Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

H2S

5,457 views

Published on

Primer on H2S

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

H2S

  1. 1. 6/18/2011 1
  2. 2. 6/18/2011 2
  3. 3. 6/18/2011 3
  4. 4.  Used in farming – crop dusting and organic farming applications Nuclear Engineering Epsom salts Laxative Exfoliate And of course.... matches 6/18/2011 4
  5. 5.  Beta lactum antibiotics ◦ Penicillins ◦ Cephalosporins ◦ Monobactums Dermatological treatments ◦ Psoriasis ◦ Eczema ◦ Acne 6/18/2011 5
  6. 6.  Occurs naturally in; ◦ Crude petroleum ◦ Volcanic gases ◦ Hot springs 6/18/2011 6
  7. 7. ◦ Can form from organic materials (plants, human, animal waste decomposition in oxygen-free environments.  It’s called Anaerobic Decomposition and it happens in;  Manure piles  Sewers  Swamps  Composts 6/18/2011 7
  8. 8. Q: If a well has 25% H2S content and is a couple miles away from me... What does that mean to me?A: Many people live near sour gas wells all their lives with no problems at all because it dissipates into the atmosphere and becomes a very small amount of H2S in the atmosphere 6/18/2011 8
  9. 9.  If there is a leak, at that’s rare, the percentage of sour gas in a well quickly dissipates when it incorporates into the atmosphere. Thus, a well that has a 25% sour gas content may only create 1 or 2 ppm in a zone immediately next to the well, and dissipates further from there. 6/18/2011 9
  10. 10. Modeling determines a dispersion zone 6/18/2011 10
  11. 11. 6/18/2011 11
  12. 12.  When a well produces a percentage of H2S it is just that, a percentage. This measurement is not how we sample air quality to determine if there is any danger to people. The air we breath is sampled and reported in ppm – ppm stands for “parts per million” and that’s how we measure H2S in the air... In parts per million. 6/18/2011 12
  13. 13.  You may only be exposed to a fractional ppm if you live near a sour well and if there is a leak You can sit in the hot springs all day at 2 or even 6 ppm, and the same is true for H2S in low concentrations from a well If a sour gas well gets out of control, it is flared to burn off the H2S In Alberta, sour gas well facilities are designed, monitored and highly regulated for the public safety 6/18/2011 13
  14. 14.  Energy Resources Conservation Board AUC regulates sour gas pipelines Strict Engineering Standards are applied to all sour gas well equipment MSDS information is on every well in Alberta. Crews are trained on live wells @ Nisku training site Drillers and Rig Managers are trained and certified in blowout prevention 6/18/2011 14
  15. 15.  6,000 sour gas wells in AB 250 processing plants 18,000 km of pipelines 105 wells within or near Calgary 98% of sulphur removed is converted to elemental sulphur 2007 Data – Gov. Alberta 6/18/2011 15
  16. 16.  Best engineering practices Setbacks to human dwellings and areas Handling and transportation requirements Sensing equipment at sites with redundant backup sensors Flaring guidelines Evacuation requirements (15 ppm) 6/18/2011 16
  17. 17. Lease setbacks areareas large enoughfrom human orlivestock to ensurethere is enoughroom for sour gas todissipate into theatmosphere to a safelevel 6/18/2011 17
  18. 18.  Drill pipe used in sour gas wells must be resistant to corrosion NACE International 6/18/2011 18
  19. 19.  checks for corrosion to maintain pipeline integrity 6/18/2011 19
  20. 20. 6/18/2011 20
  21. 21. 6/18/2011 21
  22. 22. 6/18/2011 22
  23. 23.  H2S concentration of greater than four parts per million a.k.a. >4ppm in the atmosphere ◦ .0047 ppm // half of humans sense the rotten egg smell ◦ 5 ppm - 15 ppm // alarm ranges ◦ 10 ppm - 20 ppm // borderline concentration for eye irritation ◦ 150 ppm – 250 ppm // Sense of smell disappears ◦ 320 ppm – 530 ppm // Pulmonary edema, potential death ◦ 530 ppm – 1,000 ppm // Rapid breathing to respiratory arrest ◦ 800 ppm // lethal for 50% of humans with 5 minutes exposure ◦ 1,000 ppm // immediate collapse and respiratory arrest 6/18/2011 23
  24. 24. 6/18/2011 24
  25. 25.  Alberta has the toughest H2S regulations that exist in the World with an amazing track record of success. The most famous event in Alberta was the Lodgepole blowout of Nabors Rig 18 while drilling under the Pembina River at a depth of about 3,000 meters. 6/18/2011 25
  26. 26.  1982 – Amoco well blow out 12 miles from Lodgepole (the worst part) ◦ In the atmosphere, no concentrations >10ppm were found within a 20 Km radius ◦ Within the 20km radius, only a few residences were found to have concentrations > 20ppm ◦ Highest concentration measured at Lodgepole was 14.5ppm ◦ Drayton Valley (45km from well) had highest reading of 4.5ppm ◦ Highest reading in Edmonton was 0.5ppm 6/18/2011 26
  27. 27.  Upper Hot Springs – 2ppm Miette Hot Springs – 6ppm Lodgepole –Drayton Valley reached 5ppm Lodgepole –Edmonton reached .5 In Cynthia and Drayton Valley it was less than 1 ppm about 95 and 96 percent of the time and about .1 for Edmonton 6/18/2011 27
  28. 28. Mastrb1asterVideo 1Video 2Video 3Video 4Video 5Landcruiser45Conventional Blow OutdlelementalNabors 18 6/18/2011 28
  29. 29.  During the 26 day period the well was not on fire... ◦ Edmonton – odour detected but concentrations were less than 0.1ppm 93% of the time 6/18/2011 29
  30. 30.  Produced natural gas containing H2S smells like rotten eggs ◦ A very heavy dose can be fatal ◦ It collects in low lying areas because it’s heavier than air ◦ It also deadens the sense of smell ◦ Can burn and irritate eyes ◦ Was used by the British as a chemical agent in WW1 6/18/2011 30
  31. 31. Sweet natural gas has no smell –so we add mercaptans whichcreate that funky smell as thegas is used to heat and cookwithIt’s a safety feature and isdesigned so that humans candetect the odour if there is a leak 6/18/2011 31
  32. 32.  Special chemicals are added in order to make it easy for humans to detect gas leaks Sweet gas without H2S content, is odourless, the mercaptans are added as a safety feature 6/18/2011 32
  33. 33. The school board had plumbers tap into an oilcompanies residue line.Gas leaked into an enclosed crawlspace thatran the entire 253 foot length of the building’sfacade. 6/18/2011 33
  34. 34. Since natural gas is odourless – nobodyhad any idea there was a leak and couldnot possibly predict what would happennext. 6/18/2011 34
  35. 35. 6/18/2011 35

×