Family System In Islam

1,257 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Spiritual
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,257
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
53
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Family System In Islam

  1. 1. Family System In Islam By Dr.Zeenat Kauther -Il -I I ' fl' .....- r.. - .- - - • , ./ . ~,I . '. ~ --... . . . ', ' _. ... L' ,. - . r;~. - - -- - - ' -- II . ~. - ~ ,..... ~ .. _.. ' - - - -'";/ - <
  2. 2. - #s Islam on Sexuality,Reproduction Islam on Sexuality) Reproduction and and Family System Family System PaperPresented the Paper Presented to the International Conference NGOs International Conference ofNGOs of Seoul,Korea Seoul) Korea 10-16 October 10-16 October 1999 1999 By Dr. Zeenath Zeenath Kausar Kausar World AssemblyofMrnlim youth" Assembly ofMuslim Youth, (wAtvfY) (WAMY) Riyadh,SaudiArabia Riyadh) Saudi Arabia
  3. 3. PREFACE PREFACE As the title of the paper suggests, Dr. Zeenath Kausar has the tide of the paper sugests, Zeenath Kausar has attemgted attempted to present the Islamic perspective on sexuality, present the Islamic perspective se<uality, reproduction and family system. reproduction and family system. Family values play an important role from the Islamic Family values play an imporant rore Islamic point of view. Islam seeks to create durable bases for of view. Islam seeks create durable bases relationship within the familr, which is the building block relationship within family, is building of a society. When each of these blocks is firmly placed, gf society. when each of theseblocks is nrmlyilaced, the " social structure of the society rests on a strong social struch*e of the society rests a foundation. Where the cohesive bond gets diluted, the foundation. wfhere the cohesive gets diluted, th; society begins to tumble. societybegins nrmble The Western society presents a glaring example of this westem society presents a glaringexampleof this phenomenon. The growing number of single-parent phenomenon. grovdng tt.t*b.r or rittgt.-parent families families in the wake of rampant divorces has created a wake of divorces has"created ""*p*t a sihration situation in which uninhibited sex has culminated in the uninhibited ro has culminated the outbreak of AIDs and other sexually transmitted diseases. outbreak of ArDs and sexuallytransmitteddiseases. An important factor for the breakdown of marriages in rmporant the breakdown of marriages the West is the fact that marital relations in Western the west is the fact marial relations sTestem societies are governed by material considerations, such as societies are govemed materialconsiderations, such as wealth, beauty or fame. These are ephemeral values wealth' beauty fame. These are ephemeral values _ doomed to self-erosion in the course of time. When that doomed self-erosion the courseof time. when that happens, the fragile relationship gets swerved and happens, the fragile relationship gets swerved and the marriage ends in divorce. marriageends divorce By contrast, marital ties in the Muslim society are on contrasg marital ues the society are firmer ground. Families seeking afriancesalso Furner ground. Families seeking alliances also look for partners qdth a partners with a strong moral character, among other character, among things. Thus if the married life of a couple becomes a bit thirp. Thus if the married of a couple becomis a bumpy, they still bumpy, they still pull on for th~ sake of their children to the sakeoittt.ir children whom they owe a religious obligation to bring up - th.y owe z religious obtigation properly. properly.
  4. 4. I-et me concludewith thesewords of wisdom from Cdiph Let me conclude with these words ofwisdom from Caliph Omar. Once a man sought his adviceon divorcing his wife. Omar. Once a man sought his advice on divorcing his wife. When Cdiph Omar asked him for the reason,the man When Caliph Omar asked him for the reason, the man replied: "I'm no more in love with her." Whereupon, replied: "I'm no more with her." Whereupon, Caliph Omar retorted: "Are families built upon love alone? Omar retorted: families built alone? X/hat about inter-family relationship and the sharedlife What relationship shared with children?" with their children?" Dr. Maneh H. Al-Johani Dr. Maneh FI. Al-Johani SecretaryGeneral Secretary General (WAMY) World Assemblyof Muslim Youth CX/AlvfY) Assembly of Ftiyadh,Saudi~bi~ Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  5. 5. ISLAM ON SEXUALITY, ISLAM ON SEXUALITY, REPRODUCTIONAND FAMILY REPRODUCTION AND FAMILY SYSTEM SYSTEM Introduction: Introduction: 1. Life an IntegratedWhole: 1. Life an Integrated Whole: Islam, which implies willing and complete Islam, which implies willing and complete submission to Allah submission Allah to (tn"tl is a completeway of life embracingall aspects life (swt) is a complete way of life embracing all aspects of life including sexual,reproductive, maritalandfamilial. underlines including sexual, reproductive, marital and familial. It underlines two importantpoints: two important points: Firstly, Islam perceiveslife as an integratedwholeand for this Firstly, Islam perceives life as an integrated whole and for this reasonsexualityand reproductionare parts the whole Islamic reason sexuality and reproduction are parts of the whole Islamic system life, not outside it. system of life, not outside it. secondly, Islam which is a Divinely ordainedsystem life, Secondly, Islam which is a Divinely ordained system of life, possesses injunctionsand regulations its texts the eur'an and possesses injunctions and regulations in its texts - the Qur'an and the Prophetic traditions for the regulation of sexuality, the Prophetic traditions for the regulation of sexuality, reproduction all that are related to these. and reproduction and all that are related these. Islamlc philosophy of Tawhid integrates aspectsof life Islamic philosophy Tawhid integrates all aspects of life. all Tawhid implies unity of God,unityof the prophets, Tawhid implies unity of God, unity of the prophets, unityof life, unity of life, unity of mankind,unity of the purposeof creation,unity oi unity of mankind, unity of the purpose of creation, un,ity of knowledge,etc. The fundamentalbeliefs - knowledge, etc. The fundamental beliefs - i) That thereis no god but Allah (swt) andthe prophetMohammad i) That there no god (swt) and the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh)is the lastmessenger Allah (surt)for the wholemankind; (pbuh) is the last messenger of Allah (swt) for the whole mankind; of ii) That man's life in this rvorrd is temporaryand he/shehas to ii) That man's life in this world is temporary and he/she has to follow Allah's ordainedway of rife (Isllm) in all aspects be follow Allah's ordained way of life (Islam) in all aspects to be to successful andin Hereafterand~ successful here and in Hereafter and; here iii) That with Allah restsall the finaljudgementsofrewardsand iii) That with Allah rests all the final judgements of rewards and punishmentsin the akhirah(life, hereaftei;are all basedon these punishments in the akhirah (life, hereafter) are all based on these unity, Tawhid. Hence,questions on'sexuality' Unity, Tawhid. Hence, questions 'sexuality' and'reproduction, on and 'reproduction' arealsoanchored the Tawhidicparadigm. are also anchored on the Tawhidic paradigm. on
  6. 6. II. II. Vicegerency - Purpose of Life: VicegerencY- PurPoseof Life: The very raisond'etreof man'screationaccordingtothe Qur'an The very raison d'etre of man's creation accordingto the Qur'an is the peribrmance of the vicegerencyofAllah (swt). The Qur'an is the perfonnance of the vicegerency of Allah (swt). The Qur1an says: says: Behold Thy Lord said to the angels: BeholdThy Lord saidto the angels: II will createa vicegerenton earth. will create a vicegerent on earth. Hence, anythoughtand activity of man in Islam,be that sexualor Hence, any thought and activity of man in Islam, be that sexual or reproductiue,rhould be ultimately related to this purposeof life reproductive, should be ultimately related to this purpose of life vicegerency of vicegerency Allah (swt) of (swt). Sexuality and ReProduction: Sexualifyand Reproduction: With this brief background ofIslamic worldview, it is easiernow this background Islamicworldview, of easier to look into the Islamic texts on sexuality and reproduction. to look into the Islamictextson sexualityandreproduction. Sexuality in Islam is not trivializedas man'sanimalisticfunction Sexuality in Islam is not trivialized as man's animalistic function to be tackled by his own whim and fancy. Sexualityis perceived to be tackled by his own whim and fancy. Sexuality is perceived man's life to be regulated as one of the essential parts of man's life to be regulated and as one of the essentialparts and throughthe properguidance. disciplined through the proper guidance. disciplined A man and a woman in Islam can enterinto sexual relationship A man and a woman in Islam can enter into sexual relationship only after marriage,which is reckoned a as 'sign'of Allah (swt) only after marriage, which is reckoned as a 'sign' of Allah (swt) The Qur'ansays: and the ways of the prophets ', The Qur1an says: andthe ways of the prophets', And amongHis Signsis this that He created spouses you from for And among His Signs is this that He created spouses for you from yourselves, ye may dwell in tranquility with them. yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility with them. that beforeyou (O Mohammad) We indeed sent messengers before you (0 Mohammad) and We We indeed sent messengers andWe assigned them wives and children. assigned themwivesandchildren. It implies that in Islam,the very basisof the maritalrelationship It implies that in Islam, the very basis of the marital relationship between husbandand wife through which they can enter into between husband and wife through which they can enter into 'love'. Furthermore,Allah (swt) implants sexual relationshipis sexual relationship is 'love'. Furthermore, Allah (swt) implants 2
  7. 7. this 'love'in husband wife towardseachothersothat they may this 'love' in husband and wife towards each other so that they may and live in peace and harmony. Such an Islamic attitude towards live in peace and harmony. such an Islamic attitudetowards sexuality goes entirely against the mere lusty cravings in sexuality goes entirely against the mere lusty cravings in man/woman and its satisfaction through legitimate or illegitimate man/womanand its satisfaction throughlegitimate illegitimate or ways. In Islam, it is the 'love' and the strong covenant (nikah) that ways. In Islam,it is the'love'andthe strongcovenant (nikah)that unite man and woman not 'force' or temporaryarrangements unite man and woman not 'force' or temporary arrangements outside marriage or cohabitation. For this reason, all types of pre- outside marriage cohabitation. this reason, typei of pre- or For all marital and extra marital relationships, fornication, illicit carnality marital andextramaritalrelationships, fornication,illitit are completely condemned Islam and manis ordained"u*ality are completely condemned is Islam and man is ordained not to go is nor ro go nearerto adultery The Qur'ansays: nearer to adultery. The Qur'an says: Nor comenigh to adultery Nor come nigh to adultery For it is a shameful (deed) For it is a shameful (deed) And an evil, opening road And an evil, opening the road the (to otherevils). (to other evils). Islam thus makes a distinction between Islam thus makes a distinction between sexuality that is sexuality that is constrainedand disciprined through maritar constrained and disciplined through marital relationship and relationshipand sexuality,which transgresses sexuality, which transgresses morality and spirituality and turns morarity and spiritualityandturns animalism. Islam does not overlookthe sexuar animalism. Islam does not overlook the sexual drive in man but drive man but institutionalize institutionalize it through marriage ro protect man through marriage to protect man from immorality.Theprophet immorality. The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh)said: Mohammad (pbuh) said: o young men! Those amongyou who cansupporta wife should o young men! Thoseamong you who can support -ftor should marry for it restrains *y*r from casting marry for restrains eyes casting t.uir grunces)and (evil glances) and preserves from immorality. preserves onefrom immorality. one Islam is quite sensitive a[ issues Islam is quite sensitive in all issues pertaining marriage pertaining to marriage and to and sexuality. As sexuarity sexuality. As sexuality outsidemaniageis iilegTtim"i., marriage outside marriage illegitimate, *u.riug* without the proper consentis declared without the proper consent is declared invar-id. The Prophet invalid. The rrophet Mohammad Mohammad (pbuh)said: (pbuh) said: 'A 'A widow shail not be marrieduntil shebe consulted, shall a widow shall not be married until she be consulted, nor nor shaila virgin be' marrieduntil her consent virgin be, married until her consent be asked;and that a woman be asked; and that a woman rip^ein years shail haveher consenf ripe in years shall have her consent askedi" *--"g" e and if she asked in marriag and if she refuses, shallnot bemarriedby force., refuses, sheshall not be married by force.' she
  8. 8. marriage in Islam, unlike radical feminism is neither an Therefore, marriage Islam,unlikeradicalfeminism neitheran Therefore, imprisonment for woman that is thrust or forcedupon her as a imprisonment woman that is thrust forced upon her as punishmentnor enslavementthat makesher subservient man. punishment enslavement that makes her subservient to man. Marriage is a covenantof faith and consentand a bondof love and Marriage covenant of faith and consent and bond of love and concern. concern. Marital relationship Islam is neitherpatnarchaland political nor Marital relationship in Islam neither patriarchal and political economic and sexual for its own sake as against the common economic and sexual sake as against the common perceptionof gender feminists, but moraland spiritual' In fact, perception of gender feminists, moral and spiritual. fact, husband and wife complement eachother in Islam sincehusband husbandand complement each other Islam since husband provides economic and sexual securityto his wife and his children provideseconomicand sexualsecurity his and his children and his wife guards her chastityand her husband's and his possessions as guardsher chastity and her husband's possessions as her moral obligation. The Qur'ansays: her moralobligation The Qur'an says: Men are the protectors Men arethe protectors And maintainers of women, because God And maintainers women,because of God Has giventhe onesmore(strength) Has given the ones more (strength) Than the other, and because Than the other, and because They support them They supportthem From their means From their means Therefore the righteous women Therefore righteouswomen the Are devoutly obedientand guard Are devoutly obedient and guard In (the husband's) absence In (the husband's) absence What God would havethemguard. What God would have them guard. Islam complement eachother anddo Thus, husband and wife in Islam complement each other and do Thus, husbandand wife not competefor dominationand supremacy.They are friends and not compete for domination and supremacy. They are friends and co-partners their co-venture-vicegerency Allah(swt). Both in co-partners in their co-venture-vicegerency of Allah (8wt). Both enjoy rights and duties towards each other and both have enjoy rights and duties towards each other and both have obligations to Allah (swt). This is very clearly stated in the obligations to Allah (swt). This is very clearly stated in the Qur'anic verse which proclaimsequality in the very creationof Qur'anic verse which proclaims equality in the very creation qf manandwomaq pointingout their creationfrom a singlesoul: man and woman, pointing out their creation from a single soul: o mankind, be conscious of your duty to your Lord, Who created O mankind, be conscious your duty your Lord, Who created you from a single soul, created like nature,her mate,and from you from a single soul, created of like nature, her mate, and from the two created spread and manymen andwomen;and be mindful the two created and spread many men and women~ and be mindful 4
  9. 9. of your duty to God by whose nameyou appear one another of -yourduty to God by Whose name you appeal to one another to andto (theties of) womb. Verily God witch.jouer you. and to (the ties ot) womb. Verily God watches over you. Even if the sexual satisfactionis performed man and Even if the sexual satisfaction is perfonned by man and woman by woman while being mindful of its etiqurtti ur ordained the while being mindful of its etiquette as ordained in the Qur'an and in eur,anand sunnah, it is reckoned as tbadnh and sadaqah (charity), The Sunnah, it is reckoned as ibadah and sadaqah (charity). The Prophet Mohammad Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) said: (pbuh)said. Did Allah not makefor you that from which you can give Did Allah not make for you that from which you can give sadaqa? sadaqdl verily, every time you saysuhhanaAlrah, ihere is sadaqua_and Verily, every time you say Subhana Allah, there is aJsadaqua-and for everytime you say Allahu Akbar there is a sa*qa;- for every time you say Allahu Akbar there is a sadaqa; Every time you say Laa iraha iil Ailah, thereis sadaqa and Every time you say Laa ilaha ill Allah, there is aaiadaqaand for t for you sayAlhamdulillah,thereis a sadaqa; lurry time every time you say Alhamduli/lah, there is a sadaqa; Every act Every act of enjoining what is right there is sadaqa and in every enjoining. what is right there is sacraqaand every in act of forbidding evil there is i sadaqa, and in act of forbidding evil there is a sadaqa. and in your sexual relationsalsothereis a sadaqa. fo.r, sexual relations also there is a sadaqa. Thereuponthe companions Thereupon the companions asked: 0 Messenger of Allah! Is there asked: Messenger Alrah! Is there o a rewardfor one us whenhe satisfies sexuar a reward for one of us when he satisfies his sexual desire? his desire? The Prophet replied: Don't you see, had he satisfied it with the Thg.lpptet replied:Don't you see,had hesatisfied itwiththe forbidden would there not haue been a sin upon him? forbidden would there not have 6een a sin upon him? The The companions companions said: "yes". said:"yes". r$ Prophet (pbuh) said: The froghet (pbuh) said: In the same way, whenhe satisfies the same way, when he satisfies with the lawful,thereis for him in that a reward. it the lawful, there is him that reward. Tlrus,sexuality neverperceived Isramas mere Thus, sexuality is never perceived by Islam as a merecarnar carnal desire desire of man to be fulfilled in anyanimalistic of man be fulfilled any animalistic *uy.r tr* ft"ur*r. eut way as he pleases. But man in Islam is ordained folrow certain.tiq*tt. man Islam ordained to follow certain etiquette in his se*uar his sexual relationshipso that he shourdrememberAllah relationship so that he should remember Allatr (swt) even before this act and do not fall a prey to the satanic;;ill trortl euenuerore this act and not fall prey the Satanic trap. ihi, canbe This can be easily gleaned tkough a careful reading of few prophetic easily gleaned through careful reading of iew Prophetic traditions, traditions, eitherpracticed spoken him Jn thesematters. either practiced or spoken by him on these matters. 5
  10. 10. It is exhorted that the husbandshould place his hand on the exhorted that the husband should place his hand the forelock of her wife at the time of consummating marriageand forelock of her the of consummating the marriage and the pray for Allah'sblessings.The ProphetMohammad(pbuh) said: pray Allah's blessings. The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) said: When any of you marriesa woman he shouldhold her foreloch When any of you marries woman he should hold forelock, mention Allah most high, and pray for His blessings mention Allah most high, and pray saying:O His blessings saying: 0 Allah, I ask You for the good in her and the good with which You Allah, ask the good her and the good have createdher; and I seek refuge in You from the evil in her and have created her; and seekrefuge the her and the evil with which You havecreatedher. the which have created her. Furthermore, according someother traditions, desirableif Furthermore, according to some other traditions,it is desirable if the husband presentsto his wife something to drink to show the husband presents his something show kindness her and prayer together remain closely ever kindness to her and to offer prayertogetherto remainclosely ever after the good and seekrefuge (s.w.t) after for the good and seek refuge in Allah (s.w.t) from the evil. It the evil. is also evidenced from several traditions that it is commendable to also evidencedfrom severaltraditionsthat is commendable make 'wudhu' (ablution) after sex before sleep obligatory make 'wudhu' (ablution) after sex before sleep but obligatory to take bath after sexbefore after sleepwheneverpossible. take bath after sex before or after sleep whenever possible. the above discussion that senrality It is quite obvious from the above discussion that sexuality in is quite obvious Islam neither perceived as an objective of Islam is neither perceived as an objective of life to be totally be no other moral and spiritual considerations immersed in it with no other moral and spiritual considerations nor immersed a beastly act to be fulfilled throu,~ any way and mean for its own a beastlyact be throu,ghany way and mean sexualdesire manand alsoexpects from sake. Islam disciplines sexual desire of man and also expects from sake. Islamdisciplines him that he should remember Allah (swt) evenwhile him that he should remember Allah (swt) even while joining his his sexand even pray (sw) protecthis child wife for sex and even pray to Allah (swt) to protect his child from granted a child after the sex. is clear from the evil, if he is granted a child after the sex. It is clear from the evil, if he prayerandthe Prophetictradition: following prayer and the Prophetic tradition: the name Allah, O Allah! Keep us away In the name of Allah, 0 Allah! Keep us away from the devil, and the devil, and keep the devil away from that which may grant us keep the devil away from that which You may grant us (offspring). (offspring). The Prophet (pbuh)said: The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) said: Mohammad After that, Allah decreesthat they After that, if Allah decrees that they will have a child, the devil havea child, the devil will never be able to harm that child. neverbe ableto harmthat child. 6
  11. 11. It alsoimpliesthat Islam not only enjoinsmanto remember It also implies that Islam not only enjoins man to remember Allah Allah (swt) before his sexual relationship alsomakeshim conscious (swt) before his sexual relationship but also makes him conscious but of his responsibilitytowards his prospective of his responsibility towards his prospective child to protect him chirdto protecthim from the cunningSatan. from the cunning Satan. Family: ParentsObligations Towards Children Family: Parents Obligations Towards Children sexuality, reproduction and children's responsibility are Sexuality, reproduction and children's responsibility are interconnected Islam throughan institution,family. Family is in interconnected in Islam through an institution, family. Family is considered the frrst schoolof childrenwherethey are not only as considered as the first school of children where they are not only nurtured but also taught basic morals and etiquette so that the nurtured but also taught basic morals and etiquette so that the children can appreciate children can appreciate Islamic ethos and values. A stable family Islamicethosandvalues. stabre family will give rise to a stable will give rise to a stable society and a stable civilization. All this societyanda stablecivilization. this requiresthat both parents childrenshouldbe mindful their requires that both parents and children should be mindful of their and obligationstowards eachotheralongwith their rights so that they obligations towards each other along with their rights so that they may love and respect each other. Islam enjoins its adherents may love and respect each other. Islam enjoins its adherents to love children and to be mindful their responsibilities love children and to be mindful of their responsibilities towards towards themfrom the very beginning of their inception and even earlier to them from the very beginning their inceptionandevenearlier it. The Qur'ansays: it. The Qur'an says: And be mindful your duty God whose name you appeal And be mindful of your duty to God in whosenameyou appeal to oneanother and the ties of the womb. to one another and to the ties of the womb. Jhus, Islam emphasizes parents should realizethat Thus, Islam emphasizes that parentsshouldrealize that the proper that proper development the child begins'from the mother's development of the child begins 'from the mother's womb itself. of itself FI:l* the parents should be concerned abouttheir prospective Hence the parents should concerned about prospective child from the very beginning. child from the very beginning. It has been scientifically proved that a pregnantwoman should It has been scientifically proved pregnant woman should abstain from alcoholicdrinksand narcotics avoidtensions. If abstain from alcoholic drinks and narcotics and avoid tensions. If and she fails to consider alr these precautionarymeasures,any she fails to consider all these precautionary measures, any complicationin her own healthandthatof the child in the womb complication in her own health and that of the in the wom6 "iito can hardlybe prevent:d ft is alsopointedout that the relationship can hardly be prevented. It is also pointed out that the relationship between the prospectivemother and the prospectivefather should between the prospective moth*r the prospective father should not be conflict-riddenbecause"nd not be conflict-ridden because it advers*tyaffects the mentaland it adversely uiT*rt, the mental and 7
  12. 12. physical health of the prospective mother and eventually the physical heatth the prospective mother and eventually prospective child. prospec tive child. Islam through the above quoted verse Islam through the above quoted verse of emphatically makes it clear that parents should be mindful of their empiratically makes clear that parentsshouldbe duties towards their children dutlestowardstheir children from the very inception. the inception' take care of the physical Islam commands its believers not only to take careof the physical Islam commands believersnot upbringing of their children also educational,moral and upbringing of their children but also their educational, moral and The Qur'an says: spiritual development. The Qur'an spiritual development. says: o o you who believe! Strive to protect yourselves and your wives you who believe! strive protectyourselvesand and children from the fire. and children the fire. Obviously, the best way of protecting children frol lhe fire is by obviously, the best way protectingchildren from the the providing adequate education and proper training. .More than the providini adequate educationand proper training' More than children require best education wealth and the material property, children wealth and thi materialproperty, requirebest education for their real success here and in the Hereafter. The Prophet real successheie ind the Hereafter. The Prophet Moham Mohammadmad (pbuh) said: (Pbuh)said: Of all that a father can give to his children the bestis their good all that a father cangive his childrenthe best their good educatio educationn and training. and training- In the contemporary age, where Muslim Ummah is facing the contemporary age, where Muslim Ummah facing multitudes of multitudes intellectualchallenges, aboveProphetic tradition intellectual challenges, the above Prophetic the tradition needs greater focus. Unless children are mentallywell fed with ;."dr gleater focus. Unless childrenare mentally fed proper education and skills, they become proper"education and skills, they easily susceptible to become easily susceptible alien culture and lifestyles. Today's children are tomorrow's alien culture and lifestyles. Today's children are tomorro w's future. future. The strong foundation of the future prospects Islamic The strong foundation the future prospects of Islamic of culture and civilizationdepends strongeducational on foundation culture and civilization depends on strong educational foundation the children. deems of the children. It deems necessary them be acquainted necessary for them to be well acquainted of the the dominantideologies, well as,Islam as the comprehensive dominant ideologies, as well as, Islam as the comprehensive as system of life so that they should be the role models in the future system so that they shouldbe the role models the future to take care of the Ummah's responsibility vis-a-vis mankind' The to take care the Ummah'sresponsibility vis-a-vismankind. The Qu/an teaches Qur'an teaches its adherents to pray to Allah (swt) for their its adherents pray (sovt) their children with these aspirations-. children theseaspirations-' 8
  13. 13. My Lord makeme keepprayerand(also)let my offspring(do so) My Lord make me keep prayer and (also) let my offspring (do so) Our Lord accept my appeal! Our Lord, forgive my parentsand Our Lord accept my appeal! Our Lord, forgive my parents and me. me. our Lordl Grant us in our spouses our offspringthe comfort Our Lord! Grant us in our spouses and our offspring the comfort and of our eyesandmakeus a modelfor the needful. of our eyes and make us a model for the needful. It also implies that Islam completelyrejects the perceptionof It also implies that Islam completely rejects the perception of those who look to women and children as burden or as an those who look to women and children as burden or as an oppressed class. In fact, Islaminspires oppressed class. In fact, Islam inspires men to look at their wives mento look at their wives and childrenasthe comforters their eyes,astheir source and children as the comforters of their eyes, as their source ofjoy, of ofjoy, peaceand solace and not a suppressed oppressed peace and solace and not a suppressed and oppressed class to be and classto be dominated andover-powered. Man'sdomination dominated and over-powered. Man's domination and suppression andsuppression of woman and childrengo against very spirit Islam,which of woman and children go against the very spirit of Islam, which the assertsthat 'commandis only for Allah', not for man. The time asserts that 'command is only for Allah', not for man. The time when a child is born,the Islamicclarioncalrthat 'thereis no god when a child is born, the Islamic clarion call that 'there is no god but Allah' is conveyed into his ears, but Allah' is conveyed into his ears, which implies that he should which impliesthat he should submit to nonesaveAllah. Besides, is arsoevidentfrom one submit to none save Allah. Besides, it is also evident from one of the traditions that whenevera child the prophet's (pbuh) the traditions that whenever a child in the Prophet's (pbuh) householdbegins speak,the prophet (pbuh)thought him the household begins to speak, the Prophet (pbuh) thoughthim the second verse surah al-Furqanwhich gives the message of second verse of Surah al-Furqan which gives the message of Allah's Sovereignty and the Unity of God (Tawhid). The Allah's Sovereignty and the Unity of God (Tawhid). The translation its verseis asfollows: translatioJ:l of its verse as follows: He to Whom belongs He Whom belongs The dominionof the heavens The dominion of the heavens And the earth-no son And the earth- no son HasHe begotten, HasHe Has begotten, nor Has A partnerin His dominion A partner dominion It is He Who created It is He created All things,andorderedthem All things, and ordered them In dueproportions. In due proportions. so from the very beginning,Islam emphasizes childrenshould So from the very beginning, Islam emphasizes that children should that be ingrainedwith the Tawhidic messageand that they should be ingrained with the Tawhidic message and that they should willingly submitto nonebut Ailah. It dols not howevermean that willingly submit to none but Allah. It does not however mean that 9
  14. 14. they are not expected to obey their parents rather Islam enjoins they are not. expected to obey their parents rather Islam enjoins children to be good to their parents which shall be discussed later. children to be good to their parentswhich shall be discussedlater. Islam also encourages that both parents, mother and father should Islam also encouragesthat both parents, mother and father should express their utmost love to their children, give them time, play express their utmost love to their children, give them time, play with them and cheer them up through many ways of interaction with them and cheer them up through many of interaction with them. It is reported that Hadrat Amir (may Allah be pleased with them. It is reported that Hadrat Amir (may be pleased with him) who held a high position in the government during the with him) who held a high position in the government the reign of Hadrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) once reign of Hadrat Umar (may be pleased once visited the house of Hadrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) visited the house of Hadrat Umar (may be pleased and was surprised to see that few children had mounted the chest and was surprised to see that had mounted chest of Caliph and were engaged in playing. Seeing the astonishment of Caliph and were engaged Seeing astonishment of Amir (may Allah be pleased with him) the Caliph enquired of Amir (may be pleased enquired about his treatment to his children? Upon this, he replied: "Amir about his treatment his children? this, he replied: "Amir ul-Mu'minin, as soon as I enter my house the people of my ul-Mu'minin, as soon as enter house people of household are struck with terror and stand dumb with fear. On household are and stand with fear. hearing this, hearing this, the Caliph said: "Amir (may Allah be pleased with said: "Amir Allah pleased with you) you are a follower of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings are follower of the Holy (peace and blessings be upon him) and yet are ignorant of the important injunction that be and are of Muslim should behave a Muslim should behave towards his family members with familv members with extreme extreme love and deep tenderness. " and deep tenderness. It explicitly reveals It explicitly reveals that Islam is completely against the despotic against and and tyrannical attitude of father and male members of the family of and members of family over wives and children. Islam expects from man a gentlemanly and expects behavior not harsh approach towards his family. The prophet harsh approach family. Prophet (pbuh) said: said: The best of you is he who is the best to his family, and II am the The best of who family, the best to my family. best The relationship between man and woman in Islam is not therefore The relationship woman in Islam not therefore the relationship of master and servant but that of garments to each the relationship of but that of garments to other and also protecting friends of one another. The eur'an says: other and also protecting friends of The Qur'an says: They are garments for you and you are garments for them. They are garments for you you garments for them. l0 10
  15. 15. Thus the very basis family in Islam are faith, love, concern Thus the very basis of family in Islam are faith, love, concern andand care eachother so that turns out be a ground care for each other so that it turns out to be a civilizing ground for children. Husbandand peaceand love children. Husband and wife who live in peace and love with each who each other can concentrate other can concentrate well over their children and can bring them over their children and can bring them up moral excellence, up with moral excellence, best education and spiritual orientation. best education and spiritual orientation. Such children would not only contribute their potentialities Such children would not only contribute their potentialities towards the construction society future, but remainas a towards the construction of society in future, but will remain as a blessing;br their parentseven after the death their parents. blessing lur their parents even after the death of their parents. Parents suchchildren Parents of such children will continue to enjoy the rewards of their continue enjoythe rewards their best education training,which they imparted their children. and best education and training, which they imparted to their children. TheProphet (pbuh)said-. The Prophet (pbuh) said-. The actionsof man cease his death. there are three deeds The actions of man cease with his death. But there are three deeds whose rewardand blessingcontinue reach whose reward and blessing continue to reach him even after death. evenafter death. One that he should make a sadaqa jariah (recurring charity); One that he should make a sadaqajariah (recurring charity); Secondly,he should leave behind a legacy knowledge Secondly, he should leave behind a legacy of knowledge from from which people may continue derive benefit; Thirdly, pious which people may continue to derive benefit; Thirdly, pious offspringwho continuously offspring who continuously invoke mercy of Allah upon him. invokemercyof Allah upon him. Children are the blessingswhich Allah (svw)bestow parents. Children are the blessings which Allah (swt) bestow to parents. if these children are not educated trainedproperly,they and But if these children are not educated and trained properly, they become nuisance the parentsandthe society. Whereas, the if become nuisance to the parents and the society. Whereas, if the children are adequatelyeducated andtrained,they shall become children are adequately educated and trained, they shall become bearers Islamic mission, transmitters Islamicculturein the bearers of Islamic mission, transmitters of Islamic culture in the societyandalsobestrewards their deceased parents. society and also best rewards for their deceased parents. Islamforbidsabortionand infanticide.The Qur'ansays. Islam forbids abortion and infanticide. The Qur'an says: Slay not your childrenfearingpoverty. We shallprovide them Slay not your children fearing poverty. We shall provide for them andfor you. Lo! The slaying themis greatsin. and for you. Lo! The slaying of them is great sin. Those who their children out their foolishness Those who kill their children out of their foolishness are the are the greatest losers. greatest losers. 11
  16. 16. Thus, abortions, child-abuse and infanticide are all considered as Thus, abortions,child-abuse and infanticideare all considered as Isiam. Islam by its very natureis againstcruelty heinous sins in lsiam. Islam by its very nature is against cruelty heinous sins and barbarity. use of contraception loop, shield,plastic and barbarity. Any use of contraception loop, shield, plastic or cause abortion is forbidden. Even if abortion is done anything to cause abortion is forbidden. Even if abortion is done anything seven days, is unlawful, sincethe fertilizedovum going in seven days, it is unlawful, since the fertilized ovum is going to be a human being. However, only on one conditionabortionis be a human being. However, only on one condition abortion is allowed - savethe of the mother. allowed - to save the life of the mother. point out here that Islam is not against It is also important to point out here that Islam is not against is also important technology, but misuse of technology. technology, but misuse instance, if technology. For instance, if technological devices help mothers lessensome technological devices help mothers to lessen some of their their complicationsduring prenatalperiodand childbirth Islam hasno complications during prenatal period and childbirth, Islam has no objection. But, if the technological devices are discovered and objection. But, if the technological devicesare discovered and used to let unmarried women or teenage girls to have babies if used let unmarried women teenage havebabiesif they wish to, Islam strongly objects it. Similarly, if such they wish to, Islam strongly objects it. Similarly, if such contraceptive devices are invented through which unmarried contraceptive devices are invented through which unmarried women teenage girls can engage sexualrelationships women or teenage girls can engage in sexual relationships without without becoming pregnant,Islam rejects completely.Likewise,Islam becoming pregnant, Islam rejects it completely. Likewise, Islam condemn high-tech reproductive aids developed to produce conderr.n high-tech reproductive aids developed produce artificial mothers, fathers and children, as well as, technological artificial mothers,fathers and children,aswell as,technological ways and means through which lesbians and homosexuals engage way$ and means throughwhich lesbians homosexuals and engage their deviant sexuality get children. fact, Islam is totally in their deviant sexuality to get children. In fact, Islam is totally against all deviant forms of sexuality. The Qur'an says: against deviantforms sexuality. The Qur'ansays: all Would you really approach men your lustsratherthanwomen? Would you really approach men in your lusts rather than women? Nay, ye are a people(grossly)ignorant. Nay, ye are a people (grossly) ignorant. Islam, no doubt encourages Islam, no doubt encourages man to beget children, but through man begetchildren,but through rightful mean not by unlawful act. The Qur1an points out how one rightful meannot by unlawful act. The Qur'anpointsout how one the Prophets Hadhrat Zakaia (peacebe upon him) prayed of the Prophets Hadhrat Zakaria (peace be upon him) prayed to Allah (swt) the piousoffspringeven a very old age: Allah (swt) for the pious offspring even in a very old age: Lord! Bestow upon me by Thy bounty goodly offspring - Lo! Lord! Bestow upon me by Thy bountygoodly offspring Lol Thou art the Hearer prayer. Thou art the Hearer of prayer. 12 12
  17. 17. As far as the 'invitro fertilization' (IVF) andtesttubebabies As far as the 'invitro fertilization' (IYF) and test tube babies are are concerned, Islam allows only if the'ova'comes concerned, Islam allows only if the 'ova' comes from the mother from the mother and the 'sperm' from the fatherandthe embryois transferred and the 'sperm' from the father and the embryo is transferred into into the uterusof one'sown wife. Any otherusage the'invitro' the uterus of one's own wife. Any other usage of the 'invitro' of fertilization' by any womanor manwho are not marriedwith each fertilization' by any woman or man who are not married with each other but would like to follow this technologyis not acceptable other but would like to follow this technology is not acceptable inin Islam. Islam. Islamic stanceon artificial inseminationis also quite clear. It Islamic stance on artificial insemination is also quite clear. It forbids the use of the sperm of anyone other thin that of the forbids the use of the sperm of anyone other than that of the husbandto be usedin the process artificial insemination.such husband to be used in the process of artificial insemination. Such of an act tantamountto adultery, from Islamicperspective, an act tantamount to adultery, from Islamic perspective, since it sinceit - fallsoutside martialunion manandwoman. the of falls outside the martial union of man and woman. Obligations Children Towardstheir parents: of Obligations of Children Towards their Parents: There is a reciprocity rightsanddutiesin Islam. while parenrs There is a reciprocity of rights and duties in Islam. While parents are enjoinedto be mindful their children are enjoined to be mindful of their children for their overall their overall development, childrenarealsoexhorted be obedient kind development, children are also exhorted to be obedient and kind to and their parents. their parents. Both parents childrenhave corresponding dutiestowardseach and Both parents and children havecorresponding duties towards each other along other along with their rights. Thereare several their rights. There are several eur'anic verses Qur'anic verses and Prophetic and Prophetic traditionswhich tkow abundance light on the of traditions which throw abundance irtigtt the etiquette childrentowardstheir parents.The eur'an saiys: etiquette of children towards their parents. The Qur'an says: of Thy Lord hathdecreed ye worshipnonesaveHim and(that ye Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none save Him and (that ye that show)kindness parents. show) kindness to parents. to Islam thusordainedchildren to be kind andgratefulto his parents. Islam thus ordained childrento be kind and grateful to his parents. Good conduct towards parentsis even regardedas a key to Good conduct towards parents is even regarded as a key to paradise.The Prophet(pbuh) said: paradise. The Prophet (pbuh) said: Your entry into Paradiseor Hell depends on your goodor bad Your entry into Paradise or Hell depends on your good or bad conducttowards your parents. conduct towards your parents. 13
  18. 18. Another tradition of the Prophet (pbuh) also highlights the Another tradition of the Prophet (pbuh) also highlights the necessity fair treatment parents children: of to by necessity of fair treatment to parents by children: Let that man be disgraced, and disgraced again and let him be Let that man be disgraced, and disgraced again and let him be disgracedeven more. The peopleEnquired:"O Prophetof God disgraced even more. The people Enquired: "0 Prophet of God (pbuh) who is that man? The Prophetaffrrmed: "I refer the man (pbuh) who is that man? The Prophet affirmed: "l refer to the man who finds his parents old in age- both them one them who finds his parents old in age - both of them or one of them - and yet did not earn entitlement to Paradise renderinggood and yet did not earn entitlement to Paradise by rendering good by service them. to service to them. seems also pertinentto point out herethat althoughchildren are It seems also pertinent to point out here that although children are exhorted be obedient and kind to both parents, a greater exhorted to be obedient and kind to both parents, a greater emphasis is given for more better treatment and devotion emphasis is given for more better treatment and devotion to mother. This is obviously because her greatersacrifices mother. This is obviously because of her greater sacrifices and and sufferings children. The Qur'an says: sufferings for children. The Qur'an says: And We havecommanded unto man kindness towardsparents And We have commanded unto man kindness towards parents His His mother beareth him mother beareth him with suffering bringing forth with suffering, sufferingbringing forth suffering, bearinghim andweaning him thirty months. bearing him and weaning of him in thirty months. This is alsoillustrated throughvruiousProphetic This is also illustrated through various Prophetic traditions: traditions: enjoinman abouthis mother. I enjoin man about his mother. enjoinman abouthis mother. I enjoin man about his mother. I enjoin man about his mother. enjoinman abouthis mother. I enjoin manabout his father. enjoinman abouthis father. Thus motherhood in Islam is not discardedas a burden, a Thus motherhood Islam not discarded as burden, stumbling block for woman'sdevelopment, source oppression stumbling block woman's development, a source of oppression of and suppression. It is lookeduponwith respect and suppression. is looked upon respect and honor and is and honor al)d is consideredas a blessing from Allah (swt) to man. Motherly considered as blessing from (swt) man. Motherly affection and care deemsindispensable for the properupbringing affection and care deems indispensable the proper upbringing of childrenalongwith father's of children along father's affectionand concern.Motherhood affection and concern. Motherhood is regarded an essential regarded as an essential institution humancivilization. as institution for human civilization. 14
  19. 19. As discussed above,Islam attaches great importanceto the mutual As discussed above, Islam attaches great importance to the mutual Iove and concern for eachother in the family. As father is asked love and concern for each other in the family. As father is asked to prayto Allah (swt) to bring in his wife and childrencomfort for to pray to Allah (swt) to bring in his wife and children comfort for his eyes, children are exhorted to show glancesof love and his eyes, children are exhorted to show glances of love and devotionto parents.The Prophet(pbuh) said: devotion to parents. The Prophet (pbuh) said: "The pious offspring who castes single look of affection at his liThe pious offspring who castes a single look of affection at his a parents receives a reward from God equal to the rewardof an parents receives a reward from God equal to the reward of an acceptedHajj." The peoplesubmitted: Prophet Allah (peace accepted Hajj.1I The people submitted: 110 Prophet of Allah (peace "O of be uponyou), if someone castsa hundred suchglances love and be upon you), if someone casts a hundred such glances of love and of affection at his parents, what then?"The Prophetreplied: "yes, affection at his parents, what then?1I The Prophet replied: IIYes, indeed, even if one does so a hundred indeed, even if one does so a hundred time a day, he will get a time a day,he get a hundred fold reward. God is far greaterthan you imagineand is hundred fold reward. God is far greater than you imagine and is completelyfree from petty narrow mindedness. completely free from petty narrow mindedness. Childrenare also exhortedto pray their parents; Children are also exhorted to pray for their parents: O, our Lord! Grant forgiveness my parentsandme and pardon 0, our Lord! Grant forgiveness to my parents and me and pardon the faithful on the Day Reckoning. all the faithful on the Day of Reckoning. Few Observationson the Above Discussion: Few Observations on the Above Discussion: I sexuality, reproduction and parents and children relationship 1. Sexuality, reproduction parentsand children relationshipin and the family are all perceivedin Islam as natural and essential the family are perceived Islam as natural and essential aspects of man's life and are not separatedfrom the whole aspects of man's and are not separated from the whole Tawhidic frameworkof life and thought. Man is alwaysreminded Tawhidic framework of and thought. always reminded to be mindful of Allah'sguidance throughtheserelationships be mindful of Allah's guidance all through these relationships whethersexualor parental. whether sexual parental. 2 sexuality and reproduction outside marriage are rejected 2. Sexuality and reproduction outside marriage are rejected downright and consideredunlawful, no matterall technological downright and considered unlawful, matter technological devicesmake thempossible devices makethem possible outsidemarriage. outside marriage. I3. A loving, devoted, peaceful and harmoniousrelationship A loving, devoted, peaceful and harmonious relationship between husband and wife is greatly emphasized. Man,s between husband and wife is greatly emphasized. Man's domination and woman's subservience man are completely domination and woman's subservience to man are completely to l15 5
  20. 20. rejected. Men and women complement each other and not rejected. Men and women complement each other and not compete against each other. Islamic family system is neither compete against each other. Islamic family system is neither patriarchalnor matriarchal,ratherconsultational,shura-based. patriarchal nor matriarchal, rather consultational, shura-based. 4. An affectionate, cordial, intimate and a deeper relationship 4. An affectionate, cordial, intimate and a deeper relationship between parentsand children is strongly upheld in Islam. A stable between parents and children is strongly upheld in Islam. A stable family of caring parents and devoted children is expectedfor a family of caring parents and devoted children is expected for a better society and a healthiercivilization. better society healthier civilization. Conclusion: Conclusion: We cannotafficrdto be complacentand take comfort in the Islamic We cannot afford complacent and theories of senrality, reproductioq husbandand wife relationship theories of sexuality, reproduction, husband and relationship and parents and childrtn relationship which are based on the and parents and children relationship are based Qur'anic injunctions and Prophetic traditions unless we seethese Qu/anic injunctions and Prophetictraditionsunless see these theories are put into Practice. theoriesare practice. generallyfound out that the relationshippatterns For instance, it is generally found out that the relationship patterns instance, and betweenpafentsand children even between husband and wife and between parents and children even between husbandand societiesare also not satisfactory. Broadly there in some Muslim societies are also not satisfactory. Broadly there some are three problems: arethree problems: L Men tend to keep a despotic attitude towards women and 1. Men tend to keep a despotic attitude towards women and communication gap betweenthe male children. There is a big communication gap between the male children. There is a membersand femalesand children. Men expectfrom women only members and females and children. Men expect from women only familial serviceof cooking, cleaningand children care. Exchange familial service of cooking, cleaning and children care. Exchange of thoughts and ideas on any problem of the outsideworld, of of thoughts and ideas on any problem of the outside world, of Muslim Ummah, of intellectual or of any other field is almost Muslim Ummah, of intellectual or of any other field is almost absent. Insteadof a loving and caring environment,a fearful and absent. Instead of a loving and caring environment, a fearful and tensedenvironmentprevails in the house because men usually tensed environment prevails in the house because men usually maintain distance from women and children as a mark of their maintain distance from women and children as a mark of their eventurns to be artificial honor. This sort of honor sometimes even turns to be artificial honor. This sort of honor sometimes other family members and distorts all sorts of horrific among other family members and distorts all sorts of horrific among relationships. Although it goes against Islamic injunctions as relationships. Although it goes against Islamic injunctions as evena religioushalo is attached it to described above, sometimes even a religious halo is attached to it describedabove, sometimes 16 l6
  21. 21. for which reason women and children could hardly express for which reason women and children could hardly express themselves become victims of horror. and themselves and becomevictims of horror. z- ln some cases, women are aloneexpectedto take over all the 2. In some cases, women are alone expected to take over all the responsibilities of children and men completely exempt from it. responsibilities of children and men completely exempt from it. For the better educational upbringing of chi-ldren, For the better educational upbringing of children, both mother and bottr motherand father require to play their important roles. In thosefamilies father require to play their important roles. In those families where women are hardly educated, it becomes all the more where women are hardly educated, it becomes all the more problematicfor children to get proper educationalfeedback. problematic for children to get proper educational feedback. whereas in some cases, where both parents are educatedand Whereas in some cases, where both parents are educated and working, again children becomethe victims sincethey do not get working, again children become the victims since they do not get proper attention from their parents. Men claim that ihey are too proper attention from their parents. Men claim that they are too busy and women blame men for non-co-operation house-chores busy and women blame men for non-eo-operation in house-chores in and claim that they are over-burdened and claim that they are over-burdened with double workload and doubleworkload and tend to neglectchildren. children feel that they are alienatedfrom tend to neglect children. Children feel that they are alienated from both parents. both parents. 3. Due 3. Due to lack of mutual understanding and confidence on each lack of mutual understanding confidenceon each and otheq the relationships between husband and other, the relationships between husband and wife grows tensed grows tensed and sometimes givesrise divorce. children of divorcedparents and sometimes gives rise to divorce. Children of divorced parents turn out to be aggressive tum out to be aggressive and anti-social. and anti-social. 17
  22. 22. References: References: comprehensive and convincing study on Islam as the 1. For a comprehensiveand convincing study-o_nIslam as the l. complete wai of life, see various books of Syed Abul Ala complete way of see various books of Syed Mawdudi such as - Islamic Way of Life, Lahore Islamic Mawdudi ruih as - of Lahore Islamic Publications, 1992; see also uS be Muslims, Lumpur, publications, 1992; see also Let us be Muslims, Kuala Lumpur, Foundation, A.S. Noordeen, l99l' Islamic Foundation, A.S' Noordeen' 1991. The Islamic The For a For Islam, seeMoham contemporary perspective on Islarq see Mohammad contemporary perspective Ahmedullah mad Ahmedullah ContemporaryPerspective, Chicago, Siddiqi (ed.), Islam-. A Contemporary Perspective, siddiqi' (ed),'Islam-. chicago, NAA1.1PS Publication, 1994. NAAMPS Publication, 1994. 2. See Ismaiel Raji al-Faruqi, Tawhid: Its Implications for 2,. see Ismaiel al-Faruqi, Tawhid: Implications Thought and Life, if,ougf,r and Herndon, lIIT, 1982; Mohammad Nejatullah Herndon" IiIT, 1982;MohammadNejatullah Siddiqui, Tawhid- The Concept and the Process, in Khurshid Siddi[ui, Tawhid- The Concept and the Process, Khurshid Ahmed andZafarIshaq Ansar ed., Islamic Ahmed and Zafar Ishaq Ansar ed., Islamic Perspectives Studies in Perspectives Studies Honor sayyed Mawdudi, Leicester' Islamic Honor of Sayyed Abul Ala Mawdudi, Leicester, Islamic Foundation, 1979, l 7-33. Foundation, 1979, pp. 17-33. PP. 3. Al-Qur'an 2:30~ For a concrete understanding of the universal 3. Al-Qur'an 2:30; a concreteunderstanding the universal of missionary role of a Muslim, see Sayyed Abul Ala Mawdudi, mission:aryrole oi a Muslim, see Sayyed A!u! Mawdudi' Foundation, 1995 .' Witness unto Mankind, Leicester, Islamic Foundation' Witnessunto Mankind,Leicester, Islamic 1995 4. Al-Qur'an 30:21 4. Al-Qur'an30:21 5. Al-Qur'an 13:38. 5. Al-Qur'an l3:38. 6. Al-Qur'an 4-.21. 6. Al-Qur'an4-.21. Abdur Rauf, Islamic 7. Al-Quran 17-.323-1 see also Mohammed Abdur Rauf, Islamic 7. Al-Qut'an l7-.3?3-l seealsoMohammed View of Woman and the Woman and the Family, Chicago' Kazi Family, Chicago, Kazi 1996. Publications, 1996. Publications, Marriage'Ha 8. Sahih ai-Muslim, chapter, The Book of Marriage, Ha L Sahihat-Muslinr,chapter,The 18 IE
  23. 23. i-;rTlpt-6r p),lzlt.-i

×