties skinheads to stomping seventies rockers and punks to eighties grunge kidsand crusty travellers, Doc Martens have earned what rock singer Ian Dury accurately described as"a communist shoe" status, an observation based on the mass-produced nature of the DM, mixed
with its ability to allow individuality. No other shoe design can claim the ubiquity and breadth ofappeal that the DM does. Over the decades it has been matched with boiler suits, combats,pinstripes, bondage trousers, and flowery dresses. Men, Women, grannies, and teens have all laidclaim to the eight-hole, cherry-red, 1460 (named after its launch date) boot over its 40-year history."Q. Write down any example of alliteration used in this paragraph and explain itseffect. *****5. "Heavy snow must them have covered him - otherwise, his bones would have been picked cleanby scavenging birds - and his body survived intact because his final resting-place was in a deep rockcleft. Gradually, the blanket of snow turned to ice, entombing him, and for SO centuries theglacier ground its way forward over the top of the gully, leaving him and his immediatesurroundings almost unmoved.Q. Show how the writer adds to your understanding of what happened to theIceman by his use of imagery and sentence structure in lines 20 - 24. *****6. Back in England, I felt quite unexpectedly bereft. After a long night of confused passage making,dodging tows, skidding on boils and racing through chutes, 1d wake up in the morning andremember with a pang, that Id lost the river and the boat. There was only one way to stop thedreams coming, and I bought a scuffed IS-foot launch which I kept moored on the Thames atHammersmith. I took it to Lechlade at one end of the river and Tilbury at the other in asuccession of soft, suburban outings.Q. What is the effect of the writers use of alliteration in " .... A succession ofsoft, suburban outings." (line 25) *****7. "But it is the wind - the endless shifting gradients of atmospheric pressure - that makes travellingin a small boat into an adventure, in the sense defined by the dictionary ("That which happenswithout design; chance, hap, luck"). The wind blows you into places that youd never meant to visit,and keeps you pinioned there. The wind is a mad travel agent, with a malicious and surrealist turnof wit. You want to go to France - the wind will maroon you for ten days in Dover. You want to goto the Shetland Islands, and the wind will make you spend a week in Bridlington as penance foryour vanity. You cant move without the winds consent, and when you do move, you find yourselfsuddenly rescheduled, headed for a destination that you hadnt heard often minutes ago.Every day the chart and the pilot book produced surprises; and if you have any sense, you alwaystake the winds advice and go where it listeth, to the obscure village or small town that offersshelter. Sometimes you have to stay out at sea, missing your original destination altogether. Moreoften, youre driven in haste into harbours youd overlooked, far short of where youd planned tobe that night."Q. The purpose of lines 41 - 54 is to illustrate how the wind makes travelling in asmall boat an adventure.Giving an example to support your answer, explain how the writer has used eithersentence structure or imagery to do this. *****