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Islam in brief


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Islam in brief

  2. 2. ISLA]T'I BRIEF IN ISLAM IN BRIEF Mahmoud IUIurad Mahmoud Murad Printed Published and Printed and Published By By Presidency The Adminstration Presidency of The Adminstration of lslamlc Researches and lfta. Islamic Researches and Ifta. Prlntlng and TranslationAgency Printing and Translation Agency - Riyadh Kingdom Saudi of Arabia Riyadh - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  3. 3. Tebleof Contents Table of Contents Introduction Introduction 5 5 Who is Allah? Who is Allah? 7 7 What is Al-Qur'an? What is Al..Qur'an? . 9 9 Authenticity of Al-Qur'an Authenticity of AI..Qur'an 10 10 Miraculosity Al-Qur'an of Miraculosity of AI-Qur'an 111 1 Comprehensive Legislation Comprehensive Legislation 12 12 Science and Al-Qur'an Science and AI-Qur'an 14 t4 The creation the heavens and the earth The creation of the heavens and the earth l6 16 Humanreproduction Human reproduction 19 19 Who is Muhammad? Who is Muhammad? 2l 21 What is Islam? What is Islam? .. 22 22 The pillars Islam The pillars of Islam 25 25 The articles faith The articles of faith 28 28 Suggested Suggested materialsfor reading materials reading 31 31 3
  4. 4. Introduction Introduction This is a message every free thinking and broad- for This is a message for every free thinking and broad- mindedhuman being. It is for every seeker of the truth minded humanbeing.It is for everyseeker the truth of who might have,oncewondered,what the religion who might have, once wondered, what the religion of Islam is all about, who Atlah is, what is the ultimate Islam is all about. who Allah is, what is the ultimate goal of man'sexistence, what happens or goal of man's existence, or what happens after death, after death, for thesequestions and many othersare promptedat for these questions and many others are prompted at certainoccasions, brushed but certain occasions, but brushed aside by various factors. aside various by factors. Islamis indeeda misunderstood misrepresented Islam is indeed a misunderstood and misrepresented and religion in the West. "This misconception hardly sur- religion in the West. «This misconception is hardly sur- is prising",remarks FrenchDr. MauriceBucaille, the prising», remarks the French Dr. Maurice Bucaille, in his book, The Bible, The Qur'an and Science. 1 «when his book, The Bible, The Qurtan and Science.' .rwhen we considerthe way so many generations the West we consider the way so many generations is the West is wereinstructed in the religious problems were instructed the religiousproblems facing human- facinghuman- ity and the ignorance in which they were kept about ity and the ignorance which they were kept about in anything related Islam». HenceIslamic anything related to Islam".Hence Islamic ideals ideals remains remains obscure from the vastmajority of non-Muslims. obscure from the vast majority non-Muslims. Thisbookletdoesnot claimto answer thequestions This booklet does not claim answer all the questions all you would like to be answered. you would like be answered. However,this booklet However. this booklet will open beforeyou a new dimension thinking,and open before you new dimension of thinking, and will enableyou to realizethe importanceof your role enable you realize the importance your role as a human beingin this universe, help you under- as human being this universe, to help you under- standthe relationship stand the relationship betweenyou and your Creator, between you and your Creator. l. The Book was originally written in French, entitled'La Bible, le Coran et la 1. The Book was originally written in French, entitled 'La Bible, Ie Coran et la Science'.Its English version is published by American Trust publication ,!979. Science' . Its English version is published by American Trust publication, 1979. 5
  5. 5. God Almighty Allah. It presentsIslam to you in a nut- God Almighty Allah. It presents Islam to you in a nut- shell, and provides straightfonvard answersto many sheU, and provides straightforward answers to many questions about Islam and its credibility. questionsabout Islam and its credibility. In this booklet, you will alsobe able to know Allah, In this booklet, you will also be able to know Allah, the last of His Scriptures,the last of His Prophetsand last of Scriptures, the last of His Prophets and Messengers, what Islam is, the role of man in this life Messengers, what Islam the role of man in this life and related issues. and other related issues. Lest one may think that there is an English version Lest one may there English version reader's attention of the Qur'an, I would like to drawthe reader'sattention Qur'an, I to thefactthat Arabic is the only language the Qur'an. the fact that the language of of Qur'an. Although the Qur'anic quotationsand Prophetictradit- Although Qur'anic quotations and Prophetic tions cited in this booklet are precededwith <Allah tions cited this booklet are preceded «Allah says», only the meaning suchquotations quoted. says>>, the meaning of such quotations are only arequoted. ll. llurad M.Murad w",. J41' ffirr lll0 Seateri&*r 1fr9 September 1." 6
  6. 6. Who fs Allah? Who Is Allah? Allah is the proper name applied to the only true Allah is the proper name applied to the only true God who existsnecessarily Himself,comprising God Who exists necessarily by Himself~ comprising all by all the excellent Divine names attirbutes perfection. and the excellent Divine names and attirbutes of perfection. of Allah is one and unique; He hasno partner equal. Allah is One and Unique; He has no partner or equal. or He is the sole Creator and sustainer of the universe. He is the sole Creator and sustainer the universe. of Everycreature bears witness His oneness. Every creature bears witness to His Oneness. Divinity, to Divinity, Lordship and the uniqueness of His attributes and Lordship and the uniqueness His attiibutes and names.Allah's essence does not resemble names. Allah's essence does not resemble other es-other es- sences; ..There none like unto Him». He is the One, sences; «There is nonelike unto Him". He is the one, is theSale. the Indivisible. He is the God without Whom the sole, the Indivisihle. is rhe God withoutwhom He no affairs are accomplished, and to Whom Lordship no affairs are accomplished, to whom Lordship and ultimately pertains. neither begets nor is begotten. ultimately pertains. HeHe neither begets is begotten. nor He doesnot inherein anything, nor doesanything He does not inhere in anything, nor does anything in- in- here in Him. creatures standin need Him, but here in Him. All creatures stand in need of Him. but He stands need none. in He stands in need of none. Allah is the Omnipotent, Allah is the Omnipotent, the Omniscient, the Omniscient. Whose Whose knowledge knowledge comprehends the mostperfectmannerall comprehends in the most perfect manner all things,hidden or manifested. But things. hidden manifested. He is far greater But is far greater than than to be encompassed the knowledge His creatures. be encompassed by the knowledge of His creatures. by Allah the Supreme the Creatorof everything, He Allah the Supreme is the Creator everything. for is has a free hand in the disposal all affairs.He is the has free hand the disposal of affairs. the most Merciful,whose unhounded most Merciful, Whose unbounded mercyencompasses mercy encompasses everything.He is far removedfrom injusticeand everything. He is far removed from injustice and tyranny.Allah'sjusticeensures tyranny. Allah's justice ensures orderin the universe, order in the universe, which hasno defect.Thereis no one to shareHis do- which has defect. There is no one to share His do- main. nor doesHe take aid or supportfrom His crea- main. nor does He take aid or support from His crea- 7
  7. 7. s tures. He is the God of the worlds.Yet, He is nearer tures. He is the God of the worlds. Yet, He is nearer .to man than man'sjugularvein. Whenevera believer ·to man than man's jugular vein. Whenever a believer 'calls distress calls on Him, He responds- is in need or distress need on Him, He responds. He is He abovethe SevenHeavensmounting His throne is the above the Seven Heavens mounting His throne is the mannerwhich suits His grahdure. manner which suits grandure. Allah has revealedHis final Scripture,al-Qur'anto has revealed final Scripture, al-Qur'an to the last Messengers, Muhammad,peacebe on the last of His Messengers, Muhammad, peace be him, to conveythe Message Islamto mankind.He him, convey the Message of Islam mankind. is the ExaltedAllah; Glory be to Him is the Exalted Allah; Glory be Him. 8
  8. 8. What is the Qur'an? What is the Qur'an? The word <<Qur'an'is understoodin its general con- The word «Qur'an» is understood in its general con- notation to mean the speechof Allah which is neither notation to mean the speech of Allah which is neither created. The Qur'an is the real word of Allah, which created.The Qur'an is the real word of Allah, which was delivered by the angel Gabriel to Muhammad, was delivered by the" angel Gabriel to Muhammad, peace be on him. Prophet Muhammad, peace be on peace be on him. Prophet Muhammad, peace be on him, memorizedthe verses receivedand recitedthem him, memorized the verses he received and recited them he to his companions,who happened be to his companions, who happened to be with him. He him. then ordered them to immediately write the verses then ordered them to immediately write the verses down. himself used to keep a copy down. He himself used to keep a copy of the revealed the revealed portions in his house.The Qur'an is the last Allah's portions in his house. The Qur'an is the last of Allah's Scriptureswhich revealed instalmentsover Scriptures which Allah revealed in instalments over a period twenty-threeyears.[t is divided 114surahs period of twenty-three years. It is divided into 114 surafts (chapters) unequallength. is one the fundamen, (chapters) of unequal length . It is one of the fundamen- tal sources the Islamic teachings. Some its surahs tal sources of the Islamic teachings. Some of its surafis and verses were revealed and verses were revealed at Makkah, and the rest Makkah, and the rest thereof were revealedat Madinah. thereof were revealed at Madinah. The Makkan surahs Makkan surahs and verses are concerned and verses are concerned mainly with the issues of issues of tawhid, the belief the Oneness tawhid, or the belief in the onenessof Allah, the signs signs of the existence of Allah, Resurrection, and life after existenceof Resurrection, and death. The creed of the onenessof Allah was the focal death. creed the Oneness of was focal point of the messages of prophets and messages with which all the Prophets Messengers were sent to mankind, beginning with Messengers were sent beginning Adam and ending with Muhammad, peacebe on them and ending Muhammad, peace them all. The surahs revealed at Madinah at a latter period surahsrevealed latter period of the life of the Messengerof Allah, peacebe on him, of of Messenger of Allah, peace be on him, are concerned with legislations,rites of worship, and are concerned legislations, rites of worship, and transactionsrelated to all aspectsof life. transactions related to all aspects of life. 9
  9. 9. Authenticity the Qur'an Authenticity of the Our'sn Therehasbeenno nationwhichcaredabout,holified There has been nation which cared about, holified and preservedits Divine Scripture as the Muslim and preserved its Divine Scripture as the Muslim Ilmmah (nation) cared about, holified and preserved Ummah (nation) cared about, holified and preserved the Qur'an. Unlike the Divine Scriptureswhich pre- the Qur'an. the Scriptures which pre- ceded the Qur'anis not kept in the hands a particu- ceded it, the Qur'an is not kept the hands of particu- lar group or clan of Muslimsso that one may suspect group clan Muslims so one may suspect it to be tampered with alterated; rather,it waswithin be tampered with or alterated; rather, was within the reachof all Muslims.The Muslimsare commanded the reach Muslims. The Muslims are commanded to recite it in their prayer and refer to it in all their recite their prayer and refer all their judgment.The Qur'an wascompiled disputes for a final judgment. The Qur'an was compiled disputes a final at a time when those who committed it to memorywere at a time whenthosewho committed memory were still alive. Allah has promised to preservethe Qur'an, still alive. haspromised preserve the Qur'an, and will be preserved the Day Judgment. The and it will be preserved till the Day of Judgment. The recite the Qur'anic texts that Muslims today read and recite the Qur'anic texts that Muslimstoday read and werereadand recitedduringthe lifetime the Prophet were read and recited during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be on him, and his companions: No Muhammad,peace on him, and his companions: be letter hasbeenadded the Qur'an deleted from letter has been added to the Qur'an or deleted from it. Maurice Bucailleas- After examining the Qur'an, Dr. Maurice Bucaille as- examiningthe Qur'an, certains:..Thanksto its undisputedauthenticity,the certains: «Thanks to its undisputed authenticity, the text the Qur'an holdsa uniqueplaceamongthe books text of the Qur'an holds a unique place among the books of revelation»l.'. revelationt l. Dr. MauriceBucailleis a surgeon who hastakengreatinterest the scientific in 1. Dr. Maurice Bucaille is a surgeon who has taken great interest in the scientific aspects the Qur'an. He learnt Arabic and managed study the Qur'an in to aspects of the Qur'an. He learnt Arabic and managed to study the Qur'an in of iu original tcxt. He was amazed with its preciscscicntificdata. As a result of its original text. He was amazed with its precise scientific data. As a result of this study.Dr. Bucailleconverted Islam. to this study. Dr. Bucaille converted to Islam. t0 10
  10. 10. Miracufosity the Qur'an of Miraculosity of the Qur'an Allah, the Exalted challenged Arabsandnon- has Allah, the Exalted has challenged the Arabs and non- the Arabsto produce a qur'an similar to the Divine one. Arabs to producea qur'an similar to the Divine one. The challenge wasthen reducedto ten surahs, yet The challenge was then reduced to ten surahs, and yet and they failedto do so. Finally,Allah challenged they failed to do so. Finally, Allah challenged them to them to producea singlesurahcomparable any of His. Al- produce a single surah comparable to any of His. Al- to though they were mastersof eloquenceand rhetoric though they were masters of eloquence and rhetoric during that period, the Arabs were still incapable during that period, the Arabs were still incapable of of taking up the challenge.They realized rhat it could taking up the challenge. They realized that it could never be from anyoneother than Allah, the Lord never be from anyone other than Allah, the Lord of the worlds. the worlds. The difference between miracles the previous The difference between miracles of the previous Mes- Mes- sengers, which proved their veracity,and those the sengers, which proved their veracity, and those of the Messenger Allah, peace on him, is that their pre- be Messenger of Allah, peace be on him, is that their pre- vious miracles were effective during the lifetime of vious miracles were effective during the lifetime everyone them, whereasthe miracle the Our'an everyone of them, whereas the miracle of the eur'an remains effective, everlastingand unchallenged remains effective, everlasting and unchallenged until the Day of Judgment. the Day Judgment. t11 t
  11. 11. Comprehensive Legislation Comprehensive Legislation Besidesthe finesseof its rhetoric, the Qur'an consti- Besides the finesse of its rhetoric, the Qur'an consti- tutes comprehensive conceptof Islam on the tutes the most comprehensive concept of Islam on the practicallevel, the shari'ah,or the laws and legislation. practical leveL shari'ah, or laws legislation. The Qur'an is comprehensivebecauseit includes law, Our'an comprehensive because it includes moral principlesand the creedwhich every Muslim sub- moral principles and the creed which every sub- 'ah is suitablenot only for the scribes.The Islamic shari scribes. Islamic shari'ah suitable Muslims, but for all mankind at all times. The Islamic Muslims, mankind times. Islamic law governs all human acts, public or private-duties governs all human acts, public private-duties towards and duties towards man. towards Allah and duties towards man Man-made laws are subject to alteration and are Man-made laws are subject alteration and are basedon theories;whenevera new body of legislators based theories; whenever new body legislators assumes authority in a non-Muslim country or a new assumes authority non-Muslim country new theory appearsand appeals its government,the laws theory appears and appeals to its government, the laws are changed accordingly. The Divine laws,on the other are changed accordingly. The Divine laws, on the other hand, are unalterableand perpetual becausethe One hand, are unalterable and perpetual because the One Who made them is Everliving and Everlasting God. He Who made them is Everlivingand Everlasting God. is the Creator Who created mankind and is the Creator createdmankind and ordained for ordained them whatsuitsthemtill the end time. For thisreason. them what suits them till the end of time . For this reason, the Qur'an, being the last revealed to the last the Our'an, being the last revealed to the last of abrogates previousScrip- all Prophets and Messengers. abrogates all previous Scrip- Prophetsand Messengers. tures. . tures Many prophesies the Qur'an are fulfilled to the Many prophesies in the Our'an are fulfilled to the in letter. Allah promisedthosewho believeand did good letter. Allah promised those who believe and did good that He will surelymakethemsuccessors earth. on deeds that He will surely make them successors on earth. deeds The early Muslims ruled a vast land encompassing many The early Muslimsruled a vastland encompassing many countriesin the world. The Qur'an foretold the victory countries in the world. The Our'an foretold the victory t2 12
  12. 12. of the Romans over the Persians 2 • Allah says: «The of the Romansover the Persianst. Allah says:<The Romanshavebeen defeated, in the land nearby, and Romans have been defeated, the land nearby,and in theyafter their defeat, will be victorious». they after their defeat,will be victoriouso. A person who reads the Qur'an objectivelyshall A person who reads the Qur'an objectively shall realizethat the prophesies in it are far removed from realize that the prophesies it are far removedfrom in conjuncture speculations. is dueto the factthat or This conjuncture or speculations. This is due to the fact that who revealed them is the One who predecreed all Who revealed them is the one who predecreedall events until the Day Judgment. events until the Day of Judgment. 'Arrum' Z. The reference to this prophesy is found in surah #30 entitled 'Arrum' or the 2. reference to prophesy surah #30 or Romans. to battle which took place between Persian Romans. This refers to the battle which took place between the Persian and Roman 614 A.D. when Roman were defeated. years the Roman in 614 A.D. when the Roman were defeated.Eight yearsafter that. the Roman defeated the Persians,and the prophesy to the Qur'an was fulfilled the Roman defeated the Persians, and the prophesy to the Our'an was fulfilled to the letter. to the letter. l13 3
  13. 13. Scienceand the Our'an Science and the Our'an Along with the fact the Muhammad,peacebe on Along with the fact the Muhammad, peace be on him, wasilliterate;he couldneitherreadnor write, he him, was illiterate; he could neither read nor write, he grew up in Makkah where there were no schools, and grew up in Makkah where there were no schools,and he was far away from the scientific circleswhich existed he wasfar awayfrom the scientific circles which existed Syria, Alexandria, Athensand Rome. Moreover, the in Syria,Alexandria,Athens and Rome.Moreover,the scientific factsmentioned the Qur'anwerenot known scientific facts mentioned in the Qur'an were not known in in the seventhcentury.Having studiedand examined the seventh century. Having studied and examined the Arabic text of the Qur'an, Dr. Bucaillemarvels: the Arabic text the Qur'an, Bucaille marvels: ..I could not find a singleerror in the Qur'an. II «I could find single error the Qur'an. had to stopand askmyself:if a manwasthe author had stop and ask myself: if man was the author of the Qur'an, how could he have written factsin the Qur'an, how could he have written facts the Seventh century that today are shown to the Seventh century A.D. that todayareshown be in keeping with modern scientific knowledge? be keeping modern scientificknowledge? had too acknowledge evidence front me: the I had too acknowledge the evidence in front of me: the Qur'an did not containa singlestatement the Qur'an did not contain a single statement that that was assailable from a modern scientific point of was assailable from a modern scientificpoint view. repeatedthe sametest for the Old Testa- view. I repeated the same test for the Old Testa- always preserving same the ment and the Gospels, always preserving the same ment and the Gospels, objectiveoutlook. In the former, I did not even objective outlook. In the former, 1 did not even haveto go beyondthe first book, Genesis, find tb have to go beyond the first book, Genesis, to find totally out of keepingwith the cast-iron statements totally out of keeping with the cast-iron statements factsof modernscience>>. facts of modern science». Dr. Bucaillestudiedmany of the scientificfactsthat Dr. Bucaille studied many of the scientific facts that are mentionedin the Qur'an, suchas the creationof are mentioned in the Qur'an, such as the creation of and other topicsincludingastronomy, the universe, and other topics including astronomy, ani- the universe, ani- humanreproduction other mal and plant kingdoms, human reproduction and other mal andplant kingdoms, and l4 14
  14. 14. relatedissues. the sake'ofbrevity,two of the above For related issues. For the sake"of brevity, two of the above issues will be discussed order to draw the reader's in issues will be discussed in order to draw the re-ader's attentionto one of the objectives this booklet. attention to one of the objectives of this booklet. of r5 IS
  15. 15. The Creationof the Heavensand the Earth The Creation of the Heavens and the Earth "Man's knowledgeof the origin of the universeis HMan's knowledge of the origin of the universe is considerablylimited. The scientistshave proposed considerably limited. The scientists have proposed hypotheses theoriesof evolutionthat are centred hypotheses and theories of evolution that are centred and aroundone theme:the radiationera, the premordial around one theme: the radiation era. the premordial fireball and the premordial matter and antimatter. The fireballand the premordialmatter and antimatter.The theories state that the universe consisted mainly of theoriesstate that the universeconsisted mainly of stronglyinteractingparticles.Premordialmatter and strongly interacting particles. Premordial matter and antimatter. according Encyclopaedia Britannica' antimatter, accordingto Encyclopaedia Britannica. eventuallyannihilatedeach other; and the remaining eventually annihilated each other; and the remaining particles formed the present universe"~. The Qur'an particlesformed the presentuniverse"'.The Qur'an presents development the universe relatively presents the development of the universe in relatively the simple terms. Allah says, directingHis Messenger iimpte terms. Allah says. directing His Messenger peacebe on him, to ask the unbelievers: Muhammad, peace be on him, to ask the unbelievers: Muirammad, "Say: Is that ye deny Him Who created earth the "Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth do ye join equals with Him? in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? in two Days? (all) The Worlds.He set on the He is The Lord of (all) The Worlds. He set on the He is The Lord firm, high aboveit, and (earth) Mountains Standing firm, high above it, and (earth) MountainsStanding blessings the earth,and measured therein bestowed blessings on the earth. and measured therein bestowed on its sustenance four Days,alike for (all) who ask' its sustenance in four Days, alike for (all) who ask. in Then He turnedto the sky,and it had been (as) Then He turned to the sky. and it had been (as) smoke :He said to it and to the earth: "comeyetogether, smoke: saidto it andto theearth: come ye together, He H willingly or unwillingly". willinglyor unwillingly". They said: we do come(together), willing obedi- in They said: "we do come (together), in willing obedi- H ence". . gnce" 3. Macropedia. Vol. 18. p. 1008. 166 l
  16. 16. So He completedthem aSsevenfirmamentsin two So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned each heavenits duty and Days~ and He assigned to each heaven its duty and to command. and We adorned the lower heaven with command. and We adorned the lower heaven with lights~ and (provided it) with guard. lights,and (providedit) with guard. Suchis the Decreeof (Him) The Exaltedin Might, Such is the Decree of (Him) The Exalted in Might, Knowledge"-l. Full of Knowledge"*. ~~Do not the Unbelievers "Do see that the heavens and the Unbelievers see that the heavensand theearthwerejoinedtogether oneunit of Creation), the earth were joined together (asone unit Creation). (as before We clove them asunder? before clove them asunder? We madefrom water everyliving thing. made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?"''. they not then believe?":;. "The concept rending oneunit into two or more, "The concept of rending of one unit into two more. the colestial{<Smoke}>referredto in the aboveverses the colestial «smoke» aSreferred as the above verses are fact to whichcorresponds the factual scientific data. arefact which corresponds factualscientific the data. the English physicistand astronomerSir «Smoke», the English physicist and astronomer Sir <Smokerr, JamesJeanswrote: We have found that, as Newton James Jeans wrote: We have found that. as Newton first conjectured, chaoticmass gas approximately first conjectured, a chaotic mass of gas of approximately a very great extent would be uniform density and of very great extent would be uniform density and dynamically unstable: nuclei,wouldtendto Form in it, dynamically unstable: nuclei, would tend to Form in it, whichthe whole matterwouldultimately around which the whole of matter would ultimately con- around con- dense".On the basis this theory Newton proposed dense". On the basis of this theory Newton proposed that all celestial objects originated by a process of frag- that all celestial objects originated a process frag- by mentation. mentation. Needless say the spaceprogramhelpeddiscover Needless to say the space program helped discover to the homogeniety the substances whichthe moon, of the homogeniety of the substances of which the moon, of the earth and other planetsare formed' "Such state- the earth and other planets are formed. «Such state- 4. . Our'an n :: 9, to, 11, 12. . 4 Qu r'a 41 9, 10,11,1 2 41 5. Our'an 21 ::30. 5. Qur'an2l 30. 17 l7
  17. 17. mentsin the Qur'an concerningthe creationwhich ap- ments in the Our'an concerning the creation which ap- peared nearlyfourteencenturies peared nearly fourteen centuries ago», Dr. Bucaille con- agon,Dr. Bucaillecon- cluded, .robviously not lend themselves a human do cluded, «obviously do not lend themselves to a human to explanation»6 • explanationnu. 6. Macropedia. Vol. 18. p. lfXf8. 6. Macropedia. Vol. 18. p. 1008. r8 18
  18. 18. HumanReproduction Human Reproduction The complexities human reproductionwere de- The complexities of human reproduction were de- coded and understood only after the inventionof the codedand understood only after the invention the microscope whichwashundreds yearsafter the death microscope which was hundreds of years after the death of Muhammad, peace be on him. However. the Qur'an Muhammad. peace on him. However.the Qur'an be refersto the stages development humanembryo refers the stages of development that human embryo that undergoes. Allah says: undergoes. Allah says: HMan We did create from quintessence (of clay); "Man We did createfrom a quintessence clay); Then we placedhim as (adropof) spermin a place Then we placed him as (adrop sperm place of rest, Firmly fixed; rest,Firmly fixed; Then we made the sperm into a clot of congealed Then we made the sperminto clot congealed blood; then of that clot We madea (foetus) blood;then that clot We made a (foetus) lump;then lump; then We madeout that lump hones andclothed bones We made out of that lump hones and clothed the bones the with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. with flesh;thenwe developed out another creature. So blessed Allah, The Bestto create!"'. So blessed he Allah. The Best to create!,,7. be As has been scientifically proven, the stages As it has been scientifically proven, the stages of are: "l- Fertilization an ovule human reporduction are: « 1- Fertilization of an ovule humanreporduction whichtakesplacein the Fallopian tubes.The fertilizing which takes place in the Fallopian tubes. The fertilizing agent is the male sperm.2- The implantation the agent is the male sperm. 2- The implantation of the fertilizedeggwhich takesplaceat a precise spot in the fertilized egg which takes pla~e at a precise spot in the system: descends the uterus it into female reporductive system: it descends into the uterus femalereporductive and lodgesin the body the uterus. and lodges in the body of the uterus. Oncetheemhryo begins beobservable thenaked to to Once the embryo begins to be observable to the naked eye, it looks like a small mass flesh. growsthere eye, it looks like a small mass of flesh. It grows there stageswhich are very well known today; in progressive stages which are very well known today; in progressive 1. Qur'an 23 : 12. 13. 14. l9 19
  19. 19. theyleadto the bonestructure, muscles, nervous they lead to the bone structure, the muscles, the nervous the the system, circulation, the system. the circulation. and the viscera. etc» R. and the viscera,etcrr*. In conclusion, Bucaille Dr. ,.Morethan a In conclusion, Dr. Bucaille ascertains: «More than a ascertains: thousand years beforeour time,at a periodwhenwhim- thousand years before our time. at a period when whim- sicaldoctrines still prevailed, sical doctrines still prevailed, men had a knowledge of men had a knowledge the Qur'an.The statements contains the Qur'an. The statements it contains express in simple it express simple in termstruths of premordialimportance terms truths of premordial importance which man has which rnanhas takencenturies discovertr. to taken centuries to discover». L The Bible, the Qur'an and Science,p. 199. 8. Bible, Our'an and Science. p. 199. 20
  20. 20. Who is Muhammad? Who Muhammad? Muhammad,peacebe on him, is the last of Allah's Muhammad, peace be him, is the last Allah's Messengers and Prophets. His name is Muhammad son Messengers Prophets. nameis Muhammad and His son of Abdullah. He was born in Makkah 570 A.D. Due Abdullah. was born Makkah 570 Due to the fine reputationhe enjoyedamonghis people, the fine reputation he enjoyed among his people, they nicknamedhim 'the Trustworthy'.At the ageof they nicknamed him 'the Trustworthy'. the age 40, he wasendowed with the prophethood whenAllah 40, he was endowed with the prophethood when Allah the Exalted,revealed him, throughthe angelGabriel the Exalted, revealed to him, through the angel Gabriel the first Qur'anic verses, the first Qur'anic Muhammad, peace on him, verses, Muhammad, peace be on him, be wasaskedto preachthe beliefin the Oneness Allah was asked preach the belief the Oneness of and warn peopleagainst polytheism. and warn people against polytheism. The Makkan polytheists opposed Muhammad, peace The Makkan polytheists opposed Muhammad,peace be on him.,and his few followersharshly,, that did but be on him, and his few followers harshly, but that did not shakehis faith nor waiverhis steadfastness, did nor not shake his faith nor waiver his steadfastness, nor did stop more peoplefrom responding his to preaching. it stop more people from responding to his preaching. majority the people Madinah Finally, when the majority of the people of Madinah Finally, when the Islam, the Makkan Muslimstook flight to embraced Islam, the Makkan Muslims took flight to embraced Madinah, Later oD, the Messenger Allah himself Madinah, Later on, the Messenger of Allah himself migrated Madinah establish Islarnic to to the State. migrated to Madinah to establish the Islamic State. FewFew yearslater the polytheists Makkah and their allies years later the polytheists of Makkah and their allies succumbed the growingpower the Muslims,and succumbed to the growing power of the Muslims, and to Makkah was conquered.Some thirty yearsafter the Makkah was conquered. Some thirty years after the death the ProphetMuhammad, peacebe on him, death of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be on him, Islam had alreadyspread throughout world sweep- the Islam had already spread throughout the world sweep- ing the two greatest empires existence; Persian in the ing the two greatest empires in existence; the Persian and the Roman. and the Roman. 21l 2
  21. 21. What is lslam? What is Islam? The Arabic term 'Islam', meaning ..submissionn, The Arabic term 'Islam', meaning «submission», pointsto the fundamental religious creedwhichdictates points to the fundamental religious creed which dictates that a Muslim submitto the will Allah, conforming that a Muslim submit to the will of Allah, conforming inwardlyand outwardlyto His laws. inwardly and outwardly to His laws. The religion Islm lays great emphasis uncom- The religion of Islm lays great emphasis on uncom- on promisingmonotheism and strict adherence certain promising monotheism and strict adherence to certain to creeds and acts worship. enjoinssubmitting the creeds and acts of worship. It enjoins submitting to the to will Allah and followingthe exemplary way the will of Allah and following the exemplary way of the life Muhammad, last the Prophets Messen- the life of Muhammad, the last of the Prophets and Messen- and gers., may peace on them all. be gers, may peace be on them all. Allah, the Exaltedcreatedthe universe Allah, the Exalted created the universe and what is and what is in that He be recognized the One and only God. as in it that He be recognized as the One and only God. He created man and jinn only to celebrate His praise He createdman and only celebrate His praise and worship Him. His words signify: "f have only and worship Him. His words signify: "I have only created Jinnsand men, that they may ServeMe"o. created linns and men, that they may Serve Me"). The waysand acts worshipare not left The ways and acts of worship are not left to man's man's option choice.Allah is the One Who ordainsand option or choice. Allah is the One Who ordains and decrees acts worshipand the means whichthey all decrees all acts of worship and the means in which they in must be observed. must be observed. Since Islamdealsin everyaspect Since Islam deals every aspect of life.'spiritual andphysical, jurisprudence based life, spiritualand physical, its jurisprudence is based on its is on creeds, creeds, actsof worshipandordinances acts worship and ordinances regarding regarding social, social, economical and politicaltransactions. economical and political transactions. Because Islamis a perfectway of life, it enjoinsmain- Because Islam is perfect way enjoins main- taining a refinedcode of manners. taining refined code manners. The Messenger The Messenger of 9. Qur'an51 : 56. 9. Qur'an 51 56. a2 22
  22. 22. Allah said:"Verily, havebeensentto accomplish Allah said: HVerily, I have been sent to accomplish the the fine manners Allah has praised the fine manners of fine manners".Allah has praised fine manners H. the His Messenger saying: "And surelythou hastsublime His Messenger saying: ..And surely thou hast sublime morals""'. A'ishah. wife the Messenger Allah, mora)s"w. A'ishah, the wife of the Messenger of Allah. the peacebe on him, was askedabout his manners. peace be on him, was asked about his manners. She She "His manners were al-Qur'an".A'ishah said: HHis manners were al-Qur'an". A'ishah meant said: meant that the Prophet, peace on him, clungto the Qur'an, be that the Prophet, peace be on him, clung to the Qur'an, rules discipline. commands. prohibitions, its its and it rules of discipline. its commands. its prohihitions, and the excellent,beautifuland gracious thingscomprised the excellent., beautiful and gracious things comprised in it. For this reason Allah commands the helievers to in it. For this reason Allah commands believers the to follow the exemplary life of His Messenger, peacebe follow the exemplary life His Messenger, peace be on him. saying: "Ye have indeed in the Messenger of on him. saying: haveindeedin the Messenger Allah an excellent exempler"". Allah an excellent exempler"I'. Islamenjoins goodmanners everyoccasion: for Islam en.loins good manners for every occasion: seek-seek- ingpermission, greeting, learning, ing permission, greeting., sitting, eating, learning, teach- sitting,eating. teach- ing. sporting.travelling. dressing. visiting.sleeping. ing. sporting. travelling. dressing. visiting. sleeping. marriage,treating people, particularlyrelativesand marriage, treating people., particularly relatives and neighbours with kindness. Codes all suchgreat etc. neighhours with kindness, etc. Codes of all such great manners foundin both the Qur'anandthe Prophetic are manners are found in both the Qur'an and the Prophetic traditions theMessenger Allah.peace on him. traditions of the Messenger of Allah. peace he on him. he The familyenjoys highstatus Islam. is the core The family enjoys a high status in Islam. It is the core a in society; healthyfamily means healthvsocietv. a a of society; a healthy family means a healthy society. hence Allah., the Exalted commands to treat them with hence Allah, the Exaltedcommands treatthem!ith gentleness submissiveness and gentleness and suhmissiveness saying:saying: "Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none but HThy Lord hath decreedthat ye worship none but Him, and that ye he kind to parents. Him, and that ye he kind to parents. 10. Qur'an 68 : 4. 10.Qur'an 68 4. 11. Qur'an 33 ::21. 11.Qur'ant3 21. 23 23
  23. 23. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy Whether one them attain age life. say not to them aword of contempt. nor repel them life, say not them aword contempt, repel them but address them, in terms of honour. addressthem, terms honour. And. out of kindness, lower to them the wing of And, out kindness.lower them the wing humility, and say: humility, and say: "My "My Lord! bestow on them thy Mercy even as they bestow on them Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood" 12. cherishedme childhood"''. Next to family comes the kindred. The Messenger of Next family comesthe kindred.The Messenger peace be on him, said that Allah, peace be on him, said that Allah has promised has promised to he kind to him who hehaves kindly to his kindred. he kind him who hehaveskindly his kindred, and and to sever him who severs his kindred by unkind sever who severshis kindred bv unkind hehaviour. behaviour. 12. Qur'an 17 : 23. 24. 24 24
  24. 24. The Pillarsof lslam The Pillars Islam The Messenger Allah, peacebe on him, said: Islam Messenger of peace said:" Islam is five pillars: is built on five pillars: '1, 1.. ash-Shahaadah (the professionof faith) which must ash-Shahaadafr profession (the which must be recited by anyoneembracingIslam. (La ilaha illallah, be recited anyone embracing Islam. iJaha iJ/alJah. Muhammad RasoolulJah) meaning: «There is Muhammad Rasoolullah)meaning: "There is no true true god except Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of god except Muhammad is Messenger Allah". This meansthat there is no god worthy of being Allah». This means that there is god worthy being worshippedbut Allah, and that He must be worshipped worshipped and that must be worshipped only according the teaching His Messenger only according to the teaching of His Messenger Muhammad. ,p e a c eb e on him.. M u h a m m a d peace be o n h i m 2. Salat (prayer). which must be performed five times 2. Salat(prayer).which must be performedfive times a day. The first is Fajr prayer . [two rak 'aat (units)] ~ a day. The first is prayer. [two rak'aat (units)]; which may he performed hetween dawn and sunrise. which may be performed hetween dawn and sunrise. The second Dhuhr, just afternoon.[four rak'aatf.The The second.. Dhuhr. just afternoon. [four rak'aat]. The third Asr. in the later afternoon. [four rak'aat]. The Asr. the afternoon, [four rak'aatl. The fourth.. Maghrib. [three rak 'aat] immediately after sun- fourth Maghrib, [three rak'aatJ immediatelyafter sun- set. The fifth. Isha '. [four rak 'aat]. after the sun's red- set. The fifth.Isha', ffour rak'aat),after the sun'sred- ness disappearsfrom the horizon. Prayer, however, ness disappears from the horizon. Prayer, however, must he precededby ahlution which is washinghands. must he preceded hy ahlution which is washing hands. face.,wiping over the head, washingthe forearms and face, wiping over the head, washing the forearms and the feet.t . the fee pillars Islam. is the Prayer is one of the greatest pillars of Islam. It is the Prayeris one the greatest first act worship about which man shallbe askedon first act of worship ahout which man shall he asked on the Day Reckoning. is accepted Allah, then the Day of Reckoning. If it is accepted by Allah, then by 25 25
  25. 25. the restof man'sgooddeedsare accepted • the rest too 13 man's good deeds are accepted too''. 3. Zakaf(thepoor-due) oneof thegreatest 3. Zakat (the poor-due) is one the greatest financial is financial institutions of Islam, literally meaning 'purification', in- institutions Islam,literallymeaning'purification', in- that sucha payment makes restof the Mus- dicating that such a payment dicating makes the rest the Mus- the lim's wealth pure. Zakat is levied annually on -certain lim's wealthpure. Zakat is leviedannually certainon typesof food grain, cattle and cashpossessed one types food grain, cattle and cash possessed for one lunar calendar year to be given out to the poor, the lunar calendar year be given out the poor, the needyand other specified classes people. needy and other specified classes of people. (fasting) be observed duringthe month 4. Sawm (fasting) to be observed during the month 4. Sawm to (the Ramadan ninthmonth theMuslimlunarcalen- of Ramadan (the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calen- (dawn), andendsat sunset. dar). It begins daybreak (dawn), and ends at sunset. dar). tt begins at daybreak at Eating, drinkingl~ and sexualactivities with one'swife Eating, drinking'tand sexual activities with one's wife are forhidden. are forbidden. Besides healthbenefits whichone gainsthroughfast- Besides health benefits which one gains through fast- ing, it is an act of worship which helps one who observes ing,it is an act worshipwhich helpsone who observes it attain piety, humbleness and share the feelings of the attain piety, humbleness and sharethe feelings the beret and hungry in the community. Fasting also allows beret and hungry the community.Fastingalsoallows one to be more benevolent and charitable. one be more benevolentand charitable. 5. Hali (pilgrimage) to Makkah, prescribed for those 5. Hajj (pilgrimage) Makkah, prescribed those Muslims who can afford the trip financiallyl5 and health Muslimswho can afford the financially''and health 13.Man shall be held accountablefor every minute and thing he does, and shall 13. Man shall be held accountable for every minute and thing he does, and shall stand all himselfon the Judgment Reckoning be questionedby stand all by himself on the Day of Judgment or Reckoning to be questioned by the Almighty Allah. Everyone shall he held accountahle for his own deeds. the Almighty Allah. Every one shall he held accountable his own deeds. for The life in the Hereafter is either everlasting happiness or everlasting torment. The life in the Hereafteris either everlasting happiness everlasting torment. juices and other non-alcholicand soft drinks; 14. Drinking, refers to water, fruit juices and other non-alcholic and soft drinks; 14.Drinking, refers to water, liquour and smokingare prohihitedin Islam. liquour and smoking are prohihited in Islam. 15.This means that one must have enough provisionsfor his journey and for his 15. This means that one must have enough provisions for his journey and for his family during his absence. family during his absence. 26 26
  26. 26. wise, once lifetime. Hajj rites take place during wise,oncein a lifetime. The Hajj rites take placeduring the Islamic months Shawwal, the Islamic or lunar monthsof Shawwal,Dthul-Qi'dah andthe first ten daysof Dthu-Hijjah only. It is a precon- and the first ten days only. is precon- enter the state Ihram J6 dition for the pilgrim to enter the state of lhratn'oat a the certainpoint beforeentering boundries Makkah. certain point before entering the boundries of Makkah. the 16. Ihram is the Hajj wrapping a piece cloth 16. Ihram is the intention to perform Hajj or Umrah hy wrapping a piece of cloth covering his hody from the chest down. Another piece of cloth covers the upper covering his hody the chest down. piece cloth coversthe upper hody: excluding the head. Ihram makes it unlawful for the pilgrim to wear sewed hody: excludingthe head. Ihram makes unlawful the pilgrim wear sewed garments. shoes. to have sexual activities with his wife. to hunt and the like. garmcnts. shoes. have sexual activities his wife. hunt and the like. Under normal circumstances. once a Muslim enters the state of Ihram. he may normal circumstances. once a Muslim enters the state lhram. he may not break it until he has completed all Hajj or Umrah rituals. But if one is held break he has completed all rituals. one is held back from completing Umrah. health reason.fear enemy great hack from completing Hajj or Umrah. for health reason. fear of enemy or great danger. he may then quit his Thram and sacrifice a sheep. goat. cow or camel danger. he may then quit his lhram and sacrificea sheep.goat. cow camel as an expiation. as an expiation. 27 27
  27. 27. The Articles of Faith The Articles Faith There are also articlesof faith which include beside There are also articles which include beside believing the Oneness Allah: believing in the Oneness of Allah: 1. Believing in the angels.Allah has createdthem 1. Believing the angels. has created them and taskedthem to undertake and tasked them numerous dutiesbeside undertake numerous duties beside praising Him. TheyareHis obedient praising They are His obedient salves. stand salves. "They stand in awe and reverence His [glory]"17. awe and reverence of His [gloryJ"". 2. Beliveing Allah's Scriptures, that they werefree 2. Beliveing in Allah's Scriptures, that they were free from any imperfection errors at the time from any imperfection or errors at the time of their their revelation. All Scriptures that preceded Qur'an have the revelation. Scriptures preceded the Qur'anhave All that beentampered with or distorted by their people,while been tampered with distorted their people, while by the Qur'anis protected byby from change tamper- the Qur'an is protected Allah from change or tamper- ing. Allah sent down Scriptures Abraham, Isma'il, ing. Allah sent down Scriptures to Abraham, Isma'il, Is'haq, Ya'oob (Jacob)and his twelve sons, Moses, Is'haq, Ya'oob (Jacob) and his twelve sons, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, Jesus, and Muhammad. 3. Believing Allah's Messengers. Among whomthe 3. Believing in Allah's Messengers. Among whom the most prominent and steadfast are Noah, Abraham, most prominent and steadfast are Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus Muhammad, and peace on them.They be Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, peace be on them. They are humanand slaves Allah. Every Prophet Mes- are human and slaves of Allah. Every Prophet or Mes- sengerbeforeMuhammad, peacebe on him, wassent senger before Muhammad, peace be on him, was sent to his own people,but Muhammad, peace on him. be to his own people, but Muhammad, peace be on him. was sent all mankind. Allah says:"Blessedis He was sent to all mankind. Allah says: "Blessed is He Who Sent down the Criterion His Servant,that Who Sent down the Criterion To His Servant, that it May be an admonition to all Creatures;-"l~. May be an admonitionto all Creatures;-"'*. 17. Qur'an 21 : 28. 1R. Our' an 25 : 1. 28 28
  28. 28. None of Allah's Messengers or Prophets claimed to None Allah's Messengers Prophets claimed be a god part-god.Allah says: be a god or part-god. Allah says: "No son did Allah son did beget, nor is there any god alongwith Him: beget, nor is there any god along with Him: (if therethere were many gods),behold,eachgod would havetaken were many gods), behold, each god would have taken whathe hadcreated, some and wouldhave away what he had created, and some would have Lorded away Lorded over others!Glory to Allah! (He is free) from the it over others! Glory to Allah! (He is free) from the (sort of) thingsthey attributeto Him!"'n. (sort of) things they attribute to Him!,,'9. 4. Believing the LastD"y, the Day Resurrection. in 4. Believing in the Last Day, the Day of Resurrection. Allah haspredecreed term for eachcreature, Allah has predecreed a term for each creature, and a a and a term for the life this world. The world's termination term for the life of this world. The world's termination will be markedby the souhding the Trumpet, then will be marked by the sounding of the Trumpet, then the trumpetwill soundagainand mankindshallbe re- the trumpet will sound again and mankind shall be re- surrected standbeforethe Lord the worlds be surrected to stand before the Lord of the worlds to be to questioned about their deeds in this world. Those who questioned about their deedsin this world. Thosewho believed Allah and wereobedient will go to Jannah believed in Allah and were obedient will go to Jannah in (Paradise), thosewho disbelieved end up or (Paradise), and those who disbelieved will end up in and Hell-Fire. Hell-Fire. 5. Believingin predestination. Allah hascreated ev- S. Believing in predestination. Allah has created ev- erything in accordance His decree, with predestination, erything in accordance with His decree, predestination, desireand will, and in due proportion.His determinat- desire and will, and in due proportion. His determinat- tion the nature things was established tion of the nature of things was established fifty- fifty- thousand yearsbeforeHe created Heavens thousand years before He created the Heavens and the the and the 20 takes shape within the earth • Nothing occurs or takes shape within the eaffhr". Nothing occurs heavens the earth but with His knowledge heavens or the earth but with His knowledge and by and by His order. His order. 19. Qur'ana233 : 9 1 . 1 9 . Q u r ' 2 91. n 20. Abdullah reported that the Messenger 20. Abdullah Bin Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, peace be on him, peace be him. said: "Allah had predecreed creationfifty thousandyearshefore he hrought the said: "Allah had predecreed the creation fifty thousand years hefore he hrought the heavensand the earth into existence".(lmam Muslim, the heavens and the earth into existence", (Imam Muslim, Ahmad and at-Tir- and at-Tir- midrhi). midthi). 29 29
  29. 29. Now that you readthis booklet,the decision yours. that you read this booklet, the decision is yours. Everyoneis heading the sameend, but may choose Everyone is heading for the same end, may choose any other route. is so merciful; any other route. Allah is so merciful; Allah is far re- moved from injustice; says: "Nor would we punish movedfrom injustice;He says:"Nor would we punish until. had sent A messenger (to give warning) ,,21. until. We had sent A messenger give warning)"t'. concern you, we have prepared this Out of our concern for you, w€ have prepared this message. message. 21.0ur'an n1 7:: 1 6 . 2 1 .Q u r ' a 17 Itl. 30 30
  30. 30. Suggestedbooks for reading: Suggested books for reading: - The Holy Qur'an,(English - The Holy Qur'an, (English translation of the meaning) translation the meaning) hy T. Al-Hilali. by T. Al-Hilali. - Sahih al-Bukharri, a collection of the authentic - Sahih al-Bukharri, a collection the authentic Prophetic traditions. Prophetic traditions. -Sahih Muslim,a collection the authentic - Sahih Muslim, a collection of the authentic Prophetic Prophetic traditions: traditions: * The book Prayerby * The book of Prayer by A. Saqib. Saqib. * GeneralPrescripts Islam. * General Prescripts of Islam. * Fasting. * Fasting. * Exegesis the opening * Exegesis of the opening chapter of the Qur'an. chapter the Qur'an. * The Fundamentals of Islam. * The Fundamentals Islam. * The life and the Aqeadah Ash-Sheikh. * The life and the Aqeadah of Ash-Sheikh. Muham- Muham- mad lhn Abdul Wahab. mad Ibn Abdul Wahab. 3l 31