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  1. 1.
  2. 2. Brief Synopsis<br />
  3. 3. Some Facts<br />Roadways ≈ 4 million miles of roadways <br /> (<br />Railroads ≈ 140,000 miles of rights of way <br />(<br />Airports ≈ 19,820: Total number of airports <br />(<br />Military ≈ Department of Defense owns 29 million acres of arable land in the United States <br />(<br />
  4. 4. Project Objectives<br />How many millions of these acres are available? <br />Will conditions permit crops to grow in fallow non-traditional agronomic lands? (i.e. roadsides)<br />Will cropping these areas cause envt. problems?<br />Will this process be economically viable?<br />Which crop will produce the most economical yield?<br />What would this cropping process do to the existing plant ecosystem?<br />
  5. 5. Potential Benefits/Advantages<br />This method of fuel production:<br />Does not affect food supply<br />Benefits of Biodiesel<br />Increases aesthetics<br />Decreases costs of maintenance<br />Aids in educating the public about renewable fuels<br />“We need food and we need fuel, but those shouldn’t conflict” Jeff Steiner USDA ARS<br />
  6. 6. Considerations<br />Safety<br />Structural Integrity<br />Establishment and Harvesting<br />Economics<br />Wildlife Impacts<br />Ecology/Environmental Impacts<br />Water Quality<br />Grower Concerns<br />
  7. 7. Roadside Biodiesel Production Potential (I.E. Utah)<br />UDOT Lands could potentially produce over 250 gallons/mile of Biodiesel <br />Assumptions:<br />100 Foot Wide Growing Region per Mile <br />Equals @ 12 acres/mile<br />Use agronomic Methods and Equipment<br />60% Dry Land Yields<br />This solves maintenance and pest cost problems<br />$300/mile for 2007<br />Biomass potential for G2 fuel production<br />It is estimated this yield could be increased substantially in more tolerant climates<br />
  8. 8. Examples of UDOT fleet vehicles that would utilize F2F biodiesel<br />
  9. 9. Economics&apos; of Freeways to Fuel<br />A unique set of conditions contribute to a lower cost of production for UDOT<br />Comparisons based on Private Production Costs for Direct Seeded Winter Canola after Summer Fallow, 14&quot; rainfall zone, Whitman County, Washington 2006<br />Break even for F2F assumed at 50% of agronomic yeilds<br />
  10. 10. Designing and Marking Research Plots<br /><ul><li>Exp. Design
  11. 11. 6 treatments
  12. 12. 4 reps
  13. 13. 4 locations
  14. 14. Control
  15. 15. Spring canola
  16. 16. RR Spring canola with round up applied (Hyola)
  17. 17. Fall canola
  18. 18. RR Fall canola with round up applied
  19. 19. Safflower (S-208)</li></li></ul><li>Soil Conditions Along Roadsides<br />Normal agronomic results for nutrients and organic matter, pH and salt content<br />
  20. 20. Soil Conditions Along Roadsides<br />soil was compacted above normal values along roadsides<br />
  21. 21. Establishing Plots<br />Killed existing vegetation with Roundup Weathermax®<br />Planted safflower and canola with Tye Pasture Pleaser no-till drill with ¾ inch depth bands<br />
  22. 22. A Closer Look at Planting<br />How did compaction effect planting? <br />Resulting in open furrows with no seed/soil contact and evaporation<br />≈<br />Drill Opener and Press Wheels<br />
  23. 23. Traditional vs Roadside<br />Roadside Safflower plot in foreground<br />Commercial Safflower field in background<br />Traditional Safflower Field<br />F2F Safflower Plot<br />
  24. 24. Yield Data 2007/2008<br />Utah FreeWays to Fuel data utilizing no-till dry land practices<br />
  25. 25. Hypothesis for Low Crop Yield <br />Abnormal Climatic Conditions<br />Precipitation<br />Some of the lowest on record <br />Temperature <br />Some of the highest on record<br />Abnormally High Compaction<br />Planting Technique<br />
  26. 26. FreeWays to Fuel Alliance<br />Top Tier Universities<br />Washington State University, Iowa State, Auburn, Michigan State University, Montana State, North Carolina State University, State University at New York – Cobbleskill, Penn State University<br />Corporate <br />New Holland – tractor donation<br />Great Plains – drill equipment donation<br />Aerway Ag – aerator donation<br />Government<br />State Departments of Transportation<br />DOD Interests<br />State Energy Departments<br />
  27. 27. RSL Research Focus<br />Simulate Roadside conditions (compaction and soil quality equivalency)<br />Provide information on plant establishment techniques<br />
  28. 28. RSL Research Focus (cont.)<br />Compaction Relief<br />≈<br />Seeding Pass<br />Culti-Planting<br />Initial Results<br />Compaction relief with minimal<br /> disturbance to soil <br />Safflower seeds on top of the ground<br />VS<br />Control = No Till Drill<br />Culti-Banding<br />
  29. 29. Greenhouse Study <br />Experiments with constant compaction<br />Depth of emergence<br />
  30. 30. Other Crops<br />Are we looking at the right ones? <br />Investigation of Other Crops<br />Dwarf Sunflower<br />Fall/Winter Safflower<br />Camelina<br />Gumweed<br />Annual Flax<br />Mustard<br />Perennial Biomass (i.e. grasses, legumes)<br />
  31. 31. Biomass to Liquid (G2)<br />Biomass to Liquids<br />Thermal Platforms to transform biomass into liquid fuels<br />
  32. 32. Other Possible Locations<br />Estimated 10 Million Acres in Roadside Lands (based on 25% of some 4 million miles of roadway nationally)<br />Other locations <br />Military installations<br />Airports<br />Brownfields<br />Railroads<br />Power companies<br />Tribal Lands<br />Landfills<br />