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Technology transfer – changes in the materials and


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Technology transfer – changes in the materials and

  1. 1. Technology transfer – changes in the materials and containers used to store and transport wine <br />By Sam Bloxham<br />
  2. 2. 5000BC-Kwevri<br />A Georgian clay jar.<br />Were burried in the ground with a protruding neck.<br />Stored wine during fermentation (Vinosseur, 2010). <br />Approximately 200L (Kurtiashvili , & Rose, 2006)<br />Kwevri, (Image from: Vinosseur, 2010)<br />
  3. 3. 4800BC- Amphora<br />Made from clay. <br />Characterised by their narrow neck and two handles (Amphora, 2011). <br />Used to store wine<br />Used to transport wine. <br />Were placed closely on ships with rope through the handles to hold them together (Amphora, 2011). <br />Amphora, (Image from Amphora, 2011)<br />
  4. 4. 350BC-Barrels<br />Made from rounded (moulded) oak<br />Could be rolled and stacked<br />Used from fermentation through to transport<br />Most convenient form of transportation until the 19th century. <br />Oak wine barrels (Myrddin Barrel Club, n.d)<br />
  5. 5. 1600AD- Glass Bottles<br />Initially used for wine to be immediately consumed.<br />1600AD Pigmented glass added weight. <br />Became used to store wine with a cork stopper. <br />1800ADCylindrical bottles were then made for easier storage (McAdams, 2006). <br />1630AD<br />1640AD<br />1700AD<br />1730AD<br />1820AD<br />1780AD<br />The evolution of wine bottle shapes (Evolution of shapes, n.d).<br />
  6. 6. Transporting environment<br />Wine is perishable, for long life transporting conditions must be maintained<br />Ideal temperature must be maintained<br />13-16°C<br />Humidity should remain constant<br />70%<br />Wine movement should be minimal<br />Climate controlled containers used for transporting to minimise fluctuations in environment<br />
  7. 7. Modern methods for transporting wine<br />Bulk wine transport<br />ISO tanks<br />Flexitanks<br />Pre-packaged wine transport<br />Bottled<br />
  8. 8. ISO Tank containers<br />Food grade tanks transport wine internationally on ships. <br />Ullage must be left in tanks.<br />Wine must be stable before transportation to reduce risk of oxidation.<br />20,000L of wine per ISO <br />tank<br />Tank containers (Tank container logistics, 2011)<br />
  9. 9. Flexitanks<br />Bladders that line the inside of containers<br />Used once to reduce contamination.<br />Recyclable plastic<br />24,000L of wine per flexitank<br />
  10. 10. Bottled wine<br />Fragile glass can be broken during transport<br />Packaging materials must be incorporated<br />Wine is able to be sold once at destination<br />1400 bottles per container<br />Cardboard dividers (<br />Polystyrene packaging (<br />Moulded pulp (<br />
  11. 11. Bulk vs. bottled<br />Bulk <br />Limited lost space<br />Cost efficient<br />Oxidation occurs throughout entire product<br />Pre-packaged <br />Lower volume per container<br />More costly<br />Oxidation can be limited<br />
  12. 12. Future challenges<br />To reduce CO2 emissions <br />To use recyclable materials<br />Bulk transportation<br />To commit to trading schemes<br />
  13. 13. Reference <br />Ampohra. (2011). Retrieved 3 August 2011, from:<br />Evolution of shapes. (n.d.). retrieved 12 August 2011, from:<br />History of wine. (2011). Retrieved 7 August 2011, from:<br />Kurtiashvili, O., & Rose, B. (2006, Janurary). Grapegrowing, on Georgian wine:an introduction. The Australian and New Zealand Grapegrower and winemaker, 23-24<br />McAdams, C. (2006) Wine sediments. Wine bottle evolution. Retrieved 1 August 2011,from:<br />Myrddin Barrel Club. (n.d.). Retrieved 21 August 2011, from:<br />Nivala, D. (2007). Oak wine barrels- a short history. Retrieved 8 August 2011, from:<br />A short history of wine bottles. (2009). Retrieved 1 August 2011, from:<br />Tank container logistics. (2011). Retrieved 7 August 2011, from:<br />Trans Ocean. (2011). Retrieved 7 August 2011, from:<br />Vinosseur. (2010). Retrieved 3 August 2011, from:<br />