Soil Analysis The Reasons And Hw Method


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Soil Analysis The Reasons And Hw Method

  1. 1. Soil Analysis - The Reasons <ul><li>Presented by Dallas Hanks </li></ul>
  2. 2. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Utah State Universtiy Extension Service </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado State University Extension Service </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio State University Extension Service </li></ul><ul><li>University of Idaho Extension Service </li></ul><ul><li>Cornell Cooperative Extension Service </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>I have found that a great part of the information I have, was acquired by looking for something and finding something else on the way. Franklin P. Adams </li></ul>
  4. 5. Quality Soil Properties
  5. 6. Conventional Uses of Soil Analysis <ul><li>Increasing knowledge of what nutrients are specifically available in your soil </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing environmental impacts due to soil amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing efficiency of resource inputs such as fertilizers and water </li></ul><ul><li>prediction of nutritional values needed for crop production </li></ul>
  6. 7. How Often Do You Check Your Oil? <ul><li>Once every month at least?? </li></ul><ul><li>Why?? </li></ul><ul><li>To protect investment </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure minium levels </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent repairs that may be more costly </li></ul><ul><li>Signal that a repair needs to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure envt. concerns </li></ul>
  7. 8. Soil Testing <ul><li>“ A soil test is the best method to determine whether ... fertilizer is needed” (USU Extension Fact Sheet HG/H5) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The soil test is an excellent measure of soil fertility. It is a very inexpensive way of maintaining good plant health...”(OSU Extension Fact Sheet HYG-1132-97) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quality topsoil is the basis for quality landscapes” (USU Extension Fact Sheet AG/SO-02) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Objectives of Soil Analysis <ul><li>Determine the status of soils I.E. nutrient availability </li></ul><ul><li>Macro </li></ul><ul><li>Micro </li></ul><ul><li>Salt conditions </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Form a basis to determine fertilizer needs </li></ul>
  9. 10. Cautions about soil analysis <ul><li>Irrigation techniques and amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Pest or toxic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Poor soil structure and drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Variety choice </li></ul><ul><li>“HOME SOIL TEST KITS ARE OF LITTLE TO NO VALUE. They are designed for eastern soils and give very poor accuracy on our western soil types.” </li></ul>
  10. 11. Phases of Soil Analysis Progam <ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction and chemical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation and making recommendations </li></ul>
  11. 12. Soil Sampling <ul><li>The results of your soil test are no better than the sample you send to the lab. </li></ul><ul><li>The sample must be representative of the area being considered. </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU DO NOT SAMPLE CORRECTLY YOU WILL NOT RECEIVE A RELIABLE DIAGNOSIS. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Tool for Soil Sampling Shovel Probe Bucket
  13. 14. Taking a Soil Sample <ul><li>1. With a shovel, make a hole in the soil. SAMPLING DEPTH SHOULD BE AS DEEP AS TILLAGE. Do not just sample the surface. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs, bedding plants and Trees - 0-12 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turf - 3 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Throw this shovel full of soil aside. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cut a ½ to 1 inch slice of soil from the side of the hole. Be sure the slice is fairly evenin width and thickness. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Place the slice in a bucket. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 at about six different locations. This step is important to obtain a representative sample. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Thoroughly mix the 6 sub-samples. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Send about 1 pint of the thoroughly mixed garden soil for the test. Obtaining the soil sample will be easier if you have a soil probe or bulb planter. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Supply the information on the test form for better interpretation of results. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Extraction and Chemical Analysis <ul><li>Extract “available” portion of the nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the concentration of the extracted nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Extractant is the most important part of this procedure </li></ul>
  15. 16. Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis <ul><li>Nutrient extraction (hasn’t changed in some instances since 1940's) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis <ul><li>For each nutrient, mix soil with extracting reagent </li></ul>
  17. 18. Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis <ul><li>Shake each sample for respective time (30- 90 min) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Filter the sample
  19. 20. A New Way of Doing Things <ul><li>Often discovery is founded on a legacy </li></ul><ul><li>History of this project: </li></ul><ul><li>Turf nutritional recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in soil analysis (GPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Just a faster, easier, less expensive way of doing things </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelky and Czinkota </li></ul><ul><li>Expense and labor of Soil Analysis </li></ul>
  20. 21. Proposed Soil Nutrient Extraction using Hot Water and Pressure <ul><li>nutrient extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Simply allow HW method to extract and filter the sample (1-5 min) </li></ul><ul><li>analyze using standard methods </li></ul><ul><li>Chromotography </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrophotometry </li></ul>
  21. 22. Reasons for HW <ul><li>Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>decreased analysis time </li></ul><ul><li>less hazardous chemical disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul><ul><li>On site anaylsis </li></ul><ul><li>Increased demand for soil analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Precision Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>G.P.S. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Materials and Methods <ul><li>Use an Braun T-250 espresso machine for equipment </li></ul><ul><li>generated 2.5 bar and temp of 93 C </li></ul><ul><li>5 gram soil </li></ul><ul><li>100 ml of distilled water </li></ul><ul><li>2 mm filter paper </li></ul>
  23. 24. Cont. <ul><li>Allow water to heat to constant temp </li></ul><ul><li>Make extractionm vent closed </li></ul><ul><li>Switch from steam to cup </li></ul><ul><li>Allow all water to pass through sample </li></ul><ul><li>Avg time - 1.4 min </li></ul>
  24. 26. Numbers of Samples??
  25. 27. Results and Discussion
  26. 32. On the Horizon <ul><li>Portability </li></ul><ul><li>GPS and USU - onsite analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Textural Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>E.C. </li></ul><ul><li>S.A.R. </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul>
  27. 33. Conclusion <ul><li>HW is precise and accurate </li></ul><ul><li>HW is more rapid and simple </li></ul><ul><li>HW used less hazardous reagents </li></ul><ul><li>HW minimized equipment and labor </li></ul><ul><li>HW potentially can cut cost </li></ul>
  28. 34. Analysis <ul><li>Macro Nutrients - Nitrate, Pottasium, Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Micro Nutrients - zinc, iron, copper, maganese </li></ul><ul><li>Salt conditions - ec </li></ul><ul><li>pH - how acidic or basic your soil is </li></ul><ul><li>Texture - amount of sand, silt and clay </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Matter - how much </li></ul>
  29. 35. Macro Nutrients <ul><li>Nitrogen - Minumum levels - 50 ppm** </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is the key element in plant growth </li></ul><ul><li>Is the most tested for in soils </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in the highest quantity by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is used in protein synthesis, nucleic acid production, chlorophyll and other plant substances </li></ul><ul><li>**Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors </li></ul>
  30. 36. Macro <ul><li>Phosphorus - Minumum levels - 15 ppm** </li></ul><ul><li>Very tricky to analyze for </li></ul><ul><li>Bound by high pH in our soils </li></ul><ul><li>Used in ATP production, nucleic acid formation, fruit and seed production. </li></ul><ul><li>**Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors </li></ul>
  31. 37. Macros <ul><li>Potassium - Minimum levels - 100 ppm** </li></ul><ul><li>Used in cell division, carbohydrate formation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Free” spirit in the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Availablity affected by pH of soil </li></ul><ul><li>**Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors </li></ul>
  32. 38. Micros <ul><li>Boron - Minimum levels - 1 ppm** </li></ul><ul><li>Used in cell division and growth, membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Most toxic of micronutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Iron - Minimum levels - 5 ppm** </li></ul><ul><li>Used in redox reactions, electron transport </li></ul><ul><li>Availability very pH dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc - Minimum levels - 1 ppm** </li></ul><ul><li>Used to form nitrogen and sulfur ligands, enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Not multivalent </li></ul><ul><li>Availability is highly pH dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Maganese - Minimum levels - 1 ppm** </li></ul><ul><li>Used in enzymes and electron transport </li></ul><ul><li>Availability is highly pH dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Copper - Minimum levels - 0.2 ppm** </li></ul><ul><li>Used in enzymes and electron transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Availability is highly pH dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur - Minimum levels - N/A </li></ul><ul><li>Mimics nitrogen in the plant and soil </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids, vitamins and oils </li></ul><ul><li>**Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors </li></ul>
  33. 39. Conclusion <ul><li>Often, it is easy to make things complicated, but difficult to make things simple. </li></ul>