Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
INFECTIOUS DISEASESEmerging infectious diseases     -   Diseases of infectious origin with human incidences that have incr...
o Human-human transmission (blod or body fluid)          o Percutaneous transmission          o Mucous membrane exposure  ...
Dse                 Causative agents    Mode of           Clinical manifestations     Treatment                           ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

NCM notes: Infectious diseases

848 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

NCM notes: Infectious diseases

  1. 1. INFECTIOUS DISEASESEmerging infectious diseases - Diseases of infectious origin with human incidences that have increased within the past two decades or that are likely to increase in the futureA. West Nile virus- emerging pathogens in humans caused by flavivirus - Most human infections are asymptomatic, when sx are present headache and fever are most frequently reported - Incubation period: 5-15days - No treatment - Transmission: birds are the natural reservoir for the virus - Bite of infected mosquito that has fed on infected bird - Not transmitted person to person - Aedes albopictus - Implication for nursing: teach prevention of mosquito bites by wearing proper clothing and using insect repellent - Teach people in affected areas to wear gloves in handling dead birdsB. Legionnaire’s disease- caused by gram-negative bacteria, Legionella pneumophila - Legionella organisms are found in many man-made and naturally occurring water sources - Transmission: aerosolized route from an environmental source to an individual’s respiratory tract - Risk factors: dses that lead to severe immunosuppression such as AIDS, hematologic malignancy, end-stage renal disease, use of immunosuppressive agents (steriods) - CxMx: early sx: malaise, myalgias, headache, dry cough; inc pulmonary sx, productive cough, dyspnea, chest pain, usually frebile may reach 39.4C or higher) - Med mgt: Azithromycin (Zithromax), Clarithromycin, Erythromycin, Levofloxacin - Nsg mgt: described for the pt with any pneumonia - Isolation not necessaryC. Lyme Disease- Borrelia burgdorferi - Transmittted to humans by ticks - Ticks may feed on infected white-tailed deer or white-footed mice which serve as a vector to transmit to humans - CxMx: erythema migrans is the best clinical marker, flu-like sx, inflamed painful arthritis, limb weakness; in later stage, neurologic manifestations from mild Bell’s palsy to GBS (Guillaine Barre’s Syndrome) (paralysis) or dementia - Nsg con: not communicable from person-person o Best means of prevention is the avoidance of tick-infested areas o Ticks should be removed with tweezers or forceps to avoid leaving mouth parts in the skin: pull upward o Insect repellantD. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Hps) - Caused by a member of hantavirus family of viruses - Infected rodents known to carry the virus are found worldwide - Thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration are common - No specific tx has been approved - Transmission: believed to occur through aerosolization of rodent excreta - Nsg con: rodent control, proper storage of food, careful wet mop cleaning and disinfection of rodent- contaminated areas.E. Ebola and Marburg Viruses - Caused by filoviruses characterized by severe hemorrhagic fevers, often accompanied by hepatic and renal damage - Mortality rate: marbug virus: 25% o Ebola: 50-90% - Filoviruses: clincal course- often occur rapidly o Fever, rash, encephalitis o Profound hemorrhage, organ destruction, shock o Mortality rate: 90% o Survivors: prolonged recovery period (weakness, malaise, cachexia common)
  2. 2. o Human-human transmission (blod or body fluid) o Percutaneous transmission o Mucous membrane exposure o Possible airborne transmission o Strict infection control measures o No antiviral tx approved yet o Supportive tx (MechVent, dialysis) o Contact CDC asapF. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Caused by member of coronavirus family - An influenza-like dse (s/sx: cough, fever) - Respiratory distress in minority of cases - Barrier precautions - Nsg con: measure body temp, ventilation, drink more water, wash hands frequently, wear gauze maskG. AH1N1 virus (swine flu) - Is a combination of 4 viruses from swine, bird - First reported in the US in April of 2009 - Transmitted from person-person, same with seasonal influenza virus - Caused by infection with a novel coronavirus - CxMx: similar sx with regular flu: o Fever and headache, fatigue and muscle aches, loss of appetite, nasal congestion, sore throat and cough, others report of diarrhea and N/V - Mode of transmission: exposed to persons who are sneezing and coughing and positive of the virus o Touching the mouth, nose, and eyes after contact with persons positive of the virus - What to do? o Should wear surgical mask o Separate room or if not, give 1 meter distance from each family member o Good ventilation o Handwashing after each contact with the patient o Environmental sanitation - Prevention: o Hand washing o Avoid people who are positive o Increase body’s resistance:  Inc fluid intake  8 hours of sleep - Home based care: reducing risk to the patient: o Hand hygiene o Equipment care o Patient teaching - Reducing risk to household members: o Establishing barriers o Food preparation
  3. 3. Dse Causative agents Mode of Clinical manifestations Treatment transmissionWEST NILE VIRUS Birds: Flavivirus Mosquito: aedes albopictusLEGIONNAIRE’S DSE Water resources: Aerolized route malaise, myalgias, Azithromycin Legionella headache, dry cough; inc pneumophilia pulmonary sx, productive cough, dyspnea, chest pain, usually frebile may reach 39.4C or higher)LYME DSE White-tailed deer Ticks Erythema migrans, mild Ticks removed or white-footed Bell’s palsy to GBS or with tweezers mice: Borrelia dementia burgdorferiHANTAVIRUS Rodents: Aerolization of Hemoconcentration, Rodent controlPULMONARY hantavirus rodent excreta thrombocytopeniaSYNDROMEEBOLA AND MARBURG Filoviruses Severe hemorrhagic fever, Contact CDC asap often accomp. By hepatic and renal failureSEVERE ACUTE Coronavirus Flu-like sx Barrier protectionRESPIRATORYSYNDROMEAH1N1 Swine, birds: Flu-like sx Barrier protection coronavirus

×