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Global Temperatures
Climate              Systems             ClimatePlanetaryPosition &                 Human  Solar Output      Change       ...
This is a physicallyImpossible view ofEarth imaged by GalileoOrbiter taken directlyover the South Pole.Why is this viewphy...
   Solar Insolation   Milankovitch Cycles   The Anthropocene StallThe Ruddiman early Anthropocene hypothesis suggests t...
3 Primary Factors          Eccentricity          Axial Tilt          PrecessionCredit: Montana State University Departm...
Grinnell Glacier taken from the Grinnell Glacier Overlook offthe Highline Trail, Glacier National Park. The view of Grinne...
The lake continues to enlarge asthe glacier recedes. Icebergs canbe seen floating in Upper GrinnellLake.This this photo wa...
The Sun observed by SUMER instrument onthe SOHO satellite on March 2-4, 1996.(Source: SOHO - SUMER Instrument).
Volcanic eruptions may send ash andsulphate gas high into the atmosphere.The sulphate may combine with waterto produce tin...
Cloud feedback could accelerate global warming.Fewer low level clouds mean that more sunlight reachesEarth’s surface, lead...
Credit: University of Hawaii at ManoaCollege of Tropical Agriculture and Human ResourcesCTAHR Exchange – C. Y. HuSustainab...
Source:
Source:
400 Billion atrisk today3.5 Trillion atrisk by 2070                  Source:
   CO2          carbon dioxide   CH4          Methane   N2 O         Nitrous oxide   High GWP (global warming potentia...
   The Montreal Protocol demonstrates what can    be achieved with global perspective, effective    collaboration, and pr...
2006 World Meteorological        Organization/United        Nations Environment        Programme Scientific        Assessm...
   We know about CO2 and CH4   We can mitigate through human intervention   Methane Gas (CH4) has significant potential...
   Methane has significant    capacity to accelerate    global warming   We do not know if there    is a tipping point i...
   Massive Organic    Content   Warming causes    microbial activity    that generates    methane   Methane on this    ...
Seeding the ocean with iron to produce extensive phytoplankton bloomsOff the coast of VancouverIsland, Canada.Millions of ...
   1 typical car annual = 5.5 tonnes   100 watt light bulb annual = .9 tonnes   Upgrading and refining 10 barrels of bi...
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
Climate Change v 2012
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Climate Change v 2012

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Climate Change - what does it mean going forward?

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Climate Change v 2012

  1. 1. Global Temperatures
  2. 2. Climate Systems ClimatePlanetaryPosition & Human Solar Output Change Systems Ecological Systems
  3. 3. This is a physicallyImpossible view ofEarth imaged by GalileoOrbiter taken directlyover the South Pole.Why is this viewphysically impossible? Image credit NASA/JPL
  4. 4.  Solar Insolation Milankovitch Cycles The Anthropocene StallThe Ruddiman early Anthropocene hypothesis suggests thatif solar insolation and Milankovitch cycle theories areascribed to, then Earth is in an Ice Age now... But that theeffects and full onset of a normal Ice Age have beenforsetalled by the onset of agrarian activities some 8,000years ago and accelerated in the 19th century by the adventof the industrial age
  5. 5. 3 Primary Factors  Eccentricity  Axial Tilt  PrecessionCredit: Montana State University Department of Earth SciencesDr. William W. LockeA hypertext for the appreciation of glaciers, and how they workBy the students in Geology 445Glacial Geology - Spring, 1999
  6. 6. Grinnell Glacier taken from the Grinnell Glacier Overlook offthe Highline Trail, Glacier National Park. The view of GrinnellGlacier taken circa 1940 shows the early formation of UpperGrinnell Lake, a pro-glacier lake visible at the terminus of theglacier.
  7. 7. The lake continues to enlarge asthe glacier recedes. Icebergs canbe seen floating in Upper GrinnellLake.This this photo was taken in2005. Credit: Blase Reardon US Geological Survey
  8. 8. The Sun observed by SUMER instrument onthe SOHO satellite on March 2-4, 1996.(Source: SOHO - SUMER Instrument).
  9. 9. Volcanic eruptions may send ash andsulphate gas high into the atmosphere.The sulphate may combine with waterto produce tiny droplets (aerosols) ofsulphuric acid, which reflect sunlightback into space.Large eruptions reach the middlestratosphere (19 miles to 30 kilometreshigh). At this altitude, the aerosols canspread around the world.
  10. 10. Cloud feedback could accelerate global warming.Fewer low level clouds mean that more sunlight reachesEarth’s surface, leading to further warming. Credit: Goddard Space Flight Center - EOS Project Science Office
  11. 11. Credit: University of Hawaii at ManoaCollege of Tropical Agriculture and Human ResourcesCTAHR Exchange – C. Y. HuSustainable Agriculture
  12. 12. Source:
  13. 13. Source:
  14. 14. 400 Billion atrisk today3.5 Trillion atrisk by 2070 Source:
  15. 15.  CO2 carbon dioxide CH4 Methane N2 O Nitrous oxide High GWP (global warming potential) gas ◦ HFC’s hydrofluorocarbons ◦ PFCs perfluorocarbons ◦ SF6 sulphur hexafluoride* To name some
  16. 16.  The Montreal Protocol demonstrates what can be achieved with global perspective, effective collaboration, and prudent stewardship.
  17. 17. 2006 World Meteorological Organization/United Nations Environment Programme Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion concluded the ozone hole recovery would be masked by annual variability for the near future and the ozone hole would fully recover in approximately 2065.Full Recovery estimated 2065
  18. 18.  We know about CO2 and CH4 We can mitigate through human intervention Methane Gas (CH4) has significant potential to damage to Earth’s Atmosphere There could be 400 Gigatons of Methane locked in the frozen Arctic Tundra
  19. 19.  Methane has significant capacity to accelerate global warming We do not know if there is a tipping point in atmospheric composition It is possible that Methane can contribute to a chain reaction that could alter the fundamental composition of atmospheric gases
  20. 20.  Massive Organic Content Warming causes microbial activity that generates methane Methane on this scale could tip climate change beyond human control
  21. 21. Seeding the ocean with iron to produce extensive phytoplankton bloomsOff the coast of VancouverIsland, Canada.Millions of tiny ocean plantscalled phytoplanktonRisks: Oceanic ecosystem complexity Production of domoic acid Toxic to marine mammal life Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (MODIS)
  22. 22.  1 typical car annual = 5.5 tonnes 100 watt light bulb annual = .9 tonnes Upgrading and refining 10 barrels of bitumen = 1 tonne Cool It - Free Online CO2 Calculator http://www.cool-it.us/index.php?refer=&task=carbon&step=1

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