Lesson 4 river features


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Lesson 4 river features

  1. 1. Access GeographyWeek 17<br />
  2. 2. Upper, middle or lower<br />
  3. 3. Erosion, transportation and deposition are driven by the rivers energy.<br />Erosion occurs where the river has the most energy.<br />Deposition occurs where the river loses energy, where it flows slowly.<br />
  4. 4. Looking at these processes in action…<br />EROSION<br />TRANSPORTATION<br />DEPOSITION<br />
  5. 5. Erosion: Rivers pick up material or erode material from one place…<br />
  6. 6. Transportation: Then the river carries, or transports it to another place…<br />
  7. 7. Deposition: Then, when the river slows down and loses energy it drops or deposits its load.<br />
  8. 8. The Upper Course<br />Sketching the River at different points in its course<br />The Middle Course<br />Use these words to annotate/label your sketches:<br />Steep Valley Sides<br />Shallow<br />Deep<br />Wide<br />Narrow<br />Surrounding Land Flat <br />Turbulent/Choppy River Flow<br />Smooth River Flow<br />Rocky<br />The Lower Course<br />
  9. 9. Rapids<br />
  10. 10. Rapids on the Rhone<br />
  11. 11. The Wonder of Waterfalls<br />Iguazu Falls, Argentina <br />Angel Fall, Venezuela <br />
  12. 12. Mind Blowing Meanders<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Waterfall Formation<br />
  15. 15. How do waterfalls form?<br />
  16. 16. Task: 1)Stick in your diagram of the waterfall. 2)Put the labels in the correct position on the diagram to explain how waterfalls form.<br />Extension: 1) Write a paragraph to explain how a waterfall is formed on a river.<br /> 2) Explain how a gorge is formed in the river.<br />
  17. 17. What are these words connected to waterfalls?<br />Dharckor<br />Englup Lopo<br />Tofsckro<br />Deero<br />Druneuct<br />Orgeg<br />
  18. 18. Meander = a bend in a river<br />
  19. 19. Oxbow Lakes<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Floodplain Formation<br />Floodplains and levees are formed by deposition in times of river flood. The river’s load is composed of different sized particles. When a river floods it deposits the heaviest of these particles first. The larger particles, often pebble-sized, form the LEVEES. The sands, silts and clays are similarly sorted with the sands being deposited next, then the silts and finally the lightest clays. This deposition makes up the FLOODPLAIN. <br />
  22. 22. Floodplain of the Rhone<br />Orchard<br />Old floodplain of the Rhone …<br />The large pebbles absorb the heat of the sun.<br />How do you think the pebbles got to be here?<br />
  23. 23. Delta Formation<br />Annotate the delta with the following label:<br />silt<br />clay<br />sand<br />Delta are found at the mouth of a river, where the river meets the sea. At this point the river is carrying too much load for its velocity and so deposition occurs. <br />The top of the delta is a fairly flat surface. This is where the coarsest river load is dropped. The finer particles are carried into deeper water. The silt is dropped to form a steep slope on the edge of the delta while the clay stays in suspension until it reaches the deeper water.<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. This is a cross section of a floodplain. <br />Draw a simple sketch of the diagram and annotate with the following labels<br />Sands<br />Levees<br />Clays and silts<br />
  26. 26. The River Conwy has deposited material in this section of its course. Suggest reasons why this has happened.<br />
  27. 27. This is a cross section of a meander bend. Sketch the diagram and mark on the following<br />River Cliff<br />Fastest velocity<br />Slip off slope<br />Undercutting<br />Area of deposition<br />
  28. 28. Which of the following landforms are primarily caused by: <br />* processes of erosion? <br />* processes of deposition? <br />* a mixture of erosion and deposition?<br />Draw out the table and insert the following landforms into the correct column. Indicate whether they are predominately found in the Upper or Lower Course by inserting a ‘U’ or ‘L’ after each feature.<br />V-shaped valleys<br />Rapids<br />Interlocking spurs<br />Deltas<br />Meanders<br />Floodplains<br />Levees<br />Waterfalls<br />Oxbow lakes<br />Erosion<br />Deposition<br />Erosion & Deposition<br />
  29. 29. Give evidence to show that this is the lower course of the river. Use grid references where possible.<br />64<br />63<br />62<br />61<br />Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey 1:50 000 Landranger raster data with the permission of HM Stationary Office © Crown copyright<br />60<br />50<br />51<br />47<br />48<br />49<br />
  30. 30. What do you expect to happen to the following variables as you travel downstream?<br />Discharge<br />Channel width<br />Water depth<br />Velocity<br />Load quantity<br />Load particle size<br />Channel bed roughness<br />Gradient<br />
  31. 31. The Bradshaw model<br />
  32. 32. The Schumm Model<br />
  33. 33. The Hjulstrom curve<br />