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Abdominal Ultrasound

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Abdominal Ultrasound informations you need to know.

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Abdominal Ultrasound

  1. 1. Abdominal Ultrasound
  2. 2. Abdominal Ultrasound <ul><li>An abdominal ultrasound uses reflected sound waves to produce a picture of the organs and other structures in the upper abdomen. Occasionally a specialized ultrasound is ordered for a detailed evaluation of a specific organ, such as a kidney ultrasound. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Abdominal Ultrasound can evaluate: <ul><li>Abdominal aorta , which is the large blood vessel (artery) that passes down the back of the chest and abdomen. The aorta supplies blood to the lower part of the body and the legs. </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>The aorta stems from the heart, arches upward, and then extends down behind the heart and through the chest (thorax) and the abdomen areas. The aorta then branches out and becomes the iliac arteries, which provide blood to the pelvis and legs. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Abdominal Ultrasound can evaluate: <ul><li>Liver , which is a large dome-shaped organ that lies under the rib cage on the right side of the abdomen. The liver produces bile (a substance that helps digest fat), stores sugars, and breaks down many of the body's waste products. </li></ul>
  6. 9. Liver <ul><li>The liver is a large organ in the right upper part of the abdomen. It performs a range of complex and important functions that affect all body systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the specific functions of the liver include: </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling the amounts of sugar (glucose), protein, and fat entering the bloodstream. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Liver <ul><li>Removing bilirubin, ammonia, and other toxins from the blood. (Bilirubin is a by-product of the breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells.) </li></ul><ul><li>Processing most of the nutrients absorbed by the intestines during digestion and converting those nutrients into forms that can be used by the body. The liver also stores some nutrients, such as vitamin A, iron, and other minerals. </li></ul>
  8. 11. Liver <ul><li>Producing cholesterol, substances that help blood clot, bile, and certain important proteins, such as albumin. </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking down (metabolizing) many drugs. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Abdominal Ultrasound can evaluate: <ul><li>Gallbladder , which is a saclike organ beneath the liver. The gallbladder stores bile. When food is eaten, the gallbladder contracts, sending bile into the intestines to help in digesting food and absorbing fat-soluble vitamins. </li></ul>
  10. 14. Gallbladder <ul><li>The gallbladder is a small sac under the liver that stores and concentrates bile, a fluid that helps the body digest fats. After a meal, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the small intestine. </li></ul>
  11. 15. Abdominal Ultrasound can evaluate: <ul><li>Spleen , which is the soft, round organ that helps fight infection and filters old red blood cells. The spleen is located to the left of the stomach, just behind the lower left ribs. </li></ul>
  12. 17. Spleen <ul><li>The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen that filters the blood by removing old or damaged blood cells and platelets and helps the immune system by destroying bacteria and other foreign substances. It also holds extra blood that can be released into the circulatory system, if needed. </li></ul>
  13. 18. Spleen <ul><li>The spleen is a useful but nonessential organ. It is sometimes removed (splenectomy) in people who have blood disorders, such as thalassemia or hemolytic anemia. If the spleen is removed, a person must get certain immunizations to help prevent infections that the spleen normally fights. </li></ul>
  14. 19. Abdominal Ultrasound can evaluate: <ul><li>Pancreas , which is the gland located in the upper abdomen that produces enzymes that help digest food. The digestive enzymes are then released into the intestines. The pancreas also releases insulin into the bloodstream; insulin helps the body utilize sugars for energy. </li></ul>
  15. 21. Pancreas <ul><li>The pancreas is an organ in the upper abdomen, behind the stomach and close to the spine, that produces substances (digestive enzymes) needed to break down and use food. The pancreas also produces insulin, the hormone that regulates sugar (glucose) in the blood. </li></ul>
  16. 22. Enzyme <ul><li>An enzyme is a protein produced by the body to speed up a specific chemical reaction in the body. The body produces many different kinds of enzymes for many different body processes, such as digestion and blood clotting. </li></ul>
  17. 23. Enzyme <ul><li>Some inherited diseases are caused by problems with the production of certain enzymes. Health professionals may measure the levels of certain enzymes in a person's blood to help diagnose certain types of disease, such as liver problems. </li></ul>
  18. 24. Insulin <ul><li>Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that allows sugar (glucose) to enter body cells, where it is used for energy. It also helps the body store extra sugar in muscle, fat, and liver cells where it can be released and used for energy when needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes develops if the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use insulin properly. </li></ul>
  19. 25. Abdominal Ultrasound can evaluate: <ul><li>Kidneys , which are the pair of bean-shaped organs located behind the upper abdominal cavity. The kidneys remove wastes from the blood and produce urine. </li></ul>
  20. 27. Kidneys <ul><li>The kidneys are organs located on either side of the spine, at the small of the back. Kidneys filter the blood and help balance water, salt, and mineral levels in the blood; they also produce hormones that help regulate blood pressure and blood supply. </li></ul>
  21. 28. Kidneys <ul><li>Waste from the kidneys is carried out of the body in urine. Urine flows through tubes (ureters) to the bladder, where it is stored until a person is ready to urinate. The waste and urine then leave the bladder to exit the body through a tube called the urethra. </li></ul>
  22. 29. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Determine the cause of abdominal pain. </li></ul>
  23. 30. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Detect, measure, or monitor an aneurysm in the aorta. An aneurysm may cause a large, pulsing lump in the abdomen. </li></ul>
  24. 31. Aneurysm <ul><li>An aneurysm is a bulging section in the wall of a blood vessel that has become stretched out and thin. As the wall of the blood vessel bulges out, it becomes weaker and may burst or rupture, causing bleeding. </li></ul>
  25. 32. Aneurysm <ul><li>If an aneurysm in the brain bursts, it may cause a stroke. An aneurysm in a vessel that carries a lot of blood, such as the aorta, is often fatal if it bursts. </li></ul>
  26. 33. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Evaluate the size, shape, and position of the liver. An ultrasound may be done to evaluate jaundice and other problems of the liver, including liver masses, cirrhosis , fat deposits in the liver (called fatty liver), or abnormal liver function tests. </li></ul>
  27. 35. Jaundice <ul><li>Jaundice is a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes appear yellow because of the buildup of a yellow-brown pigment called bilirubin in the blood and skin. </li></ul>
  28. 36. Jaundice <ul><li>Bilirubin is produced by the breakdown of red blood cells. The liver normally gets rid of bilirubin in bile (a fluid that helps the body digest fats). </li></ul>
  29. 37. Jaundice <ul><li>Excess amounts of bilirubin can build up because of rapid destruction of red blood cells, liver diseases (such as hepatitis), blockage of the bile ducts leading from the gallbladder to the small intestine, or other problems. Bilirubin can be measured in the blood, where it is one indicator of a person's liver function. </li></ul>
  30. 38. Jaundice <ul><li>Other symptoms that may occur as a result of excess bilirubin include dark urine, light-colored or whitish stools, and itching of the skin (pruritis). </li></ul>
  31. 39. Jaundice <ul><li>If successful, treatment for the underlying cause of jaundice will cause the skin, eyes, urine, and stools to return to their normal color. </li></ul>
  32. 42. Cirrhosis <ul><li>Cirrhosis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when inflammation and scarring damage the liver. Alcohol abuse and chronic viral hepatitis are the most common causes of cirrhosis, but it can also be caused by medicines or by another disease (such as hemochromatosis). </li></ul>
  33. 43. Cirrhosis <ul><li>Symptoms of cirrhosis include nausea, lack of appetite and weight loss, tiredness, and swelling in the legs and belly. If left untreated, severe cirrhosis can result in internal bleeding, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), unclear thinking, hand tremors, and coma. </li></ul>
  34. 44. Cirrhosis <ul><li>Cirrhosis is treated by taking care of the underlying cause of the liver damage and by treating other problems, such as internal bleeding, that result from the liver damage. In some cases, a liver transplant may be possible. </li></ul>
  35. 45. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Detect gallstones , inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or blocked bile ducts. See an illustration of a gallstone </li></ul>
  36. 47. Gallstones <ul><li>Gallstones are deposits like small stones that form in bile, a fluid that helps digestion; bile is stored in the gallbladder, a sac under the liver. Gallstones can develop in the gallbladder or in the bile ducts, which are tubes that carry bile to the small intestine. </li></ul>
  37. 49. Gallstones <ul><li>Gallstones can be smaller than a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. They generally do not cause problems unless they block a tube (duct) leading from the gallbladder to other organs. When this happens, abdominal pain and other symptoms develop suddenly. </li></ul>
  38. 51. Gallstones <ul><li>Gallstones are common. They develop when there is too much cholesterol in the bile for the cholesterol to remain dissolved or when the gallbladder does not empty as quickly as it should. Gallstones are most common in women, people who are obese, older people, people with sickle cell disease, people who have lost weight rapidly, and people who are taking certain medicines. </li></ul>
  39. 53. Gallstones <ul><li>Most people who have gallstones do not have any symptoms and do not need treatment. If symptoms develop, they usually will include pain in the upper abdomen and are rarely life-threatening. However, pain from gallstones can vary in intensity and may cause vomiting. Gallstones that cause symptoms usually are treated with surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). </li></ul>
  40. 54. Abdominal ultrasound showing the gallbladder <ul><li>Figure 1 shows a normal gallbladder on ultrasound. Figure 2 shows a large gallstone in the gallbladder. </li></ul>
  41. 55. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Detect kidney stones . </li></ul>
  42. 57. Kidney stones <ul><li>Kidney stones are made of salts and minerals in the urine that stick together to form small &quot;pebbles.&quot; They are usually painless while they remain in the kidney, but they can cause severe pain as they break loose and travel through narrow tubes (ureters) to exit the body during urination. </li></ul>
  43. 59. Kidney stones <ul><li>Symptoms of a kidney stone include severe pain on one side of the back, just below the rib cage (flank pain). The pain may spread to the lower abdomen, groin, and genital area. Other symptoms include blood in the urine (hematuria), painful or frequent urination (dysuria), and nausea and vomiting. </li></ul>
  44. 61. Kidney stones <ul><li>A kidney stone is usually treated by increasing fluid intake and taking medications to relieve pain until the stone has passed. This typically occurs within a few days. If the stone seems unlikely to pass on its own or is causing severe pain, treatment options include a shock wave treatment (lithotripsy), which can break up a large stone into smaller pieces that are easier to pass, or very rarely, surgery. </li></ul>
  45. 62. Kidney stones <ul><li>If a stone is stuck in a ureter, a long, thin microscope (ureteroscope) can be passed through the urethra and bladder to the ureter. The stone may be taken out using a tiny basket on a wire passed through the ureteroscope. The stone can also be broken up using laser and then flushed out of the ureter with fluids inserted through the ureteroscope. </li></ul>
  46. 63. Kidney stones <ul><li>There are four different types of kidney stones, and they can be as small as grains of sand or as large as a golf ball. Kidney stones occur most often in adults and are rare in children. </li></ul>
  47. 64. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Determine the size of an enlarged spleen and look for damage or disease. </li></ul>
  48. 66. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Detect problems with the pancreas, such as pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. </li></ul>
  49. 68. Pancreatitis <ul><li>Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, which is an organ in the upper abdomen that makes insulin and digestive enzymes. Pancreatitis may cause sudden, severe abdominal pain. </li></ul>
  50. 69. Pancreatitis <ul><li>Pancreatitis is most commonly caused by excessive use of alcohol or by a blockage of the tube (duct) that leads from the pancreas to the beginning of the small intestine (duodenum), usually by a gallstone. Other causes include an infection, an injury, or certain medicines. It may develop suddenly (acute), or it may be a long-term, recurring (chronic) problem. </li></ul>
  51. 70. Pancreatitis <ul><li>Treatment in the hospital includes pain medicine and fluids given through a vein (IV) until the inflammation goes away. Nutrition is given through a tube to avoid stimulating the pancreas. Although most people recover fully from pancreatitis, complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure may develop. </li></ul>
  52. 71. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Determine the cause of blocked urine flow in a kidney. A kidney ultrasound may also be done to determine the size of the kidneys, detect kidney masses, detect fluid surrounding the kidneys, investigate causes for recurring urinary tract infections , or evaluate the condition of transplanted kidneys. </li></ul>
  53. 73. Urinary tract infection <ul><li>A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in the organs and tubes that process and carry urine out of the body. Most UTIs are either bladder infections (cystitis) or kidney infections (pyelonephritis). </li></ul>
  54. 74. Urinary tract infection <ul><li>UTIs occur most often when bacteria begin to grow in the kidneys, the bladder, the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), or the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body (urethra). Sexual intercourse may introduce bacteria into the urinary tract, especially in women. Catheterization is a common source of bacterial infection in people who are hospitalized or live in long-term care facilities. </li></ul>
  55. 75. Urinary tract infection <ul><li>An adult or older child with a UTI may have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain or burning during urination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An urge to urinate frequently but usually passing only small quantities of urine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dribbling (inability to control urine release). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddish or pinkish urine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foul-smelling urine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloudy urine. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 76. Urinary tract infection <ul><li>Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. They are also more common in older adults than in younger adults. </li></ul>
  57. 77. Urinary tract infection <ul><li>Treatment for most urinary tract infections is antibiotic pills and home treatment, such as drinking lots of fluids. If widespread infection (sepsis) develops or if the infection is severe or harms kidney function, hospitalization may be necessary so that antibiotics can be given directly into a vein (intravenous antibiotics). </li></ul>
  58. 78. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Determine whether a mass in any of the abdominal organs (such as the liver) is a solid tumor or a simple fluid-filled cyst . </li></ul>
  59. 80. Cyst <ul><li>A cyst is a saclike structure in the body. Cysts usually are filled with fluid, which may be blood, clear fluid, or pus. </li></ul>
  60. 82. Cyst <ul><li>A cyst can be normal, abnormal, or, in rare cases, cancerous. In some cases, a cyst may be drained either with a needle or by cutting it open, or it may be removed entirely. </li></ul>
  61. 83. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Determine the condition of the abdominal organs after an accident or abdominal injury and look for blood in the abdominal cavity. However, computed tomography (CT) scanning is more commonly used for this purpose because it is more precise than abdominal ultrasound. </li></ul>
  62. 85. CT or CAT scan <ul><li>A computed tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays to make detailed pictures of structures inside of the body. </li></ul>
  63. 86. CT or CAT scan <ul><li>During the test, you will lie on a table that is hooked to the CT scanner, which is a large doughnut-shaped machine. The CT scanner sends X-ray pulses through the body. Each pulse lasts less than a second and takes a picture of a thin slice of the organ or area being studied. One part of the scanning machine can tilt to take pictures from different positions. The pictures are saved on a computer. </li></ul>
  64. 87. CT or CAT scan <ul><li>A CT scan can be used to study any body organ, such as the liver, pancreas, intestines, kidneys, adrenal glands, lungs, and heart. It also can study blood vessels, bones, and the spinal cord. </li></ul>
  65. 88. CT or CAT scan <ul><li>An iodine dye (contrast material) is often used to make structures and organs easier to see on the CT pictures. The dye may be used to check blood flow, find tumors, and look for other problems. Dye can be put in a vein (IV) in your arm, or you may drink the dye for some tests. CT pictures may be taken before and after the dye is used. </li></ul>
  66. 89. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Guide the placement of a needle or other instrument during a biopsy . </li></ul>
  67. 91. <ul><li>Ultrasound-guided biopsy of necrotic metastasis from colon cancer. Gray-scale image of the liver shows a primarily fluid-filled metastasis from colon cancer. There is a relatively thin rim of viable tumor. With ultrasound, the needle tip (arrow) could be precisely positioned within the rim to biopsy the viable portion of tumor and avoid the adjacent normal hepatocytes or necrotic portions of the lesion. The two solid white lines indicate the anticipated path of the needle using an attachable needle guide. In this case, the needle deflected outside the anticipated path. </li></ul>
  68. 92. Biopsy <ul><li>A biopsy is a sample of tissue collected from an organ or other part of the body. A biopsy can be done by cutting or scraping a small piece of the tissue or by using a needle and syringe to remove a sample, which is then examined for abnormalities, such as cancer, by a doctor trained to look at tissue samples (pathologist). </li></ul>
  69. 93. Why It Is Done <ul><li>Detect fluid buildup in the abdominal cavity (ascites). An ultrasound also may be done to guide the needle during a procedure to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity ( paracentesis ). </li></ul>
  70. 94. <ul><li>Cirrhosis with marked ascites </li></ul>
  71. 95. Paracentesis <ul><li>Paracentesis is a procedure in which a needle is inserted through the abdominal wall to remove fluid that has built up in the abdominal cavity (ascites). It may be used as a test (diagnostic paracentesis) or as a treatment (therapeutic paracentesis). </li></ul>
  72. 96. Paracentesis <ul><li>Paracentesis may be done to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect a fluid sample from the abdominal cavity to help determine the cause of ascites (diagnostic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnose infection in the ascitic fluid (diagnostic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove a large amount of fluid from the abdominal cavity when the fluid is causing discomfort or affecting the function of the kidneys or intestines (therapeutic). </li></ul></ul>
  73. 97. Preparation <ul><li>Tell your doctor if you have had a barium enema or a series of upper GI (gastrointestinal) tests within the past 2 days. Barium that remains in the intestines can interfere with the ultrasound test. </li></ul>
  74. 98. <ul><li>You should be able to identify the various components of the bowel on these films. Note the caecum (1) , ascending colon (2) , transverse colon (3) , descending colon (4) and the rectum (5) . On the right, the ascending colon turns towards the midline. This is called the right colic flexure (6) (also known as the hepatic flexure - so called as it is adjacent to the liver). On the left, the transverse colon turns downwards, creating the left colic flexure (7) (or splenic flexure - so called as it is adjacent to the spleen). </li></ul>
  75. 99. Barium enema <ul><li>A barium enema, or lower gastrointestinal (GI) examination, is an X-ray examination of the large intestine (colon and rectum). The test is used to help find problems that affect the large intestine. To make the intestine visible on an X-ray picture, the colon is filled with a white barium contrast material. </li></ul>
  76. 101. Barium enema <ul><li>The contrast material is put through a tube placed in the anus. The barium blocks X-rays, so the barium-filled colon shows up clearly on the X-ray picture. </li></ul>
  77. 102. Barium enema <ul><li>A barium enema may be done to check for the cause of rectal bleeding or blood in the stool. The test may help find diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and diverticulosis. A barium enema may also be used to look for colon cancer. </li></ul>
  78. 103. Preparation <ul><li>Other preparations depend on the reason for the abdominal ultrasound test you are having. </li></ul><ul><li>For ultrasound of the liver, gallbladder, spleen, and pancreas, you may be asked to eat a fat-free meal on the evening before the test and then to avoid eating for 8 to 12 hours before the test. </li></ul>
  79. 104. Preparation <ul><li>For ultrasound of the kidneys, you may not need any special preparation. You may be asked to drink 4 to 6 glasses of liquid (usually juice or water) about an hour before the test to fill your bladder. You may be asked to avoid eating for 8 to 12 hours before the test to avoid gas buildup in the intestines. This could interfere with the evaluation of the kidneys, which lay behind the stomach and intestines. </li></ul>
  80. 105. Preparation <ul><li>For ultrasound of the aorta, you may need to avoid eating for 8 to 12 hours before the test. </li></ul>
  81. 106. Procedure <ul><li>This test is done by a doctor who specializes in performing and interpreting imaging tests ( radiologist ) or by an ultrasound technologist (sonographer) who is supervised by a radiologist. It is done in an ultrasound room in a hospital or doctor's office. </li></ul>
  82. 107. Procedure <ul><li>You will need to remove any jewelry that might interfere with the ultrasound scan. You will need to take off all or most of your clothes, depending on which area is examined (you may be allowed to keep on your underwear if it does not interfere with the test). You will be given a cloth or paper covering to use during the test. </li></ul>
  83. 108. Procedure <ul><li>You will lie on your back (or on your side) on a padded examination table. Warmed gel will be spread on your abdomen to improve the quality of the sound waves. A small handheld unit, called a transducer, is pressed against your abdomen and moved back and forth over it. A picture of the organs and blood vessels can be seen on a video monitor. </li></ul>
  84. 109. Procedure <ul><li>You may be asked to change positions so additional scans can be made. For a kidney ultrasound, you may be asked to lie on your stomach. </li></ul>
  85. 110. Procedure <ul><li>You need to lie very still while the ultrasound scan is being done. You may be asked to take a breath and hold it for several seconds during the scanning. This lets the sonographer see organs and structures, such as the bile ducts, more clearly because they are not moving. </li></ul>
  86. 111. Procedure <ul><li>Holding your breath also temporarily pushes the liver and spleen lower into the belly so they are not hidden by the lower ribs which makes it harder for the sonographer to see them clearly. </li></ul>
  87. 112. Procedure <ul><li>Abdominal ultrasound usually takes 30 to 60 minutes. You may be asked to wait until the radiologist has reviewed the information. The radiologist may want to do additional ultrasound views of some areas of your abdomen. </li></ul>
  88. 113. How It Feels <ul><li>The gel may feel cold when it is applied to your stomach unless it is first warmed to body temperature. You will feel light pressure from the transducer as it passes over your abdomen. The ultrasound usually is not uncomfortable. However, if the test is being done to assess damage from a recent injury, the slight pressure of the transducer may be somewhat painful. You will not hear or feel the sound waves. </li></ul>
  89. 114. Risks <ul><li>There are no known risks from having an abdominal ultrasound test. </li></ul>
  90. 115. Results <ul><li>An abdominal ultrasound uses reflected sound waves to produce a picture of the organs and other structures in the abdomen. </li></ul>
  91. 116. Normal: <ul><li>The size and shape of the abdominal organs appear normal. The liver, spleen, and pancreas appear normal in size and texture. No abnormal growths are seen. No fluid is found in the abdomen. </li></ul>
  92. 117. <ul><li>Ultrasound images of liver in normal weight (left) and obese (right) patients. The latter image quality is limited by body habitus </li></ul>
  93. 118. Normal: <ul><li>The diameter of the aorta is normal and no aneurysms are seen. </li></ul>
  94. 119. Normal: <ul><li>The thickness of the gallbladder wall is normal. The size of the bile ducts between the gallbladder and the small intestine is normal. No gallstones are seen. </li></ul>
  95. 121. Normal: <ul><li>The kidneys appear as sharply outlined bean-shaped organs. No kidney stones are seen. No blockage to the system draining the kidneys is present. </li></ul>
  96. 123. Abnormal: <ul><li>An organ may appear abnormal because of inflammation, infection, or other diseases. An organ may be smaller than normal because of an old injury or past inflammation. An organ may be pushed out of its normal location because of an abnormal growth pressing against it. An abnormal growth (such as a tumor) may be seen in an organ. Fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites) may be seen. </li></ul>
  97. 124. Abnormal: <ul><li>The aorta is enlarged, or an aneurysm is seen. </li></ul>
  98. 125. <ul><li>Normal Aorta </li></ul>
  99. 126. <ul><li>Enlarged aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) </li></ul>
  100. 127. Abnormal: <ul><li>The liver may appear abnormal, which may indicate liver disease (such as cirrhosis or cancer). </li></ul>
  101. 129. Cirrhosis <ul><li>Cirrhosis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when inflammation and scarring damage the liver. Alcohol abuse and chronic viral hepatitis are the most common causes of cirrhosis, but it can also be caused by medicines or by another disease (such as hemochromatosis). </li></ul>
  102. 130. Cirrhosis <ul><li>Symptoms of cirrhosis include nausea, lack of appetite and weight loss, tiredness, and swelling in the legs and belly. If left untreated, severe cirrhosis can result in internal bleeding, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), unclear thinking, hand tremors, and coma. </li></ul>
  103. 131. Cirrhosis <ul><li>Cirrhosis is treated by taking care of the underlying cause of the liver damage and by treating other problems, such as internal bleeding, that result from the liver damage. In some cases, a liver transplant may be possible. </li></ul>
  104. 132. Abnormal: <ul><li>The walls of the gallbladder may be thickened, or fluid may be present around the gallbladder, which may indicate inflammation. The bile ducts may be enlarged because of blockage (from a gallstone or an abnormal growth in the pancreas). Gallstones may be seen inside the gallbladder. </li></ul>
  105. 133. <ul><li>Tubular echogenic structure in the gall bladder lumen </li></ul>
  106. 134. Abnormal: <ul><li>The kidneys may be enlarged because of urine that is not draining properly through the ureters . Kidney stones are seen within the kidneys (not all stones can be seen with ultrasound). </li></ul>
  107. 135. <ul><li>Enlarged Kidney </li></ul>
  108. 136. Ureters <ul><li>The ureters are small tubes, each about 25cm long, that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. </li></ul>
  109. 137. Abnormal: <ul><li>An area of infection ( abscess ) or a fluid-filled cyst may appear as a round, hollow structure inside an organ. The spleen may be ruptured (if an injury to the abdomen has occurred). </li></ul>
  110. 138. Cyst <ul><li>A cyst is a saclike structure in the body. Cysts usually are filled with fluid, which may be blood, clear fluid, or pus. </li></ul><ul><li>A cyst can be normal, abnormal, or, in rare cases, cancerous. In some cases, a cyst may be drained either with a needle or by cutting it open, or it may be removed entirely. </li></ul>
  111. 139. Contraindications <ul><li>Factors that can interfere with your test and the accuracy of the results include: </li></ul><ul><li>Stool, air (or other gas), or contrast material (such as barium) in the stomach or intestines. </li></ul><ul><li>The inability to remain still during the test. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme obesity . </li></ul><ul><li>Having an open wound in the area being viewed. </li></ul>
  112. 140. Contrast material <ul><li>Contrast material, or contrast dye, is a substance used to make specific organs, blood vessels, or types of tissue (such as tumors) more visible on X-rays. Contrast material may also be used during a CT scan, an ultrasound, or an MRI scan. </li></ul><ul><li>Common contrast material substances include iodine, barium, and gadolinium. </li></ul>
  113. 141. Obesity <ul><li>Obesity is a complex disease in which having too much body fat increases a person's risk for developing other health problems. Obesity generally is measured by body mass index (BMI), a calculation that shows weight in relation to height. </li></ul>
  114. 142. Obesity <ul><li>As BMI increases, the risk of some diseases increases. A BMI of 30 or above is considered obese in adults, which means a person is at a higher risk for certain diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease (CAD). If you are Asian, your health may be at risk with a lower BMI. But BMI is only one of many factors used to predict the risk of developing a disease. </li></ul>
  115. 143. Obesity <ul><li>To fit the medical definition of obesity, the excess weight must come from having too much body fat. Athletes may have a BMI over 30, but because their weight is due to muscle, not fat, they are not considered obese. </li></ul>
  116. 144. Obesity <ul><li>The location of body fat is important. If fat accumulates mostly around the abdomen (central obesity, sometimes called apple-shaped), a person is at greater risk for type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and CAD than people who are lean or people who have fat around the hips (peripheral obesity, sometimes called pear-shaped). </li></ul>
  117. 145. What To Think About <ul><li>Additional tests, such as a computed tomography (CT) scan , may be needed to investigate abnormal ultrasound results. For more information, see the medical test Computed Tomography (CT) Scan . </li></ul>
  118. 146. What To Think About <ul><li>X-rays are not recommended during pregnancy because of the risk of damage to the developing baby ( fetus ). Because ultrasound is safe during pregnancy, it generally is used instead of an abdominal X-ray if a pregnant woman's abdomen needs to be evaluated. </li></ul>
  119. 147. What To Think About <ul><li>On rare occasions, gallstones may not be detected by ultrasound. Other imaging tests may be done if gallstones are suspected but not seen on the ultrasound. For more information, see the medical tests Gallbladder Scan , Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) , and Abdominal X-ray . </li></ul>
  120. 148. What To Think About <ul><li>Using abdominal ultrasound, a doctor can usually distinguish among a simple fluid-filled cyst, a solid tumor, or another type of mass that needs further evaluation. If a solid tumor is found, abdominal ultrasound cannot determine whether it is cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign). A biopsy may be needed if a tumor is found. Ultrasound may be used during the biopsy to help guide the placement of the needle. </li></ul>
  121. 149. What To Think About <ul><li>Ultrasound is less expensive than other tests, such as a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan , that also can provide a picture of the abdominal organs. However, for some problems, such as abdominal masses or an injury, a CT scan or MRI may be a more appropriate test. Also, these tests may be done if the abdominal ultrasound is normal but abdominal pain persists. For more information, see the medical tests Computed Tomography (CT) Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Abdomen . </li></ul>
  122. 150. What To Think About <ul><li>A pelvic ultrasound will be used to produce a picture of the lower abdominal (pelvic) organs and other structures inside the pelvis. For more information, see the medical test Pelvic Ultrasound . </li></ul>
  123. 151. “ Nurses Informations”
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NEW BLOGSITE ADDRESS: "Nurses Information Site" Abdominal Ultrasound informations you need to know. "Nurses Informations" Please leave a comment after downloading. THANK YOU ^^


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