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  3. 3. (C) TANGGAPAT.IG K@PEMTIBA NG BATHA PARA SA PAMWAGAN AT PAMAT/NTNUBAY' 1995 HARINO FAFID TAL/AAi| A|(-ATANG PAMBAT'ISA NG PAGLILIMBAG PHILIPS,BIIJL'(ABUAMEENA) ANG TUNAY 1{A RELIHIYOMSINALIMBAG NG rscAc. 'P.'ctn ISBN: 996G798'O97 l-lslam 2- Anlin sa lsbm A'ISCAG(|SIMLIMBAG) B' pamagat214,27Dv 190215 O€Posltong togal Big: 19en5 lSBt{ : 906G798'0}7 COOPEBf,TIVE OFFICE FOBCRLL RND EUIDBNCE IN f,L- BRTHR UNDERTHE SUPERVISION OF MIMSTRYOF ISI..AMIC^FFNIS' PROPAGATION CUIDAT{CE ENDOWMENTS, AND PO. BOX:20824RIYADH.I 1465 1- a030il5l 1q3451? 00966-l -i F 4qjl5t7 l- ltrlotlz FAx r- {0593t? Ircnuc hall. Tcl + Fax:00966- l'40E34O5 @ el lgtrrs rcsc""cd fr $c Officc th' Noorrr of [L bool nry bc ueed prblicrdal-litbut fu *riaa smirnn of rfrcopyriSlu holda' rppliqrm rd ' *hich rhould bc d&cgcd b thr of6e
  4. 4. We seekthe help of Allah, and ask Him to blessand praiseour ProphetMuhammad, his household, companions. and Q- What are the Fundamentals that everv Muslim must learn? 1: t] Knowledge, rhar is, knowing Allah, His Propher, and the retigionof Islam with its textualproofs. 2) Application this knowledge.l of I at, p l iveryimportanr understand meaning " p tr.c a r i o n " ro rhe of i n t h i s c o n r e x r ,p a r t i c u l a r l yr i i t t r regards knowingAllah. It means, to first, thai Allah aloneis worthy.of being_loved nd worshipped. a S e c o n d ,H e i s t h e o n l y C r e a t o ru p o n W h o m a l l creatures dependfor their means of subsistence. Third, the Divine Atrributes and beautiful names of Allah can never be applied to His crearures. Application alsomeans thatAllah,theExalted, far is removedfrom every imperfection, and thereis none
  5. 5. 3) Preachingknowledge 4) Enduring with patiencewhateversuch application preaching and may entail.2 Q-What is the textual proof of the above fundamentals? A- The wordsof Allah: -I ttJ.tt5rf €ilr 4i-lt lt.rj / Ol-'yl Ol .rr.J!, ) G- I ).J..,J| iup G-ttr V$ }LU.VW like Him. "Applicationof knowingtheMcsscngcr of Allah means-lbving rcvering and him morc thanany other humanbeing,and observinghis Sunnah, and making sure that-it over mcn's takes preceiience opinions all cases. in tM.M.l 2-Onemust endurewith patience while everything, observing the actsof worship,refrainfrom all all actsof disobedience, resistwhimsand and pervened Calamities misfortunes desires. and must ilso be facedwith patience [M.M-l
  6. 6. (I swear)By the time.l Surely,man is in (a stateof) loss,Exceptthosewho believeand do good deeds,and exhort one anotherto acceptthe truth, and who exhortone another to endure (the consequences thereof with) patience.2 a- What were Imam ash-Shafi'ee's commentson this surah? I This is an oath madeby Allah stressing only that thosewho believeand do gooddeedswill prosper. It also constitutesproof of the four fundamentals statedabove: l) His words "those who believe" refer to knowledge; "do good deeds" refers to application, and "...exhort one another accept to the t r u t h " r e f e r s t o p r e a c h i n g .A n d " e n d u r e w i t h patience" refersto consequences preaching of and q r o c l a i m i n t h et r u t h .t M . M . J g z Surah 103. #
  7. 7. A- He said:"Werethis to be the only surah Allah had sentdown to His slaves,it would havebeenenoughfor them."3 Q-should applicationprecede knowledge, or viceversa?4 A- Knowledge must Precede both applicationand deeds, signifiedby the as words Allah: of (,,jJlr €t,:J j)E-,ltalll )! dN .,1..trU ) 3 Ibn Katheer cited a similar quotation by ash- Shafieein his comment on the above surah. "lf peopleconsiderthe meaningof this s-urah, would it be enoughfor them." Ibn Katheerexplained Ash- on Shafiee'istatementby saying: "because contains it thecentralelements virtue."tM.M.l of 4 This means that one must acquire religious knowledgefirst before making statements, even or before ferforming any religious function. For instance,one must know how to pray before he prays. So knowledgemust come before deedsand utterances.tM.M.l
  8. 8. And know there is no God but Allah, and seekforgiveness your sins,and for the for believers.l lmam al-Bukharicommented the above on verse, saying: Thus Allah opened the verse with the command of acquiring knowledge and followed it with the command of application.2 I Surah 47.19 # 2 To give an example, on cannot pray before learning how to pray. There are many Muslim countriesin which Allah's laws are not applied. SomeIslamic parties,however,believethat if the existinggovernment toppledby a coup d'dtat, is or the headof stateis assassinated, laws of Allah the can be appliedovernight.This is provento be sheer wishful thinking. In order to establish rrue Islamic a state, subjects the respective the of government must f i r s t b e p r e p a r e dt o a c c e p r t h e I s l a m i c s t a t e , internally well asexternally. bestexample as The we haveis the Messenger Allah, peace uponhim. of be
  9. 9. Q-What are the three facts that must be learnedand observed? A- Allah hascreated andsupplied with us us our meansof subsistence, He has not and neglected us. He sent us a Messenger. Whoeverobeysthe Messenger, peacebe uponhim, shallbe admitted Jannah, to and whoever disobeyshim shallenter Hell-Fire. Q- What is the proof of the above? A- Thewordsof Allah: He did not establishthe lslamic polity before he himself immigratedto Madinah.He first madesure the grass-roots were saturated with the correct aqeedah.Only then he moved on to Madinah.The arrival of the Messengerof Allagh to Madinah marks the birth of the Islamic polity. This fact may be realizedby observingthat the verses revealedin Makkah deal with the creeds,and tenets tawheed, of or monotheism, whereas the Madinan versesdeal with acts of worship and transaction, i.e., application.lM.M.l 6
  10. 10. sln .),1-);tyt,Lu-J F.<.ui.ur- ir, #!'r-J $) ( y*, ii*t .;.i;b Jr-rtr ir.p; We surelyhavesentyou a Messenger who is a witnessover you as We had sent Fir'awn (Pharaoh)a Messenger.l But, Fir'awn disobeyed Messenger, We punished the so him severely.2 Allah does not permit anYone to be worshipped besides Him, neitheran angel nearto Him, nor a commissionedProphet. Q-What is the textualproof of the above? A- The wordsof Allah: (lr--l dJrg p.u )u dJ.r+tJt.ri.r) I M u s aw a st h e M e s s e n g e r o r n A l l a h s e n t t o wh Fir'a wn . . M . l tM 2 S u ra h 7 4 .1 5 , 1 6 #
  11. 11. And the places worship3 of belongto Allah. Thereforeworship nonebesideAllah.4 Whoeverobeys the Messenger, peacebe upon Him, and believes the Oneness in of Allah is not allowedto befriendthosewho oppose Allah and His Messenger,peace be uponhim, evenif theyarethe closest his of kin. Q- What is the textualproof of the above? A-Thewordsof Allah lils jJrlt .-,bt3r- itybt;r j11g y ayla!-u!{ r I SleJf i* ell fr&rtr;5_;1jJ.G.ttl."J r-r:rJ (.-.gup+L 3 "Placcs of worship" in this context, such as mosques, churches, synagogues or appliesto those assigned for the people who received Divine Allah knows best.[M.M.] Scriptures. 4 Surah# 72.18
  12. 12. You shallnot find any peoplewho believein Allah and the Final Day loving those who opposeAllah and His Messenger, even if they are their fathersof their sonsor their brothersor their tribe. Those are the onesin whoseheartsAllah has installed iman (faith) andwhom He supports with His strength.l Q- What is the Hanifiyyahz of the religion of Ibrahim? A- HaniJiyyahis to devotesincerely acts all of worship Allah alone. to This is whatAllah h a s e n j o i n e do n a l l p e o p l e ,a n d f o r t h i s reason hascreated He them. I Surah 58.22 # 2 H a n i f i y y a f t ,l i n g u i s t i c a l l y p e a k i n gi,s i n c li ni n g s from any falsereligionto the truereligion,a l - l s l a m , andremaining firmly therein. IM.M.]
  13. 13. Q- What is the proofof theabove? A- Thewords Allah: of ( ir+-J )l ;)9 ;4t c-lu t 1) I havecreated jinn and the men only that the they shouldworshipMe.3 Q - W h a t i s t h e m e a n i n go f " t o w o r s h i p Mett? A- To professAllah's Oneness, believing that Allah is the One Who commands and Who imposes prohibitions. Q- What is the greatest hing Allah has enjoined? A- At-Tawheed. monotheism. i.e. Q- What is Monotheisrn? A- Monotheism declaring is Allah to be the only god who deserves be worshipped to in 3 Surah 51.56 # l0
  14. 14. truth, and confirming the attributes with which He has qualified Himself and those attributed Him by His Messenger, to peace be upon him. Tawheedis also believingthat Allah is far removed from every imperfection and from hudoot h,l or His resembling creatures. Q- What is the greatest thing Allah has forbidden? A- The greatestthing Allah has forbiddenis Shirkor polytheism. Q- What is polytheism? A- Worshippingother gods besideAllah, and setting up rivals to Allah who has createdyou. I Hudooth. is of two kinds, one relatedto time, which signifiesthat a thingswas preceded non- by existence or was broughtinto existence afterit was n o t h i n g ,a n d e s s e n t i ah u d o o t h w h i c h i s a t h i n g s l dependence upon another its existence. for Neither of ihe two kindsapplyto Allah,the Exalted. tM.M.l l1
  15. 15. Q- What is the proof of the above? A- The wordsof Allah: ('r+., lff $dJrbr.b) And worship Allah and associate none with Him."2 And (Lr.ul.!bt/yl) ,'Sodo not set equals to Allah while you know (there is noneequalto Him)."1 Q- What are the three fundamentalsthat man must know? A- The first is that one must know one's Rubb, one's religion and one's Prophet, Muhammad, peace uponhim. be Q- Who is your Rubb? A- My Rubb is Allah, who has nourished and fosteredme and the restof men andjinn with His bounties.He is the God Whom I worship and other than Whom I have no god. 2 Surah 4.36 # I Surah 2.22 # t2
  16. 16. Q- What is the proof of that? A-Al lah'swords: ( &luJl ; dJ.r-lt) " A II praise -,. is due to the Rubbof the worlds." Everything otherthanAllah is a world,and I belongto one of His worlds. Q- How did you knorvyour Rubb? A- I haveknown Him throughHis signsand creatures: the night, the day, the sun, the moon, the sevel"l heavens, and the seven earth's2 all that is between and them. Q- What is the proof of all that? A-His words: )1 .J-j! 5.r+J ) ,.-iJ5.rgU.rl-rJb J-Urct+i,,..r) ( ,,ll ' :.d.t+la:S Jl ;-f-ib g jJrr-lJ 9.r4-t1 .--ill 2 Lest one be confusedwith regardto the numberof carth's, the reference to them is made in the following verse: "Allah is He Who created sevenheavens, of the and earththe like thereof."65'12 [M'M.] l3
  17. 17. And among His signs are rhe night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not yourselves the sun nor to the moon,but to to Allah alonewho hascreated rhem,if it is He Whom you really worship.l And His words: 6Pt i ftJ; gi.trr-Ura<--,d,g) "- +;r)t, ?le;Jb tl, +Jb-t+ cJ,lq F Jk:rrJJ'.r+ ;.Jt &e (go-lr .tr-,.,-ttr drqr-lb &!$t d firrU. g4rl Surcly, your Rubb is Allah Who has created the heavensand the earth in six days; then He settled Himself on the throne. He makes the night cover the day, which follows it swiftly, and the sun and the moon and the starsHe made subservient His command. by Verily (the act o0 creation is restrictedto Him, and so is the disposal of all affairs. Blessed Allah, the Rubbof the worlds.2 is I Surah#41.37 2 Surah 7.54 # t4
  18. 18. Q-Who is the Rubb? A- The Rubb is the Master,the Proprietor, the One who brings into existence things from nothing. He is the only God who deserves be worshipped, to Q- What is the proof of this fact? A- The wordsof Allah: f5li ;r itjJlr # ,5iJr -3-_2 t1.r_rr r_tq ) ,,LJr Jyl2t4.L-J5'u-H ;r!r F.(.lJ-* riJt..ir4, r_fJ^J d, lr-L^ :u ..<-JL;r.r!r*Jr ,t - .t-Jt./ 61L.L.,r (. ir, u;Lirr"ul O men,worshipyour Rubb who-has ire-ated you and thosewho werebeforeyou, so that you nlay guard yourselves (against Allah's chastisement). who madethe eartha bed He for you, and the heavena roof, and sent down water from the heaven, and therewith broughtforth fruits for your sustenanc€i so do not setup equals Allah while you know to (thetruth).1 lSurah 2.21,22 # 15
  19. 19. The OneWho hascreated these thingsis the OneWho deserves be worshiPPed. to Q- What is worship? A-Worship is absolute devotion and obedience humility andsubmissiveness, with to Allah andabsolute love andadoration of the One to whom this is owed. In other words, worship is a conclusive definition comprising deeds wordsthatAllah loves and and approves, whether manifested or hidden.2 Q- How many forms of worshiphas Allah enjoined? A- Allah, the Exalted, enjoinedhas many forms of worship.Of them are the five pillarsof Islam,the articles iman (faith), of w a t c h f u l n e s sa n d a d h e r e n c et o H i s commands, supplication, of Allah,hope fear in His mercy,committing affairsto Allah, fear with reverence, seekingHis aid and 2 "Manifest"refersto physicalactionswhereas "hidden" refers tenets creeds.tM.M.] to and 16
  20. 20. protection relief,sacrificing and and aninrals, vows and otheractsof worshipwhich Allah has comnranded enjoined, of which and all mustbe dedicated Him alone. to Q- What is the proof of the above? A- The wordsof Allah: '{ta-i "tlr Vr;)u .JJ.qtJr e ;!) And the places worshipbelongto Allah. of Therefore, worshipnonebeside Allah. And He said: (.Llrlbrd)i 4)sj;r> And your Lord hasdecreed thatyou worship nonebut Him. I Q-What is the ruling concerning one lvho devotes any act of worship to other than Allah? A- Whoeverdedicates act of worshipto any o t h e r t h a n A l l a h i s a p o l y t h e i s ta n d a n unbeliever,even if he performs prayer, I Su ra h 1 7 . 2 3 # t]
  21. 21. observesfasting,performs to hajj, or alleges be a Muslim.2 Q- What is the proof of the above? A- Thewordsof Allah: e$ cte2b qL. Ul,q d !Lr.;1);iU1 O'g g+;r, ) (ireritSlt And he whocallson another alongwith god Allah, for which he has no proof, shall be heldaccountable thisby Allah,for surely for thedisbelieversneverprosper.3 a- What is the proof of the fact that supplication an act of worship? is A- Allah's words: rirl-, V ;,tyS-+ir.iJl i{ fJ .-r.-l is*ttFr.lUr ) la.-.ttcr+ oru+- 2There are deviantsectswho claim to be Muslims possess yet they believethat their imamsor leaders divine power to influencethecourse thingsin this of world or the world to come.tM.M.l 3 Surah# 23.117 t8
  22. 22. 'Call on Me And your Lord said, and I will r e s p o n dt o y o u . V e r i l y , t h o s e w h o a r e arrogantin rejectingworship of Me shall enterHell-Fire despised.'4 And the saying of the Prophet,peacebe u p o n h i m , : " S u p p l i c a t i oin t h e e s s e n c e f s o worship." And in another narration: "Supplication is worship.l Q- What is the proof of the fact that fear of Allah is an act of worship? A- The wordsof Allah: I uuy;s,.r!.ryL-.e Ul 9^.1,l X ) An d d o n o t f e a r t h e rn ,b u t fe a r Me , i f yo u ar e ( t r u e )b e l i e v e r s . 2 4 Surah 40.60 # I At-Tirmidthi, Majah,& Ahmad. Ibn 2 Surah 3.175 # t9
  23. 23. a- What is the proof of the fact that hopingfor the mercyof Allah is an act of worship? A-Thewords Allah: of ( i.r-l r,; i.ra :|"| f1'Uf- i-r rL+ 1.r .tiJ f. t ;rS g ) So let him who hopesto meet his Lord do g o o d d e e d s ,a n d l e t h i m w o r s h i p n o n e besides Allah.3 a- What is the proof of the fact that trustingAllah is an act of worship? A- The wordsof Allah: (;*yds il lrsp d'J,r) A n d d e p e n do n A l l a h i f y o u a r e ( t r u e ) believers.4 ( t-- 'lJl .1+i * ,fn,l:) 3 Surah 18.110 # 4 Surah 5.23 # 20
  24. 24. And Allah is sufficient whoever for depends on Him.5 Q- What is the proof for the fact that desiring the ntercy of Allah, and fear of His punishrnent, and humbleness acts are of worship? A- The wordsof Allah: {;o;U U lir5rl+r,l+JYf +t.r!il ,t;tfr41;S,..t) T he y u s e d t o v i e w ith o n e a n o th e ri n g o od deeds,and they called or-r with desirearrd Us f ear a n d t h e y h u m b l e dth e mse l ve s r U s.r fo a- What is the proof of the fact that ven e ra t i o n ( o r f e a r u ,i th re ve re n ce ) i s an act of worship? A - T h e w o r d so f A l l a h : ( i*rt, >r., ) "-.J 5 Surah 65.3 # I Surah 21.90 # 21
  25. 25. So do not fear them,but fear Me.2 Q- What is the proof for the fact that repentanceis an act of worship? A- His words: (.J bLlrF-r.llbjl, ) And repentto your Lord and submitto Him.3 Q - What is the proof of the fact that seekingsupport from AIIah is an act of worship? A- Allah'swords: { ;e,*;:JLlrer-Jr:l) You alone do we worship,and from You alonedo we seekhelp.a 2 Surah #5.3 3 Surah 39.54 # 4 Surah 1.4 # 22
  26. 26. And the Prophetic tradition: "And if you seekhelp,seekhelp from Allah."s Q - What is the proof of the fact that seekingthe protectionof Allah is an act of rvorship? A- The wordsof Allah: (.rrur^'u-.!r,ur -r.rtrrll 'l Say, seekrefugein the Lord of mankind, the King of mankirrd.r Q - What is the proof of the fact that askingfor the aid of Allah is an act of worship? A- The wordsof Allah: ( Ajt,.if'rtr .;r -iJL t'- ii rg .rl+g-U f; .i;;:; ;1) 5 This Prophetic statementis part of a long hadeerhin which the Prophet, peace be upon him, insfucted Abdullah bin Abbas, may Allah be pleasedwith him, saying: "Young lad! ObserveAllah, now He preserves you. ObserveAllah, for you will lind him aheadof you. If you ask, ask Allah, and if you seekhelp, seekAllah's help..." At Tirmidthi. [M.M.] 1 Surah 114.1.2 # 23
  27. 27. And when you soughtthe aid of Allah, He "l responded you, (saying), Am aidingyou to w i t h a t h o u s a n da n g e l s f o l l o w i n g o n e another."2 Q - What is the proof of the fact that sacrificinganimalsis an act of worship? A- His words: €.!+r.J.:l.j ) .alUlv.r d it, ,5t-e..if;lpx.. f i! .tr ) (;1.i-tr{i u!.r7i 'My Say, prayerand my sacrifice, and my life and deathare all for Allah, the Lord of the worlds. He has no partner.This I am commanded, I am the first of thosewho and submit.r And the proof from the Sunnah, the saying is of the Prophet, peacebe upon him: "Allah 2 Surah 9.9 * 3 Surah 6.162 # 24
  28. 28. cursesthe person who sacrificesfor other thanAllah." Q-What is the proof of the fact that vowing is an act of worship? A- The wordsof Allah: ( .t"t r.-.; i,ttL, oyB_e Jla) ;jJ! They fulfill their vows, and they fear a Day of widespread woe.r Q- What is the second fundamental? A- Knowing the religion of Islam and its textualproofs. Q- What is Islam? A- Islam is submission Allah, believingin to His Oneness, complyingobedientlywith His commands, and denouncingpolytheismand its adherents. 1 Surah#76.7 Thc Day rcferecdto in this vcrseis the Day of Resurrection. tM.M.l 25
  29. 29. Q- What are the levelsof Islam? Islam, Iman andIhsan Eachof theselevels hasits own pillars. Q- What are the pillars of Islam? A- The pillarsof Islamare Five: . The Testimonyof Faith(dJt J.rr.r..: U.Jt)) d;r there is no god, in truth, but Allah, and Muhammad the Messenger Allah. is of . Performing prayer . Giving out Zakat . Observing fast in Ramadhan the . Performing lgrimage pi Q-What is the Qur'anic proof of the Testimony Faith? of A-The wordsof Allah. the Exalted: y ,| )l .J! u 'rLUurr^lr L igr! 9 )tdt) cl dJr# ) t (.<rt;;lr 26
  30. 30. Allah bearswitnessthat there is no god but He-(and so do) the angels, and thcse possessed knowledge,standingfirm for of justice.There is no god but He, the Mighty' the Wise.r Q- What is the meaningof ( dJr)!'41 ) "There is no god but Allah?" A- There is no god who truly desenves be to worshipped Allah alone. but What is the meaningof ( dlv ) "There is no God?"2 It means denying all deities worshipped besideAllah. I Surah 3.18 2 This question thequestion and whichfollowsit aredesigned to give full meaning the tesilmony faith,whichcanbe to of divldedinto two segments: first segment the for stands denial of all deitiesttat are worshipped otherthanor besideAllah, the ancl sccond segment sundsfor firmly dcdicating actsof all worship Allahalone. to [M.M.j 2',1
  31. 31. Q- What is the meaning of (oryt ) "but Allah?" A- It is confirming that worship must be devoted to Allah alone with no partners worshipped besideHim, as He hasno one to shareHis domain. Q-What verse clarifies the above statement?' A- The words of Allah: dl. J li {.LJl)l irrrd tr nn i!-y.r .r! erJJu i1, ) 1;tr."rrU * rt VL:*4- i.JS And when Ibrahim said to his fatherand his people: "I renouncewhat you worship. [l worshiplonly Him Who created me, He will guide me. And he madeit a wordr to remain 3 It is saidthatthe"word"referred in theverse to is the tcstimony faith, ( of ), whichis rheword of Islam. (lbn Kathir). tM.M.J 28
  32. 32. amonghis posterityso that they might retum lto Allahl.r And His words: $ dlr)! r+ !l f+, t- .!r- ;Js .tl lrJw .',l5Jt.tttt, "ll lttljtVt; J|r.lllrrre;r.!Url fi* r-:i.'. i'A+ !5 t-:rr:y.lF ( . .ir.t'-..u! b.^r:t Say,"O peopleof the Book, cometo a word equal betweenus and you that we worship none but Allah, and that we ascribe no partnersto Him, and that none of us take othersfor lords besidesAllah." But, if they 'Bear witnessthat we turn away, then say, havesubmitted Allah.z to a- What is the Qur'anic Proof of the testimony: "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?" A- The wordsof Allah: I Surah # 2 Surah 3.64 # 29
  33. 33. iPllt $.b *.r r:rt,+, :r" J'j;l UJr-.,t',b.r!) (.p=-.rjtr Verily, a Messenger from amongyourselves came to you; he grieves over your difficulties, and he is ardently desirousof your welfare, and to the believershe is compassionate, merciful.l and And Allah'swords: {. e.l*.Lr22li(lt.1 .tr:l u 3atJtjrJJtJj,,ue) Muhammadis the Messenger Allah, and of thosewho are with him are hard against the disbelievers mercifulto eachother.a and Q- What is the meaningof the testimony ( tdJl,)e-rs-1tr t'Muhammad ) is the Messenger Allah?" of 3 Surah 9.128 # 4 Surah 48.29 # 30
  34. 34. A- To obey the Prophet Muhammad's commands,refrain from his prohibitions, believein his sayings, and worshipAllah by performing only acts of worship he designated. Q- What is the proof that Prayer and Zakat are obligatory, and what is the meaningof nronotheisnr? A- The words of Allah: Dt..Jr!r.jr3.[i-;,.rJrJ jFJi. Ul!r ,,{ ll lrr-l t-J ) ( i;lrrzr {lJi1-,5}tVht And they were commanded only to worship Allah and be sincereto Him in obedience 31
  35. 35. (i.e. to be) hunafa',r and to observeprayer and pay zakat.This is the religionof truth.z Q-What is the proof that fasting (during Ramadhan)is obligatory? A- Allah'swords: Flj y ",:iJl J, :5 tf ft=rJrfJ-te yj;,.ilrhtq ) y< (.prgJ O you who believe,fastingis prescribed to you, as it was prescribed thosebeforeyou to so that you may guardyourselves.r a- What is the proof that hajj (pilgrimage)is one of the pillars of Islarn? A- The wordsof Allah: .tJl.)!',y'.r.r *- rJt ./ Ll,L:-tgr c-Jr gr.rLJr,,te .lL ) ( ...r:ltJrir I Hunafu',plural <lf hanif,one who rejectsfalse religion and inclines towards the [rue religion ol Islam, believing in the Oneness Allah.IM.M.] of 2 Surah# 96.5 3 Surah# 2.219 32
  36. 36. And pilgrimage is a duty which men owe Allah, but if any disbelieve Allah, thenHe in surelydoesnot needHis creatures.r Q- What is the Secondlevel of Islarn? A- Iman. a- How many branchesdoes i m a n comprise? A-lman hasmore than seventy branches, the uppennostof which is the declarationof the Oneness Allah .lJl)!.J!I and the leastof of which is the removalof hamrful objectsfrom the road.Modestyis alsoa branchof iman.. a- How many articles does iman include? A- Iman includes articles, six namely, belief in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His I Surah 3.97 # 33
  37. 37. Messengers, the Last Day, the belief in and predestination and its good or evil consequences. Q- What is the proof of the above? A- The words of Allah: dtr,;ri.r it ;F:vy'U.t/tr # *9 rlrJ; i,lr'.rJ ) { &#Jtr Vl.dJb:eU!, ;1r ;eart.r It is not righteousness you face the East that or the West (in your prayer), but, truly the righteous is he who believes in Allah, the last Day, and the angels,and the Scriptures, and the Prophets.z a- What is the Qur'anic proof of predestination? A- Allah'swords: ( ;.r.i.Lib .,f # ul) 2 Surah 2.177 # 34
  38. 38. Verily, We have created everything a by decree.r Q-What is the third levelof Islam? A- Al-lhsnn whichhasonepillar. What is Ihsan ? Ihsan is to worshipAllah asthough you see Him, although you do not seeHim, for He seesyou.2 Q- What is the proof of the above? A- Thewordsof theExalted: (;+- lrildrr.iJt Orirg) c. Ori,rr g. Verily, Allah is with thosewho are righteous and thosewho are sincere.r And His words: 4r+ul i .,'.r'.,f* i-- :J!..;itre_)t t y't *,JS*) r;J (;.ltc-trt 1 Surah 54.49 # 2 Al-Buttrari Muslim and 3 Surah 16.127 # 35
  39. 39. And depend on the Mighty, the Merciful, Who seesyou when you standup in prayer. And He seesyou praying with others.He is surelythe All-Hearing,the All-Knowing.a And His Words: 0rl,-i Ir i,! U s .Pt 1lb ri irt* t'r) fJt ti llJi., d,r I .+;tt-:+i! lrr+i And wheneveryou are engagedin any occupation, whetheror not at the sametime you are recitingpart of the Qur'an,that is , wheneveryou do any work, We arc witnesses over you while you areengaged in it.s Q- What is the proof from the Sunnah,of the above- mentionedlevelsof Islam? A- The renowned hadith, or Prophetic traditionwhich is narrated Umar bin Al- by Khattabwho said: 4 SurahI26.219 5 Surah 10.61 # 36
  40. 40. While we weresitting with the Messenger of Allah, peacebe upon him, a man cameto us with very white clothesand very black hair. No sign of travelingappeared him, nor on was he recognizedby any of us. He sat in front of the Prophet,peacebe upon him, with his kneesrestingagainstthe Prophet's knees. He put his handson his thighsand said: "O Muhammad! tell me about Islam." He ( the Prophet,peacebe upon him) said: "Islam is to bearwitnessthat thereis no god but Allah, and Muhammadis the Messenger Allah, of to observeprayer,pay zakat,observethe fast of Ramadhan, visit the House(The Holy and Mosque) for hajj if you can afford the journey." The man affirmed,"You have told the truth." Umar went on to say, "We w o n d e r e d a b o u t t h i s m a n , b e c a u s eh e queriedthe Prophet, peacebe uponhim, and approved his answer." The man further asked,"Tell me aboutiman." The Prophet, peacebe upon him, said,"it is to believein 5t
  41. 41. Allah, His Angels, His Scriptures, is H M e s s e n g e s , t h e L a st D a Y , a n d r predestination, including its good or evil consequences." said, "Tell me about He ihsan." He said,"lt is to worshipAllah as though you see Him. Although you do not see Him, He seesyou." He said,"Tell me aboutthe Final Hour." The Prophet, peace be uponhim, said,"The one who is being asked is not more knowledgeable aboutit than the one who is asking."He said,"Tell me about its signs."The Prophet, peacebe upon him, said, [ are] "when the bondswoman givesbirth to her own master,l and whenyou see the bare-footed, the naked, and the I This refers to the femate slave whose master engagesin sexualrclationswith her, as a result of which, she conceives and gives birth to a baby who in turn becomcsher master, when he ultimately inheritshis fathers'propcrtyof which the motheris part. Hcncc,thc child becomes master his own thc of mother. M.M.l t 38
  42. 42. shepherds2 contending with one anotherin erecting high buildings." Umar said: "Shortly after the man left, the Prophet, peacebe upon him, asked,"Umar! Do you know who the questioner was?"I responded, "Allah and His Messenger know best."He said "That wasJibreel.He cameto teachyou ( M u s l i m s ) t h e f u n d a m e n t a l so f y o u r religion."3 Q- What is the third fundamental? A- Knowing our Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, who is the son of Abdullah, son of Abdul- Muttalib,son of Hashim,who is of the Quraish, Arab tribe,andknowing an that the Arabsare of the childrenof Isma'il, son of Ibrahim ctl-Khalil, may peaceand blessings on him andon our Prophet. be 2 t t t i s , a c c o r c l i n go a n - N u w a w i , c f e r st o t h c p o o r B c d o u i n s t r w h o , a l l o f a s u d d c n e c o m e c a l t h ya n d c o m p e t c n e r a : t i n g b w i h i g hb u i l d i n g s . l M . M . l t lmam Muslirn 39
  43. 43. Q- How long did the Prophet, peacebe upon him, live? A- He lived for sixty-threeyears;forty of which were before the beginning of Prophethood, and twenty-three years after that. He was appointed a Prophetwhen as Surat 'Iqra,' #96, was revealedto him, and was appointedas a Messenger when Surat 'al-Muddath'thir, #J4, was revealed him. to His hometownwas Makkah. Q- What was the Message that Allah sent to him? A- Allah senthim to preach monotheism and to wam against polytheism. Q- What is the proof of the above? A- The word.s the Allah the Exalted: of Y1 ...rrLi 7.)te .r$ -LUr .+n.:lrrr .rJb f, .;Jf lUt tr) 'tult .jSLi {t-V Ji "O you who is wrapped.Arise and warn. And magnify your Lord. And purify your heart.And shunthe idols. And neverdo a 40
  44. 44. favor seekingto get more in return. And for the sakeof your Lord endurepatiently." Q-What is the meaning of (ptip) "Arise and warn?t' A- Warn against polytheism and preach monotheism. Q- What is the meaning of "and glorify your Lord and purify your heart?" A- Glorify your Lord by declaring His Oneness,and purify your actions from polytheism. Q- What is the meaningof (*ru.rlb)f'And shun the idols?" A- Avoid the idols by shunning and denouncing them and their worshippers. Q- How long did the Prophet, peacebe upon him, keep preaching the above commandrnents? A- The Prophet,peacebe upon him, kept preachingthe abovecommandtnents tenfor years,after that, he was taken to heaven 4l
  45. 45. where the daily prayerswere enjoined on him. Lateron, he was commanded migrate to to Madinah. a- What is emigration[in terms of religionl ? A- Emigrationis moving from the land of polytheismto the land of Islam,and from the land of bid'uh (innovated religiousmatters) to the land of Sunnah. Q- What is the ruling on emigration? A- It is an obligatory duty enjoined on Muslims who happento be in the land of polytheism to immigrate into the land of Islam, and from the land of innovationinto the land of Sunnah.It is effectiveuntil the sun risesfrom the West,i.e.,until the end of time. Q- What is the proof of the above? A- I'he wordsof Allah: r-5llu i5 e llu .pl JtJi i.*)tlrfru; 'irr-iJtir!) c$rb t<+trr+trr:.-!, dJl ;r ll tlu rrtrl ;ii,.r-, A .t-,:Jb 0r.rJrl5 Jbrl;r;t'rr-JlI! . !....1.Lr,.1e p..!L 42
  46. 46. e .*,rOl .lr.r- . J.Llrb i# if.r:c !r i+" 0r+lu-?) {U*W.l,rorir Verily, when the angels take the souls of personswhile they are wrongingthemselves Ii.e. sinning],t (the angels)say to them, "Why did you stay where you were?"They say, "We were weak and oppressedin the land." They (the angels)say to them, "Was not Allah's earth vast enough for you to emigrateinto it. " Thesepersons will dwell in Hell, and an evil destination is, except it such weak men, women, and children who are helplessand can find no way out. For such there is hope that Allah will pardon them,for Allah is pardoning, Forgiving.t Oft And His words: ( jr.r*UgLlri.-b a,rrt g:rir.pitr.rrl* i4 L) I This, according to lbn Abbas, relers 1o those who disobeyed the Mcssengerof Allah, peace be upon hirn by refusingto ernigrate Madinahanclstayedin Makkah. to I Surah# 4.91,98.99 43
  47. 47. O My slaves whohavebelieved! Verily, is My earth, worship alone.2 so Me Q- What lvasthe reasonfor revealing the two aboveverses? A- Thereweresomepeoplein Makkahwho embraced Islam,but did not emigrate to Madinah with the Messenger Allah, peace of be upon him. Someof them were tried in theirfaith andjoined the pagans against the Muslimsin the battleof Badr.Allah did not accepttheir excuseand made Hell their requital.The secondverse was revealed because someMuslimswerein Makkahto Whom Allah imputediman and enticed themto emigrate Madinah. to Q- What is the proof of the continuityof emigration deduced as from the Prophetic traditions? A- TheProphet,peace upon be him,said: 2 Surah #29.5(t 44
  48. 48. Emigration shall not ceaseto be effective until repentance becomesineffective,and repentance shall not ceaseto be effective until the sun risesfrom the West.t Q- What rvas the Messenger of Allah' peacebe upon him, enjoined to prescribe after he had settledin Madinah? A- After he had settled in Madinah, the Messenger Allah, peace uponhim, was of be enjoined to prescribe the rest of the ordinances Islam, suclt as zakat,fasting, of Hajj, fighting for the causeof Allah, and the otheractsof worshiP. Q- How long did he live after that? A- The Prophet,peacebe upon him, died ten years after settling in Madinah. But his Message everlasting. did not leavea is He goodthing withoutguidinghis ummaft to it, nor did he leave an evil thing without waming his ummalr against it. I Imam Ahmad and Imam Abu Dawood 45
  49. 49. Q- What are the good things to which the Messengerof Allah, peacebe upon him, guided his ummah, and what are the evil things against which he warned his ummah ? A- The good things are the creed of monotheism and everythingthat Allah loves and approves.The evil thingsarepolytheism and everything that Allah loathes and disapproves. Q- Did Allah send Muhammad, peacebe upon him, to one particular tribe or to mankind at large? A- Allah .sentMuhantnrad, peacebe upon him, to mankindat large,and madeobeying him a duty on bothjinn andmen. Q- What is the proof of the above? A- The wordsof Allah: ('*. 6,trlllJr.r y! ,.rLJrkl L,j) 46
  50. 50. Say,O men I am the Messenger Allah toof you all.t And His words: rr:;l 5fu.rp Vi..ii;Jr.rr.-:- ;it Ui+ +f' Uf i!) (a'ori.Jl wew And when We sentto you a group of jinn to listento the (recitation) the Qur'an,when of they heard ir they said to one another, "Listen." And when it endedthey retumedto theirpeoplewarningthem.z a - D i d A l l a h c o m p l e t et h e r e l i g i o n o f Islam during the lifetirneof Muhammad, peacebe upon him, or after his death? A- Surely,Allah completed religionof the Islamduringthe lifetimeof His Messenger, peacebe upon him, and nothingnew needs to be added the religionthereafter. to Q- What is the proof of the above? I Surah 7.158 # 2 Surah# 46,29 47
  51. 51. A- The wordsof Allah: ^. ; itt ,F ;5 pJt) f>t-)r f<J #g -3:3r f.(J.:fti (ti, T o d a y I h a v e c o m p l e t e df o r y o u y o u r religion and perfectedMy favor upon you andaccepted Islamto be your religion.l Q- What is the proof of the death of the Messenger Allah? of A-Allah'swords: (Oa.-i;6& i,l.:tt?r*ll J.1'76!r c-=..!q) Y o u ( O , M u h a m m a d s u r e l yw i l l d i e , a n d ) they (too) will die, and then on the Day of R e s u r r e c t i o n o u w i l l d i s p u t ew i t h o n e y another beforeyour Lord.a Q- Will the people be resurrectedafter death? A- They surely will, for Allah says: (.rtlirU €nr+-.r f.r.- f<+1 g,; nSr;if- 3 Surah*5.3 4 Surah #39.30.31 48
  52. 52. From it (the earth)haveWe created you, and into it shatlWe retunt you, and from it shall We bring you forth again.t And He says: { . t*!it *.ttW d+.' p'ug;r!r;r.<;i .u9) And Allah hascaused you to grow as a good growth frorn the earth.Then will He tum you back into it and make you to issue forth Iagain].2 Q - W i l l t h e p e o p l eb e h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e a n d r e q u i t e d f o r t h e i r d e e d sa f t e r t h e Resurrectionor not? A- They positively will be held accountable for their deeds. fact which is confirmecl A by the wordsof Atlah: Indeed,, Allah belongsall that is in the to heavens and on earth,and He requites those who do evil in accordance with what they I Surah 2050 # 2 S u r a h 71 . 1 , 1 # 7 8 49
  53. 53. did, and rewardthosewho do good with the best.3 Q- What is the judgment regardingone who deniesResurrection? A- He is judged to be a disbeliever, Allah for says: 'U-r r:t-, b d tH p ,.h V:,,r9 alg;s;ri-rt frj ) J (*rOr;eUi1 Those who disbelieve assertthat they will Say, "Surely,by my Lord not be resurrected. you will be resurrected, thenyou will be and informed of what you did." And that is easy for Allah.t a- What was the Messagewith which Allah sent His Messengers? A-To cause those who believe in His rejoice in the annunciation to of Jannah, and to warn those who ascribe 3 Surah 53.31 # I Surah 64.7 # 50
  54. 54. partnersto Allah that Fire will be their punishment. Q- What is the proof of the above? A- Thewordsof Allah: irSJFll r^t:+- att u,l{, ir1d)L:, stt4 U.*l-r> J, ( t"+'!..;'.lJl (We sent) Messengers bearersof glad as tiding and as warners that men may haveno plea againstAllah after the coming of the Messengers. Allah is Mighty,Wise.2 And Q- Who was the first Messenger? A- Noah,peace on him. be Q- What is the proof of the above? A- The wordsof Allah: ( ..r^r.rJ=+tl, Cl.ll t-. rl ts s4Jt q ) firr! We have revealed you as We revealed to to Noah and the Prophets afterhim.r 2 Surah 4.165 # 3 Surah 4.163 # 51
  55. 55. Q-Was there any nation or people left without a Messenger sent to them to enjoinon them worshipof Allah aloneand the rejectionof tahgoot?r A- Therewasno nationleft withouthavinga Messenger sent to it, a fact which is substantiated thewords Allah: by of (.a;iLtr !r+:"!, g"rrrOlil-, :,1.1l; l-r .rilr) .JJl rr And We did send to every nation a 'Worship Allah and Messenger preaching: shun the taghoot.z Q- What is taghoot? A- Taghoot is whatever man worships instead or to the exclusion Allah. It is of, of I Taghoot, is whatever is worshippedinsteador to the exclusionof Allah. [M.M.] 2 Surah 16.36 # 52
  56. 56. also any human whom man worships, or obeysbeyond normallimits. Q- How many types of taghoot are there? A- There are many types of taghoat ; but their principalonesare five: Iblis, the one accursed Allah; one who approvesof by being worshipped; one who calls peopleto worshiphin-r; one who claimsthe knowledge of the unseen;and one who rules by laws otherthanthosesentdown by Allah. [We are commanded disbelieve and shunthem to in all andto subrnit the will of Allah.l to Q- What is the proof of the above? A- The wordsof Allah: Uit €'*U .&;f d, ir, -.: n!# j JrrJtrr.H f ) (rJ, .lJl, U lr .;:ty ji;jt12lJlu-JL--trii .lJtl Cf 53
  57. 57. Thereshouldbe no compulsion religion. in Surely,right guidance becomedistinct has from deviation. whoeverdisbelieves So in taghoot and believesin Allah has surely grasped strongunbreakable the handle.And All-Knowing.r Allah is All-Hearing, And His words: (.2itlrlr !1'=?!, b+rrll i-.r:,1 # trt-, rlr) drl We did send a Messenger every nation, to (preaching), 'Worship Allah and avoid taghoot.z And His words: )J djr )! Jd )l pS:-.; .!r- Ltj J !y'|.; .-,€tr r,y) r+ lt Vfr tttF ;ttrdtt 0p.r.'u.urlt il t :i* l-+ yr u+ l :JF (. o;t-.u154:r I Surah 2.256 # 2 Surah 16.36 # 54
  58. 58. Say,"O peopleof theBook!,Come a wordto equalbetween and you that we worship us none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that noneof us take othersfor lordsbesides Allah." But if they turn away,thensay, "Bear witness that we areMuslimsandhavesubmitted Allah."t to This is the meaning ( .tJrfl{f ) ',There of is no godbut Allah. The Messenger Allah, peace uponhim of be said: "The principalpart of Islam and its supporting pillar is prayer,and its highest pointis jihad,(fighting thewayof Allah).a in And Allah knowsbest. The End 3 Surah 3.6+ * a er-tirmidrhi 55
  59. 59. ;-i)tjJlJ-*YI iJ#Yliilj! *i;ru g-: 'ltl ,it=L lri f)t-:l !J rlJl r->.r i,-'-) tll >2.n
  60. 60. ta tF AFPEIDIX
  61. 61. flHrEC@NWCltlt@NS OF AS.MI.AT AS.SA'.TT[ @RflHttsP[@USPRtsDtsCtsSS@RS BY THE TRADITIONIST ASH.SHAIKH MUHAMMAD AT-TAYYIB B. ISHAQ AL-ANSARI AL MADANI I believe ttrat Allah is One God, other than Whom there is no god, the Sole One, As_ Samadh,l Who neither begetsnor was begotten.No one other than lfe deserves ro be worshipped.Whoeverdedicates any act of worship to otherthanAllah is a mushiik, a disbeliever. Ibadah" or worship by definition combines everythingthat Allah lovesand approves, of utterances and deedssuch as the five pillars lAs-samadh is one of Allah's beaurifulnames. isIt mentioncdin Surah# llZ,It signifies thc t ord to Whom recourseis had, or to f,horn obidience is rendered, without Whom no affaii can be accomplished;or the One to Whom Lordship ultimatelypertains,or the Creatorof eve.y tfring,o? ffi9r. nothing is indepcndent, and on Wf,orn thing depends-for mcansof subsistencd, its "r"ry :f,".t-* ano whoscOneness everythingtestifies. tM.M.l 59
  62. 62. of Islam, supplication, expectation, fear, trust, seekinghllp and relief, sacrifice,vows' and every other-form of worship. Ibadah includes icceptance of the truth that Allah' Who is far removed from every imperfection, is qualified - with all the wherewith He has qualified "ttiibutet and is named by the names with Himself, which He has named Himself, and His Messenger Mohammad,peace upon him' be has nanrld Him, all the beautiful namesand the superlativequalities with which He is qualifild in truth and not metaphorically' Such attributes include settling Himself above His Throne or mounting it without specification, resemblance, or eiemplification, as Allah- -says: -( ) "Tt; Most Merciful has settled Himself above the Throne."l Such attributesinclude His infinite speech, utteredin occasions' is It reportedthat'the pious predecessors asserted that He is still qualified by the attribute of speech and forev-er will speakif He.wills' Of fiit speech is the Qur'an which is the inimitible words that were sent down to t Suratrzo.s * 60
  63. 63. Muhammad for worship, and which Jibril, peacebe on him, heard from Allah directly without mediator and brought down to Muhammad,p€lc€ be upon hiri, in the exact form and meaning as he heard it from his Lord. The wording of the eur'an is Allah's not Jibril's or Muhammad,s. consists the It of words of Allatr Who utlered it in letter and s,ouqd, He spoke to Musa (Moses),when as the latter cameto the trce: Vjrity,I A. your Rubb. So take off your shoes;-foryou are in the SacredValley of Tuwa.l E1rytly so He will call His slaveson the Day of Resunection, with a voice which will be h.".t-d-by,the distantand the near,saying: "f Am the King. I Am the Reckoner." This is exactly how He speaksto His Messengers and angels,and to whomeverHe wishei.of His slaves,to who He has sent down the words of His non-etemal2 but uncreated I Suratr ZO.IZ * l Stl* Allah spcal$ wheneverHe wishes,as Imam Ahmad, the Imam of Ahl-As-sunnah suted, rhcreforc,His specchis nonaaul.[M.M.] 61
  64. 64. speech His Scriptures. in Like the restof His uit ibut r, His speech uncreated3 is It is established that Allatr, glory be to Him, is qualified with the attributes of love,4 pleasure,5loathing,6descending,T giving iife, deattrand dispFasure; that He is greatly delightedwith ttre repentance His slave;l of 3 Ailah's speech one of His attributesthat in His essence is as un"tota.'fnis meansthat His speech not bom and created is in-iir*lit" the speechof liis creatures,becauseit is estabtished He doesnot change, thatHis essence not that and is susceptibte events. to [M.MJ a nr"t" are versesin the Glorious Qur'm that signify cleady ' Allah'sartribute love;e.g',2.190,195 2'222tll['M'l of 5 Thereareabout 12 verses which "the pleasure" Allah is in of mentioned; among themS 3.15, 9.2118'29' 5.2, 6 The attribute"loathing"or "hating" is mentioned surah in 9.46 and17.38 7 Abu Hurtaitah reponed that the Messenger Allah said: of "Our l-ord, the Blesired, the Supreme, descends the lowest to 'Whocalls fteau"n Autingthe last third of everynightsaying: f'f" tot *.ntito call Mel so that I may fulfill-his need? Who askslMe so that I may give unto him? Who seeksMy*n"tt so Orat may-forgiue I Him?"'(Al-Bukhari) M'M'1 I AMullah b. Masoodnarrated the Messenger Allah' that of oeacebe upon him, said: "Allah is more delightedwith 'r"p"nrrn"" of His slavethanttremanwho losthis beast bard of io-aOeO his provision *itt while traveling thedesert, in thereby r"Ou"l".i"g nisiife. He tookhis restandslept, thenawoke and ioiind$.irtir beasthadstrayed. The heatbecame sever, and so washis thirst,or whatever Allah willed.(Havinglookedfor 'I it in vain), he then helplessly decided: will retum to my 62
  65. 65. and that Allah, far is He rcmovedfrom every imperfection,will be seenby the believers on the Day of Judgment with their own eyes, as signified in the Qur'an and authentic ahadeeth (traditions).Theseattributesand the like of them are not figurative,but actual and real, as confirmed by the Book and the Sunnah. Allah the Exaltedsays: Say, "He is Allah, the One. Allah is As- Samad2 He does not beget nor is He begotten. And thereis nonelike unto Him. This is our conviction which we uphold in obedienceto Allah, respectingHis names and attributes, without specifyingthem, or ascribing human characteristics them,to depicting,[reducingthem ro limited forms], nor do we denyany of them.Allah says: place in which I took my rest frst.' So he returnedand slept for a while. When he awoke, he raised his head only to see his beast sunding by his side.'(Al-Bukhari) The version of the above uadition compiled by Imam Muslim relates to the Prophet.peae be upon him, rhe following slatemenu "Having found his beast,the man exclaimed out of extreme excitement: 'O Allah, you are my slave, and I am your lord.' He made this slip of the tongueour of his extremeexcitement" [M.M.] z See footnorc # I on page 25. 63
  66. 66. "There is nothing like unto Allah. And He is the All-Hearing, the All- Seeing."2 We bear witness that Mohammad,peacebe upon him, is the slave of Allah, and His Messenger both jinn and men, and that he to did convey the Message, accomplished the duty committed to his trust, guided his ummah(nation)sincerely, and kept striving in the cause of Allah until Allah has completed religionby him. Allah says: the Today I have comPletedfor You Your religion, and perfectedMy favor upon your and accepted Islamfor you as your religion.3 Then Allah took him to Himself, and made him join the highest companyin the Jannah (on the Day of Resurrection). The Messenger Allah, peace uponhim, of be departed this world, and its people.No one will ever be a true believeruntil and unless his desires according the Message are to with which Muhammadwas sent with, and until Muhammad,peacebe upon him, becomes dearerto him thanhis own self,his children, and all mankind. 2surah t t +z: 3 Surah5:3 64
  67. 67. Loving the Messenger, peacebe upon him, entails obeyinghis commands, attestingto the truthfulness of his statements,and avoiding his prohibitions. This in turn, means that Allah must be worshipped by dedicatingto Him only thoseactsof *orship that His Messengerhas assignedto the Muslims. The Messenger Allah, peacebe upon him, of shouldnot be extolled,.overly adulated, or elevatedabovethe level on which Allah has placed him. Nor should the Messenger of Allah be sought for help, or relief. The Prophet, peace uponhim, said: "The du'e ber is worship."4And he said:"[ndeed. am not I the one upon whom you shouldcall for help. Allah, the Exalted, is the One upon Whom you should call for help. Calling upon the Messenger, peacebe upon him, for help is tantarnount shirk, or polytheism.And so is to attachingthe heartto creatures veneration in and expectationof benefit from them, or believingthat they can ward off evil, and other things that only Allah is capable of. [Attachingthe heartto piouspeople,or jinn 4 Abu Dawood. & at-Tirmidthi. 65
  68. 68. by committing one's affairs to them, turning to them for help, and sacrificing animals to them, in order to have one's needs fulfilled, or to obtain relief constitute ascribing partners to Allah, whether by uttering mysterious combinations of words, or litanies. Allah has given no evidence that such practicesare efficacious or permitted. Allah sent His Messenger,peace be upon him, to uproot such practices,and to cleanse the heartsfrom infidelity. There is no neither strength nor power except by means of Allah, the Exalted, the Great. We believe that the angels, and the Scriptures of Allah are truthful, and so are the Prophets, peace be upon them, the resurrection after death, Jannah, and Hell- Fire. We also believe that the scale5 is true, as well as the Howdh 6 of the Prophet,peace be upon him. Whoever drinks from it shall never feel thirsty. Apostate, and people of 5 The scale is rhe means by which the bad and good de.eds of man are weighcd on the Day of Resurrection. 6 The pool of the Messenger,peace bc upon him, from which the believers shall be given to drink on the Day of Resurrection.It is also called"al-Kawther" 66
  69. 69. bid'ah, or innovationsin religions matters shallbe debarred from it. We believe in predestination; its good or evil consequences.We believe that intercessionof our Prophet Muhammad, peacebe upon him, and of all the Prophets is true, but it takes place only with prior leave from Allah to the intercessor,and on conditionthat Allah is pleased with the one on whosebehalf intercession shall be made. Allah the Exlatedsays:"Who is he that will int e r c e d e w i t h H i m e xce p t b y H is permission?"7 And: They intercede behalf of only thosewith on whom Allah is pleased.8 And we believeour Prophet, peace upon be him, will be the first intercessor, the first and from whom intercession shall be accepted, and that thereare privilegesof intercession with which the Prophet alone is distinguished. first of these thehighest The is stationof honor at the Final Day, which is referredto in the Qur'anas "al-Maqam al- t e.z.zss 8 e. 2l:28 61
  70. 70. Mahmoud,9 and which all the Prophets and Messengers shall revere. Such privileges shall include also intercedingto deliver from the Fire thosewho havealreadyenteredit,l0 and admitting them into Jannahafter they havebeenpurified. We believe that the best of all generations are the companions the Prophet,peacebe of upon him, who believed in him, then the people of the second generation that succeeded them with piety. The Prophet, 9 Al-Moqa al-Mahmoud, is menlioned in the Qur'an [7:78], and refers to the rank to which the hophet, peace be upon him, shall be entitled, and for which he shall be praised by all creatures on the Day of resunection, because of his being quickly reckoned with by mankind who will be relieved from their long sranding,by virtue of his interceding with Allah on their behatf. [M.M.] l0 His eminenceShaikh AMul-Aziz Bin Baz, the Chairman of Dar al-Ifta', Saudi Arabia, may Allah forgive his sins and assist him in every good cause, commented on the above statement,saying: "The privilege of interceding with Allah to deliver from Hell-Fire those Muslims who have entered it on account of their sins, is not restricted [o the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, rather, such a privilege is shared by others, as signified in many traditions. Besides his greater intercession, the hophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is also privileged to intercedefor the people of Jannahto inter it as indicated in the authentic raditions. He shall also be able to intercede with Allah to reduce lhe punishment of his uncle, Abu Talib. 68
  71. 71. peace be upon him, said: "The best of generations is mine, then the two generations that succeeded them." We also believe that the best of speechis the speechof Allah, and the best of guidance is the guidance of Mohammad, peace be upon him. And we believe that the greatestevil of all is the bid'ah, or innovations in religious matters, for every bid'ah is a form of misguidance. Had it not been for fear of prolixity, we would have supplied a textual proof for each issue discussed above from the Book of Allah, and the Sunnah of His Messenger, peacebe upon him, and the unanimity of the as-Salafas-Salih,or the PiousPredecessors. We ask Allah, the Exalted, to guide us to His straight path, accept our deeds, and our statements,protect us from misguiding afflictions. the hidden and manifest thereof, and make steadfast in our faith so that we may die as Muslims. O Allah, exalt the renown of Muhammad, and his household,and grant them peaceand blessings. This is the Salafi conviction written by Shaikh Muhammad at-Tayyib bin Is'haq al- 69
  72. 72. Ansari, in Madinatr,in 1358A.H., who died on the seventhof Jamadaath-Thani, 1363 A.H. He wrote this as an exhortation for himself, and his Muslim brethren.May Allah granthim mercy. The Four Rules I ask Allah the Gracious, the Lord of the Great Throne to look after you in this world and in the Hereafter, and bless you wherever you may be. I also ask Him to make us of those who whenever they are given are grateful, and whenever they are afflicted; they endure patiently, and whenever they commit a sin they beg for forgiveness.These are, truly, the main characteristics bliss. of Be aware, may Allah accommodateyou to his obedience,of the fact that hanifiyyeh,the religion of lbrahim, is to worship Allah alone and to be sincereto Allah in religion. Allah says: (;1rt*5ll;)lr ir+tgir; Ur) 70
  73. 73. "I have not createdthe jinn and the men but to worshipMe."ll And sinceyou know that Allah hascreated you to worship Him, then you should realize that worship doesnot bcome genuineunless it is combinedwith the belief in the Oneness of Allah. Just as prayeris not valid without ablutionl2. Once shirk or a polytheistic practice blemishes an act of worship, it nullifies it, just as impurity nullifies ablution. Once you know that if slrirt pollutes acts of worship, it rendersthem void, and that a personwho does so becomesone of those who shall go to Hell, you realize that knowing this fact is one of your most important duties. May Allah saveyou from l1 Surah #51,56 lbn Kathir interpreted this verse in his exegesesas: "l have created rhem only to command them to worship Me, not becauseI need them." (I say: There is no dout* that man has been createdin a sound state of affairs to make him fit for doing acts of worship, and prcpared for it. Since Allah has installed in them reason, and fumished $rem with spnses,apParcnt and hidden with the uher meansof preparedness. [ M. D] ) 12 loriust as vinegar spoils honey when it is mixed with it, or when poison enters the body, against which we seek Allah's protection.) [M.D.] 11
  74. 74. this predicamentof associating partnersto Him. Allah says: (.t :r g Uti ir.pV lss5q Jri Olr4 ) dj 0t) "Allah does not forgive (the sin of) associatingpartnerswith Him, but forgives what is (short o0 that to whomsoever He pleases."l3 Deliverancefrom Hell-Fire may be ensured by being aware of the four rules that Allah hasmentionedin His Book. The First Rule To know that the disbelieverswhom the Messenger Allah , fought,acknowledged of that Allah is the Creator,the Providerand the One in Whosehandis the disposal all of affairs. Yet, they were not consideredas Muslims. [That is to say, sheer acknowledgment the Lordshipof Allah of was not enough to qualify them to be l3 Surah t t6 *a. tz
  75. 75. Muslims. They shouldhave dedicated all acts of worship to Allah alone.l. This is provenby Allah's words: d u:.,L.,!bCJtrlL, il ,rltV.lJt;r &U u Jl, Otirrrli 7!t :* Vt tlt V.-tt g#r cJt U tl (;t* "Say,i/ho providessustenance you from for the heavenand the earth?Or, Who is it that has power over the hearingand the seeing? Who brings forth the living from the dead, and brings the dead out of the living? Who governsall affairs?'Theywill say,'Allah'. Thensay,'Will you not thenfear (Him)."'14 The SecondRule The polytheistsassert:"We did not call on them [the idols.. We approachthem only to seek nearnessof Allah and intercession through them. [The proof of the fact that worshipping idols is polytheismlris given in thefollowing verse: 14Suratr 10.3 # I IJ
  76. 76. dJl ,e|;d,lJ UJ,JIJfr.r;ut .t-blelr;t gif r;"itg) OJ )J {tis-,!tJ j U Lt+l.Ur;g;;L: .' f..t Ctr & "And those who take idols for deities besideHim say,'We worshipthemonly that they may bring us nearerto Allah'. Surely, Allah will judge betweenthem on that in which they differ. Allah doesnot guidehim who is a disbelieving liar."l5 And the proof of intercession, [that is, worshipping idols, besee-ching them for relief and fulfilling needs,and taking them for intercessors with Allah is sftirt,l . is provided in the following verse: "And they worshipbesideAllah that which neither harms them nor benefitsthem; and they say, 'Theseare our intercessors with Allah.' Say, 'Do you inform Allah of something knowsnot in theheavens in He or the earth.How far is Allah from that which (as theyascribe partners) Him."l6 to 15Surah 39.3 * l6 Surah #10.18 74
  77. 77. lntercessionis of two kinds; annulledand confirmed.The annulled intercessionis that which is sought from other than Allah for needsttrat only Allah can fulfill. The proof of this is in the words of Allah: "O you who believe! Spendout of what We have supplied you before a day comes in which there shall be no tendering nor friendship nor intercession; and the disbelievers the wrongdoers. are 17 17Sursh*2.2S5 [On his comrnentary rhis verse,Ibn Kathir on safol:"Alleh commands slaveso spendout of what He has His ptwidcd thcm in His way, in charity,that theymayaccurnulat€ their rcwad with their Lord andProprielor.It is for this reason they should hasaen do so in this world, beforca day comes !o -thc Day of Rcsurrection- which nei0er bargainingnor in fricndship nor intcrcessionstull bc acceprcd. one can bail No himsclf out nq can hc ransomhimslef evenif he spentfor that purpoocan earth load of gold. Nor can avail him friendshipor tinship, for Allah says: "And when the rumpct is blown, thcre will bc no tics of rclatbnship bctwcenthem 0ut day, nc will theyask after one anothcr."(#23.101)Nor the intercession thosewho are of cntitlcd o intcrccde.And: ( ) "....andthe disbclicvcrsare thc wr,ongdoers" grammatically is, speaking, a subjcct of a nominal clause which incorporaredin the prcdic8tcof thc sameclauselo meanthcrc is no one who is morc unjustor worsc wrongdocrthan he who will come !o Alhh m tlut day asa disbeliever.Aa' b. Dinar wasreported as saying:?raise be to Allah Who says:The disbelievers rhe are 15
  78. 78. And the confirmed intercession is that which is soughtfrom Allah. The intercessor of whom Allah approves is the one who is of honouredby the priviledge of interceding. While the one who is intercededfor is he whoseutterances and actionsare pleasingto Allah. Intercession such one is granted for only with the leaveof Allah. [Intercession is sought from Allah alone, becauseit is restrictedto Him; whoever seeksit from other than Allah commits shirk, and he defeats own purpose, renders his and himself bereft. Allah accepts only the pure belief in His Oneness, and permitsintercession only 'the wrongdoers are the wrongdoers' and did not say, disbelievers@. Allah knows best, I.e., no one would dare to intercede with Allah without His leave becauseof Allah's greatness, magnificance and haughriness,as signified in the hadith of Intercession,in which the Messengerof Allah said: "I procede (on the Day of Judgment) and prostrate myself underneaththe Throne. Allah keeps me on this posture as long as He wills, Then it will be said,'Raise your headand say; you will bc listened to, intercede and your intercession will be 'Then I will acccpted'.The Messengerof Allah funher said, be allowed to intercede for a cerlain number of people, and lo admit them to Jannah.l. Allah knows best. @ The reason for Ata'b. Dinar's statment is the fact that every disbeliever is wrongdoer, but not every wrongdoer is a disbeliever. Some believers may wrong themselves by committing the minor sins, but they would still be believers and iman stays with them. Allah knows best. lM.M.l 76
  79. 79. for those who uphold monotheismas their creed. says: He {cig l..rrCiltgjlt ti !r) "Who is he that will intercedewith Him exceptbyHis permission."18 And: (..i;rrJ{or.ii!) "And they intercedenot exceptfor him He approveg."l9 And: 1i^rrirri:frUy) "Say, ' A l 1 i n te rce ssi o n re sts w i th Allah..."20 The Third Rule The Prophet appeared amongpeoplewho were divided in their religion. Someof them worshipped prophetsand pious people,and some worshipped trees and stones,while others worshippedthe sun and the moon. It Suntr* z.Xs 19Suratrll Zt.Z8 20Suratr* l9.a+ 71
  80. 80. The Messengerof Allah fought them all without making distinction between one This was in applicationof groupand another. Allah's words: (dJ.l5 jrJt **r e:i i,15i; .;r c.r*ur) I "And fight them untill there is no infidelity, and religion is professedfor Allah."2l And about the sun and the moon [i.e. the proof of the fact that worshipping the sun and the moon and the rest of the stars and planets, and believing that they influence eventsof this world is slrirl< shown in Allah's words: J-ill t !-:,lJ !r.l,hi).-.ttr ,J-:Jb.rtd!.,;Ur *j A) (;r+;.Lt rS i,tJ{ib ,SjJrrlJ rr.r+-rr "And among His signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not yourselves before the sun nor before the moon, but prostrateyourselvesbefore Allah, 2l Suratr #2.193 78
  81. 81. Who createdthem, if it is He Whom you (rcally) wonhiP."22 And about the angels,[i.e. the proof of the fact that worshipping angels is sftir& is producedin the following verse: {qU i"iJl, i*yl,r lrlg oirsrl l.r} "And He doesnot cornmandyou to take angelsand Prophets lords."23 for 22 Su.atr l+1t.3? 23 Surah # 3.80 Ibn Kathir elaborated in his exegeseson this verse: "Allah does not enjoin on you to worship other than Allah, be he a commissionedProphet or an angel who is close !o Allah. Would Allah enlrin disbclief on you when you have submitted to Him? <That is to say), no one does this except him who promotes wonhipping other than Allah; and he who does so promotes disbelief. In ilte case of the hophet, they preached the belief in the Oneness of Allah Who has no partners; as Allah says: ( ) "We sent no Messenger beforc you but revealed o him there is no god but I, so worship Me. The word'lords'in the verse means gods beside Allah. Allah knows best. Imam al-Bukhari reported that AMullah cornmented on the above verse saying: "Those were a group of jinn who had been worshipped, and Oen became Muslims." AMullah b. Mas'ood elaborated: "This vene refers io a Sroup of Arabs who used to worship jinn, but the latter embraced Islam while the former were not aware of thaL Allah knows bestl. 79
  82. 82. And the proof of the Prophets [i.e. worshipping them and calling unto them is shirkl. is suppliedin the following verse: dr. lrfl O,lt g5tlt u.UJ r$ Jl *t A. d ! drt JU !!r) rii cU .=t i,!,t^, .JtJJ t, Jr;l gl 4 d,4 [. .tlLi- JU djt i,J, (-.r+lt pXrc.;l ag ..t :: ii t gIJ lr a.. rl l, Fl;.:"tt "And when Allah (will say to-lssa(Jesus), 'O Jesus, son of Mary! did You say to people,'Takeme and my mother two gods 'Far beside Allah?' He (will) answer, removedare You (from what they ascribeto you), I could never say that to which I had no right. If I had said it, You would have surelyknown it. You know my insight,andI know not Your insight,Verily; You are the Knower of the hidden things."24 And the proof of the pious people[i.e. worshipping them and calling them for help and relief is shirk. Allah is far abovewhat they ascribeto him,l. is foundin thefollowingverse: *1 isj->.r25 r-l d-y'tr-r_r J OJ.+i5-e4;;-iJr cUrl) vll (!rir irlt l.tJ .-,tjc 0! .{Li, i,Jjt il 2t Suratr 5.116 # 80
  83. 83. "Thosewhom they call on themselves seek nearness their Lord. Which of them is to nearer; and they hope for His mercy, and fear His punishment. Surely,the tormentof your l-ord is a thing to be feare d."25 And ttre proof of the treesand stones[i.e. seeking blessings through such objects as gravesof pious people,sacrificinganimals for fulfilling needsand relief by touching cloth-coverings of the graves or its structures, all condemned s}lir&,]. os are as provenby Allah'swords: (.5;!r tlUtr1u..1 .gl!.rlJr rr$) " Have you considered al-Lat and al-Uzza. And Manat, the third, too. (the idols)126 25 Suratr*tZ.SZ 26 Surah #53.19,20 [Allah the Exalted chides the pagans for worshipping idols and other objects of worship, and erecting temples for <them resembling> with it Kabah which was built by Khalil ar-Rahtran or the friend of Allah, Ibrahim, peee be on him. Al-[,at was a whire rock with designs on it. It was enclosed in a currained house around which there was a court yard revered by the people of Ta'if, the tribe of Thaqeef and its allies, and they used to boast themselvesin it against the other Arab tribes <short of> Quraish. While al-Uzza was a tree enclosed in a curtained structured, in a place called Nakhleh, 81
  84. 84. A proof of the aboveis also given in the following tradition:"Abu Waqid al-Laithi reported: " We went along with the between Makkah and Ta'if, upon which was a curtained structure with servan6 assigned to it. It was also revered by Quraish, Wherefore, Abu Sufyan, who 'We apagan then, said was to the Muslims in the battle of Uhud; have al-Uzza, but you have no Uzza'. The Messenger of Allah instructed his 'Say, 'Allah is companions, our Supponer, and you have no supporter'. Manat was found in a place called Mushallel by Qadid between Makkah and Madinah. It was revered by the tribes of Khuza'ah, al-Aws and al-Khazrej in al-Jahiliyyeh ot the pre-Islamic eia, and used to begin their hajj rituals by coming to it first. Then rhe Prophet sent some of his companions to demolish them. He sent Khalid b. al-Walid, the drawn sword of Allah against the pagans,to demolish al-Uzza. He did so and said: "Uzza I disbelieve in you. No praise is owed o yort. I have witnessedhow Allah has disgmced you." The Messengerof Allah also sent al-Mughirah b. Shu'bahand Abu Sufyan to demolish al-Lat- They did so and built a mosque in its place, in Ta'if. And ro Manat, the Messenger of Allah sent Abu Sufyan who demolished it. It is also said that it was Ali who demolished it. The Prophet came with the religion of truth, and sinceredevotion to Allah, singling Allah out to be the sole worshipped God in truth, abolishing all the bad customs and every polytheistic practice which may mat the pure tenet of tawhid or monotheism. His great companions followed suit. and so did their followers till tiat time which was marked with chaos and confusion when the Satanand the deviant gained mastery over the minds of many Muslims, then idolatry wa.srevived, particularly in our contem;xrraryage, the age of compound ignorance and the decorative images. The predicamentprevailed while the scholarskeep silent, except those of them whom Allah wishes them to speak up. To Allah we all belongand to Him we shall retum.l .tM.D.l 82
  85. 85. Messenger of Allah for the Battle of Hunain, when we had but recently come out of our state of infidelity into Islam. The pagans had then a lote tree called Dthat Anwat which they used to worship and tie their weaponsonto it. When we passedby it, 'Messenger Allah! make we said: of dthat anwat for us like as they have'. The 'Allahu Messengerof Allah , said, akbar, these are as-sunnaun. You, by the one in Whose hand is my life, have just said what 'Make the Children of Israel said to Musa: for us a god just as they have gods'.He said, 'Surely; you are an ignorant people'. The Prophet went on to say, You shall follow the ways of those who were before you, that is the Jews and the Christi ans]27 The Fourth Rule 27 N-Tirmid$ri. [The companionswho made the requestto the Prophet had embracedIslam just recently.They thought that assigning a tree on which they could hang their weapons is a thing which might be pleasingto Allah. They only intendedto seek Allah's pleasureby doing so. They were too loyal and nobel to intend rebelling against the hophet , as the Children of Israel rebelledagainstMusa, peacebe on him. The rest of the tradiuon is cited in along with the commentary in the Book of Tawheedwhich is a duty the slavesowe Allah. Refer to it, you will find in it what pleasesyou. And Allah knows best.l . 83
  86. 86. The pagansof today are worse than the pagans the early stageof Islam; for those of usedto attributepartnersto Allah at times of ease, usedto be sincere Allah at times but to of difficulty. But, the pagans of roday, attribute partnersto Allah in both times of ease and difficulty. Allah refers ro this saying:28 C, tity'lJt etqJ lrUrurird ia:rlt Orlpr.:lLitt,.fUf, Up) 1;tf* "And when they board a ship, they call on Allah, with sincere and exclusive faith in Him, but when He brings them back safe to land, behold! they associate partners to Him."29 Therefore, we see many of those who worship pious people and graves of the shaikhs and masters are sincere in calling them beside Allah and seeking help from them during both times of ease and 28 29Surah*29.65 84
  87. 87. hardships.Some of them become more sincere in their polytheism when they experienceharder times. Contrary to the early paganswho used to attribute partners to Allatr only at the times of ease,and used to address themselves with earnest supplication to Allah alone at times of distress.Today, pagans persistant their are in polytheistic ways, begging and beseeching the dead pious people. Alas! There is no strengthnor power (to changethe prevailing situation) but by the accommodation of AUahthe High the Great.30 Allah speaksthe truth, and He is the One Who guides to the right direction. Allah, glory be to Him, says: .rtiltJ V J, *,It yrlrl i,! dJr,rrr;r lrrs t- aal;l ,tr) ,f** <.llt*r-r Ir>2;t!5-t V Jta>t.itbl j,f (i1s3t "Say, 'What do you think if AUah wills to do me an injury, will those whom you call upon beside Allah be able to remove the 30 This invocation is called 'lwwqaleh', it is utrered <at times" of weaknessand inability o changea bad situation. And Allah knows besl tM. M.l 85
  88. 88. injury inflicted by Him? Or, if He wills mercy for me, canthey withhold His mercy?' Say, 'Allah is enoughfor Me. In Him trust thosewho would trust."'3l andHe says: r{. ;r!t .tjlr #L4.J -Jr !i:dJ.ur ri! lrilr., rd f) (;.rrri;u i'u .ttr- "Or, Who answersthe distressedwhen he calls upon Him, and removesthe evil, and makesyou successors the earth?Is therea in god beside Allah? Little is that you reflect."32 And He says: .4.5 a J$.-Wdp;tirlru;4!9) i,r'.irr F !"r.-' t*#; 3r*r " ';.;.f# "And those whom you call upon beside Allah own not even an integument of a date- stone. If you call on them, they will not hear your call, and even if they heard it, they could not answer you. And on the Day of 3t Suratr* lg.:g 32SuratrZZ.OZ 86
  89. 89. Resurrection,they will deny your having associatedthem with Allah. And none can inform you like the One Who is All- Aware."33 And He says: grrirt=.tr3lJrrJ..o's-11 Ultitt, V P*t' ,Pl Vi blr . i,/it' rrr.r pl5i .l.rrl f, litJ s$t .! t4Vt V (o*s "And who is more astray than those who, instead of Allah, pray unto such as will not answer them till the Day of Resurrection, and they arc unconciousof their prayer?And when mankind are assembled,they will becomeenemiesto them, and will deny their worshiP."34 And Allah is the One Who guides to the straight Poth, and there is no power nor ability but throughAUah.l' 33Surrtrl 35.13,14 34 gltd|f46.S,e 87
  90. 90. ;.i)trll J-*-'Yl ,tj.#Yr itiJli
  91. 91. Iti.r} l1ip rll drtri, I uiSl I rtllrrJ I aibindcl$qJt a1ri t "tlpr!,rJ .',nj..Lj irl;3 f rLlr?lr iest)l1,.f Urll, iry-?l tlo,lVl Y ' A Y l. V ' . t f t.f .Yc :gl-te l- e.r.tsv ..ill - -F t.ftcV l-j.L'J#,"", .^LJtr olPlrll iJt dJUr.ittf ..1 - - 6'Art.c FttJ'tb"i'- glJl.irl' .r<ll,:'r llr Ui trfb. r.r r! vtdll lb it '7 4l Ch C- I
  92. 92. ;j)'[Jl J-*YI :t'FlliilJt{ li;Jt' ,J-:dJllt J- jr J-^.,y-Ylij I l-' djle-r ') ++i llrr yr.,
  93. 93. r:il"rdr.*irtf drt sfuaf.gri[.i.{,t .irr{.fY?tF} rl&lt ir.iro.UA,.alfr . rl t.1ptc' r=,ifll edig-3F3 |.rJ bci.ll!,.!H>t-ll &l-JJJlJdlLts&lt3 .Ab1rrlba#'.c'JJl t ',*t FAI-JJ.3 { fei ? J{+tl t-L6;!-2ei-lll ?$ltiltr;p}l { $ ? 1ll--e.r sb FiJirfl # !i s arj#*.iyl ailJ! tr ' p31?.rtrll &Lc'J'r;ll i r''risiF' ,^adli l/1r1. l){-,,,)'tC+-,*? ff': .,.::.t$t?- O-rl:'t.;Jtas-FA&"-!l 'i.ti {'A*.:lf tt l*t{,g* . iltj-lltgltj.r , p.3;r..,iSJt ql-,,.*9 r alJl a,..c*,2 U.,J fi+ r|p rj**,r t:.i o/1qvo 'ii rtl./t *.a..-!./taS,pJ3:}3 r.t .ri..r-}i..,' r,!rr. +5L..i;:ii,(ir):,.dd.'. r .;9grtT} ru$rt :li;i9;p.itt,/ilrltrri*l .r i. 1 *r* tu:Eb";:,.. ''q'F;t,. 'i1!"' rl, ::rrr' l{1.-VlA-'l-V:c,LJJ