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Landscape Presentation


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Landscape Presentation

  1. 1. Who are we?
  2. 2. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Urban construction sites are 100X more susceptible to deleterious soil effects than agricultural lands. (Brady and Weil, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Effects include: ( USDA-NRCS SOIL QUALITY – URBAN TECHNICAL NOTE No. 1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onsite – loss of topsoil, organic matter, increased compaction and lower microbiological activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offsite – eutrophication of water downstream, increased turbidity of water, clogging of waterways including public roads, road ditches, culverts and streams </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>One of the main causes of landscape problems is inadequate soil preparation. Landscape soils are often compacted or contaminated by construction practices. If these problems are not corrected, plant growth will suffer for years. (USU?? HG 500.3 – Dec 2002 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Add fertigation </li></ul><ul><li>Subsurface drip </li></ul><ul><li>High Organic matter soils </li></ul><ul><li>These things need to be sent to Developers!!!! Now!!!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Utah’s Growth Rate
  6. 6. Utah’s Growth – what does it mean <ul><li>We are currently growing faster than Africa </li></ul><ul><li>We are #4 in the nation – but this will change soon </li></ul><ul><li>We have #1 birth rate and #3 longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Even if we stop having children today- it will last for 50 years </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Increased storm water runoff as a result of low infiltration rates of compacted soils. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased flooding due to runoff. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased erosion from construction sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased water pollution potential, especially nitrates and phosphorus, in local rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds. ( </li></ul>
  8. 8. What kind of water users are we?
  9. 9. Where the Water is Used <ul><li>A majority of water is used for Agriculture </li></ul>
  10. 10. Our Newest Crop
  11. 11. Water Use in Utah Urban Areas
  12. 12. How are you approaching outdoor water conservation? <ul><li>Water efficient irrigation application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of irrigation equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of watering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water efficient plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xeriscaping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is missing from this picture? (Hint – where does the water go and the plants grow?) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Role of Soil in Water Conservation Local Stakeholders: The Resources' Best Stewards
  14. 14. What Role Does Soil Play in Water Conservation <ul><li>“ Soil is the most important component of the landscape.” (USU Extension Fact Sheet HG-522 – 02) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quality topsoil is the basis for quality landscapes” (USU Extension Fact Sheet AG/SO- 02) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Soil Quality is Linked to Sustainability” (NRCS Soil Quality Institute – 01) </li></ul><ul><li>LOW quality soils = HIGHER resource inputs (water) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Quality Soil – Efficient Soil <ul><li>Soils that have good infiltration rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less frequent watering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced run-off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less chemical and fertilizer loss to water bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower mortality rates of perennial vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawns and trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better plant growth and quality for shrubs, flowers, trees, gardens and lawns </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is Quality Soil <ul><li>The capacity of a specific type of soil to function within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sustain animal and plant productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain and enhance water and air quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support human health and habitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as an environmental buffer </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Quality Soil Properties
  18. 18. Two Common Problems in Landscape Soils <ul><li>COMPACTION </li></ul><ul><li>LOW ORGANIC MATTER </li></ul><ul><li>SO WHAT?? </li></ul><ul><li>More water – at least 30% more </li></ul><ul><li>More fertilizer - results in higher rates of non-point sources of pollution </li></ul>
  19. 19. What Does Compaction Look Like?
  20. 20. Typical Urban Compaction <ul><li>“ The limit of root growth is defined as 3000kPa. Our standard is to reduce compaction to 1500kPa or less. A typical soil is 6000kPa after construction.” (Dwayne Stendlund, MDOT) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Effects of Compaction <ul><li>Low infiltration rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High losses do to runoff or evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Water holding capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water runs out of root zone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low gas exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant roots cant breath </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher pollution rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N,P,S in waterways </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Simple Solutions?
  23. 24. Better Solutions <ul><li>Add quality organic matter in the form of compost </li></ul><ul><li>PREVENT COMPACTION or restore proper soil bulk densities </li></ul>
  24. 25. Add Organic Matter <ul><li>By adding organic matter to the soil – you increase its efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the amount of water that goes into the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease the loss due to evaporation or runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease the amount of water loss due to leaching </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Proper Soil Treatment Prior to Landscape Use <ul><li>Apply 1 – 2 inches and till in </li></ul><ul><li>Use only quality compost </li></ul>
  26. 27. Or After the Fact
  27. 28. Things to do right now! <ul><li>Educate Your Public with SOIL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S upply organic matter to soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember – only use high quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O nly quality soils in landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get it tested! (state certification) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I n established turf sites - aerate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least once a year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L ow compaction on new landscape sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designate no compaction zones – a new way of thinking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. What You Will Get <ul><li>Soils that have good infiltration rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less frequent watering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced run-off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less chemical and fertilizer loss to water bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower mortality rates of perennial vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawns and trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better plant growth and quality for shrubs, flowers, trees, gardens and lawns </li></ul>
  29. 30. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Utah State University </li></ul><ul><li>Penn State University </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan State University </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio State University </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas State University </li></ul><ul><li>University of Idaho </li></ul><ul><li>State of Utah – Division of Water Resources </li></ul>
  30. 31. Thoughts that need expanding <ul><li>Destruction of soil structure </li></ul><ul><li>No respiration, no microb, no water storage </li></ul><ul><li>Rel between water use and fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Evapotranspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Soil tests </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff with nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Soil quality – subsoil </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention – reduce traffice </li></ul><ul><li>Use screw driver to push into soil </li></ul><ul><li>After 12 hours – no wet finger </li></ul><ul><li>Compost quality </li></ul><ul><li>Styrafoam analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Tests – penetrometer, root depth, water infiltration rate, hydraulic conductivity bulk density of soil </li></ul><ul><li>Testing procedure for compost and for cert on topsoil </li></ul><ul><li>0.5% reduction in OM can reduce nutrient holding by 15% and water holding by 12% </li></ul>