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Using Environmental Social Marketing to Address Polluted Stormwater Runoff in Puget Sound<br />Bonnie Loshbaugh<br />Maste...
Thesis of table of contents<br />Introduction<br />Ch. 1 Polluted stormwater runoff in Puget Sound<br />Ch. 2 Social Marke...
Polluted stormwater runoff in Puget Sound<br />1<br /><ul><li>What’s in Puget Sound?
Where is it coming from?
How can we stop it?</li></li></ul><li>Just the facts, ma’am<br /><ul><li>26. 5 cubic miles of sea water
16,000 square mile watershed
2,500 miles of shoreline
4.4 million residents
7,000 species
 orcas, salmon, eelgrass
Historically produced 5-10x as much salmon as the Columbia River basin
Seattle & Tacoma are tenth & eleventh largest seaports in the US by container traffic
875,000 cruise passengers in 2009</li></li></ul><li>Fun Things in Puget Sound Waters<br />Pesticides<br />Vanilla flavorin...
Focus on Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound<br />WA Dept of Ecology study <br />Assessment of toxics entering Puget Sound<br /...
Between 14 and 94 million pounds of <br />toxics enter Puget Sound annually<br />
The largest source of toxic chemicals is surface runoff.<br />
"It's frustrating. We're adding [contaminated sites] faster than they're coming off."<br />Michael Spencer, <br />Environm...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<...
Residential land is the leading contributor for all but DDT, mercury, and arsenic, and accounts for more than half of the ...
http://www.cityftmyers.com/Departments/PublicWorks/Divisions/Engineering/Information/StormwaterInformation/PointlessPerson...
Pollution Process<br />Stage I<br />Manufacture<br />Pollutants are manufactured or otherwise produced.<br />
Pollution Process<br />Stage II<br />Distribution<br />Substances containing pollutants are distributed to consumers.<br />
Pollution Process<br />Stage III<br />Watershed Introduction<br />Pollutants are leaked, blown, dropped, defecated, etc.<b...
Pollution Process<br />Stage IV<br />Surface Runoff Transport<br />A rain event or other water source washes pollutants do...
Pollution Process<br />Stage V<br />Entrance to Puget Sound<br />Pollutants join the marine ecosystem, may remain as suspe...
The earlier in the process that we address a problem, the more efficient the solution is.<br />River of Babies<br />
To Recap…<br />Pollutants in Puget Sound come from stormwater.<br />Stormwater pollutants come from residential land.<br /...
2<br />Social Marketing as a tool for behavior change<br /><ul><li>What is social marketing?
What influences behavior?
How do you make a social marketing campaign?</li></li></ul><li>Using marketing techniquesto change behaviorfor the good of...
Social Marketing<br />Term introduced in 1971 by Kotler & Zaltman<br />Widely used in public health, and in Britain<br />(...
The application of marketing concepts and tools to influence the behaviour change of a target audience in ways that create...
To influence behavior, you must understand behavior.<br />
Misconceptions<br />Knowledge deficit model<br />“if they had the right information, they would do the right thing.”<br />
Misconceptions<br />It’s not that simple<br />
Attitude and Behavior Change Model<br />Termination<br />Preparation<br />Contemplation<br />Maintenance<br />Action<br />...
Fear and guilt are unreliable motivators.<br />Emotional appeals are ineffective.<br />P. 39. Moser, S., and L. Dilling, 2...
People and Place-related influences on behavior<br />Maibach, Edward W., Connie Roser-Renouf, Anthony Leiserowitz. Communi...
Factors affecting spread of new behaviors<br />Comprehensive literature review on diffusion of environmental behaviors con...
Factors Affecting Spread of New Behaviors<br />Relative advantage<br />Trialability<br />Visibility / invisibility / obser...
Creating a social marketing intervention<br />Intervention = campaign<br />
Select behaviors<br />Uncover barriers & benefits of behaviors<br />Develop strategies to address barriers & benefits<br /...
Bates’ components of Social Marketing Interventions<br />Bates, Cynthia H. “Use of Social Marketing Concepts to Evaluate O...
Social marketing intervention process<br />Identify behavior-based problem<br />Understand behaviors in problem area<br />...
Integrated Ecosystem Assessment  <br />Process Model for Adaptive Management<br />Levin PS, Fogary MJ, Murawski SA, Fluhar...
Social Marketing <br />intervention Process<br />Integrated Ecosystem Assessment<br />Scoping of problem<br />Develop indi...
3<br />The Puget Sound Starts Here campaign<br /><ul><li>How was the PSSH campaign put together?
Does it fit social marketing criteria?
What else could be done?</li></li></ul><li>1. Identify Behavior-Based Problem<br />See chapter one<br />NPDES permitees re...
The Puget Sound Starts Here campaign is a collaboration between STORM, the Puget Sound Partnership, and the Washington Dep...
Puget Sound Partnership – a public face for government environmental actions
Ecology – state agency which administers NPDES permits & has provided $2 million in funding</li></li></ul><li>2. Understan...
Residents do not realize the effect of their actions.<br />They do not understand the impact <br />or mechanism of non-poi...
Residents are more likely to blame industry for pollution than residential or neighborhood runoff.<br />Roughly half know ...
Awareness may vary by demographic.<br />Older citizens more aware of correct behaviors.<br />Mountlake Terrace least aware...
3. Choose target behaviors & Audience<br />Audience segmentation<br />Identify barriers and benefits<br />Target behaviors...
PSSH Target Audience<br />Urban, suburban, and rural<br />Homeowners and renters<br />With and without children<br />With ...
Choosing Target Behaviors<br />Increase pervious surfaces<br />Increase tree cover<br />Household hazardous waste mgt<br /...
Fertilize sparingly<br />Spot treatment with pesticides & herbicides<br />Use of compost & mulch<br />Create rain gardens<...
Use of commercial car washes<br />Regular auto maintenance<br />Wash cars on pervious surfaces<br />Proper disposal of aut...
Pickup and proper disposal of pet waste.<br />Pet Waste Management<br />
4. Craft and Send Message<br />Visual design by Frause<br />
Focus Groups, May 2009<br />A “problem-solution-hope approach” is strongest<br />Humor a positive addition to messaging<br...
Kitsap Stormwater Hotline Focus Groups<br />
Messaging mediums<br />Website<br />Video clips<br />Social media<br />Facebook, twitter, flickr<br />Boilerplate text<br ...
Pugetsoundstartshere.org<br />
So Far…<br />Campaign launched September 16 2009<br />60,000 PSSH toolkits distributed around Puget Sound<br />Video clips...
5. Evaluation<br />Plan to use:<br />King County Environmental Behavior Index<br />“Independent quantitative study”<br />c...
You may have noticed some skipped steps, there.<br />What’s missing?<br />
Targeting the general public is not audience segmentation.<br />Audience segmentation<br />
The only barrier addressed is financial.<br />The only place it is addressed is the website.<br />Identifying barriers and...
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Using Environmental Social Marketing to Address Polluted Stormwater in Puget Sound

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Thesis presentation for a master of marine affairs from the School of Marine & Environmental Affairs, University of Washington.

Abstract: While the surface of the water always reflects the sky in any weather, the story below the surface is increasingly cloudy. Urban estuaries such as Puget Sound suffer from a heavy influx of pollution from the growing human population and human development around them. The most efficient method to interrupt the stormwater pollution process in Puget Sound is to address human behaviors. Social marketing, the application of marketing techniques to “sell” behaviors which benefit society as a whole, is a powerful tool for changing behaviors. While it has been used extensively in the public health sector, it is gaining popularity in addressing environmental issues. A communications and outreach campaign under the tagline “Puget Sound Starts Here” has been designed with strong influence from the social marketing realm to address non-point source pollution in Puget Sound. While still midstream, the campaign has great potential to positively affect the human behaviors which contribute to stormwater pollution in Puget Sound, and can serve as a model for use in other regions.

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Using Environmental Social Marketing to Address Polluted Stormwater in Puget Sound

  1. 1. Using Environmental Social Marketing to Address Polluted Stormwater Runoff in Puget Sound<br />Bonnie Loshbaugh<br />Master’s Thesis Presentation<br />School of Marine Affairs<br />University of Washington<br />27 May 2010<br />Thesis committee <br />Marc L. Miller, Ann Bostrom, Mike Sato<br />
  2. 2. Thesis of table of contents<br />Introduction<br />Ch. 1 Polluted stormwater runoff in Puget Sound<br />Ch. 2 Social Marketing as a tool for behavior change<br />Ch. 3 The Puget Sound Starts Here campaign<br />Conclusion<br />
  3. 3. Polluted stormwater runoff in Puget Sound<br />1<br /><ul><li>What’s in Puget Sound?
  4. 4. Where is it coming from?
  5. 5. How can we stop it?</li></li></ul><li>Just the facts, ma’am<br /><ul><li>26. 5 cubic miles of sea water
  6. 6. 16,000 square mile watershed
  7. 7. 2,500 miles of shoreline
  8. 8. 4.4 million residents
  9. 9. 7,000 species
  10. 10. orcas, salmon, eelgrass
  11. 11. Historically produced 5-10x as much salmon as the Columbia River basin
  12. 12. Seattle & Tacoma are tenth & eleventh largest seaports in the US by container traffic
  13. 13. 875,000 cruise passengers in 2009</li></li></ul><li>Fun Things in Puget Sound Waters<br />Pesticides<br />Vanilla flavoring<br />Phthalates <br /> Cadmium<br />PBDEs (flame retardants)<br /> Arsenic<br />Copper<br /> Lead<br />Plastics<br />Fecal coliforms<br />Mercury<br /> Petroleum<br /> Dioxins<br />PCBs<br /> Pharmaceuticals<br />
  14. 14. Focus on Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound<br />WA Dept of Ecology study <br />Assessment of toxics entering Puget Sound<br />Focuses on seventeen chemicals<br />Three phases<br />Arsenic<br />Cadmium<br />Copper<br />Lead<br />Zinc<br />Mercury<br />PCBs<br />PBDEs<br />Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)<br />High Molecular Weight PAHs<br />Low Molecular Weight PAHs<br />Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate<br />Total Dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQs)<br /> Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites<br />Triclopyr<br />Nonylphenol<br />Total petroleum hydrocarbons<br />
  15. 15. Between 14 and 94 million pounds of <br />toxics enter Puget Sound annually<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. The largest source of toxic chemicals is surface runoff.<br />
  18. 18. "It's frustrating. We're adding [contaminated sites] faster than they're coming off."<br />Michael Spencer, <br />Environmental Specialist<br />Washington Department of Ecology<br />McClure, Robert, Lisa Stiffler and Lise Olsen. 2002. “Area’s defining waterway is a cesspool of pollution.” 18 November 2002. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Accessed online at http://www.seattlepi.com/local/95872_sound18.shtml 25 May 2010.<br />
  19. 19. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  20. 20. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  21. 21. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  22. 22. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  23. 23. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  24. 24. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  25. 25. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  26. 26. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  27. 27. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  28. 28. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  29. 29. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  30. 30. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  31. 31. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  32. 32. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  33. 33. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  34. 34. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  35. 35. Percentage of Loading Rates for Entire Puget Sound Basin by Land Use Category<br />Residential<br />Commercial/Industrial<br />Agricultural<br />Forest<br />Highway<br />
  36. 36. Residential land is the leading contributor for all but DDT, mercury, and arsenic, and accounts for more than half of the toxic loading for ten of the chemicals.<br />Commercial or industrial runoff has the highest concentrations of many of the toxic chemicals, but the quantity of pollutants from residential areas is larger.<br />
  37. 37. http://www.cityftmyers.com/Departments/PublicWorks/Divisions/Engineering/Information/StormwaterInformation/PointlessPersonalPollution/tabid/950/Default.aspx<br />
  38. 38. Pollution Process<br />Stage I<br />Manufacture<br />Pollutants are manufactured or otherwise produced.<br />
  39. 39. Pollution Process<br />Stage II<br />Distribution<br />Substances containing pollutants are distributed to consumers.<br />
  40. 40. Pollution Process<br />Stage III<br />Watershed Introduction<br />Pollutants are leaked, blown, dropped, defecated, etc.<br />
  41. 41. Pollution Process<br />Stage IV<br />Surface Runoff Transport<br />A rain event or other water source washes pollutants downstream.<br />
  42. 42. Pollution Process<br />Stage V<br />Entrance to Puget Sound<br />Pollutants join the marine ecosystem, may remain as suspended particulate matter, settle into sediments, and/or enter the food chain.<br />
  43. 43. The earlier in the process that we address a problem, the more efficient the solution is.<br />River of Babies<br />
  44. 44. To Recap…<br />Pollutants in Puget Sound come from stormwater.<br />Stormwater pollutants come from residential land.<br />There are 4.4 million residents whose behavior contributes to pollution.<br />We need a way to change the behavior of 4.4 million people.<br />
  45. 45. 2<br />Social Marketing as a tool for behavior change<br /><ul><li>What is social marketing?
  46. 46. What influences behavior?
  47. 47. How do you make a social marketing campaign?</li></li></ul><li>Using marketing techniquesto change behaviorfor the good of society.<br />Social marketing in a nutshell<br />
  48. 48. Social Marketing<br />Term introduced in 1971 by Kotler & Zaltman<br />Widely used in public health, and in Britain<br />(and in British public health)<br />Becoming better known in the environmental sector<br />Social marketing in marine affairs:<br />NOAA Coastal Services Center, Human Dimensions Program<br />“Promoting Sustainable Seafood Through Social Marketing,” Jessica Quinn Smits, M.Ma. 2006<br />“Use of Social Marketing Concepts to Evaluate Ocean Sustainability Campaigns,” Cynthia H. Bates, Social Marketing Quarterly 16(1) Spring 2010<br />
  49. 49. The application of marketing concepts and tools to influence the behaviour change of a target audience in ways that create net benefits for the individual, community, and society at large.<br />Philip Kotler, 2009<br />p. 19 Effectively Engaging People: Interviews with social marketing experts. <br />National Social Marketing Center, 2009.<br />
  50. 50. To influence behavior, you must understand behavior.<br />
  51. 51. Misconceptions<br />Knowledge deficit model<br />“if they had the right information, they would do the right thing.”<br />
  52. 52. Misconceptions<br />It’s not that simple<br />
  53. 53. Attitude and Behavior Change Model<br />Termination<br />Preparation<br />Contemplation<br />Maintenance<br />Action<br />Precontemplation<br />Prochaska and DiClemente<br />
  54. 54. Fear and guilt are unreliable motivators.<br />Emotional appeals are ineffective.<br />P. 39. Moser, S., and L. Dilling, 2004. Making Climate Hot: Communicating The Urgency And Challenge Of Global Climate Change, Environment, Volume 26, Number 10, pp. 32-46.<br />
  55. 55. People and Place-related influences on behavior<br />Maibach, Edward W., Connie Roser-Renouf, Anthony Leiserowitz. Communication and Marketing As Climate Change–Intervention Assets: A Public Health Perspective. Am J Prev Med 2008;35(5), 488-500.<br />
  56. 56. Factors affecting spread of new behaviors<br />Comprehensive literature review on diffusion of environmental behaviors conducted by the Brook Lindhurst firm for the British Department forEnvironment, Food and Rural Affairs<br />
  57. 57. Factors Affecting Spread of New Behaviors<br />Relative advantage<br />Trialability<br />Visibility / invisibility / observability<br />Public / private<br />Ease of adaptation<br />Current norms<br />Compatibility with existing behaviors<br />Luxury / necessity<br />Existing infrastructure<br />Ease of development of commitment strategy<br />Clustering of other new behaviors<br />Habit or one-off<br />Purchase or other<br />Addition, substitution or modification<br />Word of mouth potential<br />State of diffusion<br />
  58. 58. Creating a social marketing intervention<br />Intervention = campaign<br />
  59. 59. Select behaviors<br />Uncover barriers & benefits of behaviors<br />Develop strategies to address barriers & benefits<br />Pilot strategy<br />Implement broadly<br />Steps to Create a Social Marketing Intervention<br />McKenzie-Mohr<br />Kotler & Lee<br />Background, Purpose and Focus<br />Situation Analysis<br />Target Market Profile<br />Marketing Objectives and Goals<br />Target Market Barriers, Benefits, and the Competition<br />Positioning Statement<br />Marketing Mix Strategies (4Ps)<br />Evaluation Plan<br />Budget<br />Implementation Plan<br />
  60. 60. Bates’ components of Social Marketing Interventions<br />Bates, Cynthia H. “Use of Social Marketing Concepts to Evaluate Ocean Sustainability Campaigns.” Social Marketing Quarterly. 16(1) Spring 2010<br />
  61. 61. Social marketing intervention process<br />Identify behavior-based problem<br />Understand behaviors in problem area<br />Audience analysis<br />Choose target behaviors & audience<br />Audience segmentation<br />Identify barriers, benefits<br />Appropriate & realistic objectives<br />Craft & send message<br />Message and channel design<br />Evaluation<br /> Stakeholder involvement<br />
  62. 62. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment <br />Process Model for Adaptive Management<br />Levin PS, Fogary MJ, Murawski SA, Fluharty D (2009) Integrated ecosystem assessments: Developing the scientific basis for ecosystem-based management fo the ocean. PLoSBiol 7(1):e1000014.doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000014<br />
  63. 63. Social Marketing <br />intervention Process<br />Integrated Ecosystem Assessment<br />Scoping of problem<br />Develop indicators & targets<br />Risk Analysis<br />Assessment of status relative to goals<br />Strategy Evaluation<br />Implementation of Management Action<br />Monitoring<br />Adaptation<br />Identify behavior-based problem<br />Understand behaviors in problem area<br />Audience analysis<br />Choose target behaviors & audience<br />Audience segmentation<br />Identify barriers, benefits<br />Appropriate & realistic objectives<br />Craft & send message<br />Message and channel design<br />Evaluation<br />
  64. 64. 3<br />The Puget Sound Starts Here campaign<br /><ul><li>How was the PSSH campaign put together?
  65. 65. Does it fit social marketing criteria?
  66. 66. What else could be done?</li></li></ul><li>1. Identify Behavior-Based Problem<br />See chapter one<br />NPDES permitees required to take action.<br />Social Marketing Inverntion<br />
  67. 67. The Puget Sound Starts Here campaign is a collaboration between STORM, the Puget Sound Partnership, and the Washington Department of Ecology. <br /><ul><li>STormwaterOutreach for Regional Municipalities – NPDES Phase I & Phase II permitees in Puget Sound
  68. 68. Puget Sound Partnership – a public face for government environmental actions
  69. 69. Ecology – state agency which administers NPDES permits & has provided $2 million in funding</li></li></ul><li>2. Understand Behaviors in problem Area<br />Elway report: review of ten surveys around Puget Sound, 2004-2008<br />Including two telephone surveys (n=400) <br />Partnership telephone survey, July 2008 (n=2000)<br />Hebert report: residents of Seattle suburbs, 2009-2010 (n=1500)<br />
  70. 70. Residents do not realize the effect of their actions.<br />They do not understand the impact <br />or mechanism of non-point source pollution,<br />nor do they understand the term.<br />Survey findings<br />
  71. 71. Residents are more likely to blame industry for pollution than residential or neighborhood runoff.<br />Roughly half know that stormwater runoff is untreated.<br />Soapy water or pet waste are <br />under-recognized as contributors to pollution<br />Survey findings<br />
  72. 72. Awareness may vary by demographic.<br />Older citizens more aware of correct behaviors.<br />Mountlake Terrace least aware in Hebert surveys.<br />Survey findings<br />
  73. 73. 3. Choose target behaviors & Audience<br />Audience segmentation<br />Identify barriers and benefits<br />Target behaviors should include appropriate & realistic objectives<br />
  74. 74. PSSH Target Audience<br />Urban, suburban, and rural<br />Homeowners and renters<br />With and without children<br />With and without pets<br />Vehicle owners<br />Primarily in the age group of sixteen or older<br />Youth, age six to sixteen, are a secondary audience, in their capacity of influencers of adults<br />
  75. 75. Choosing Target Behaviors<br />Increase pervious surfaces<br />Increase tree cover<br />Household hazardous waste mgt<br />Yard care<br />Pet waste mgt<br />Auto care<br />
  76. 76. Fertilize sparingly<br />Spot treatment with pesticides & herbicides<br />Use of compost & mulch<br />Create rain gardens<br />Maintain tree cover<br />Improve soil<br />Reduce lawn size<br />Hand pull weeds<br />Yard Care<br />
  77. 77. Use of commercial car washes<br />Regular auto maintenance<br />Wash cars on pervious surfaces<br />Proper disposal of auto fluids<br />Sell charity car wash tickets<br />Choose alternative transportation<br />Use cardboard under car to monitor fluid leaks<br />Auto Care<br />
  78. 78. Pickup and proper disposal of pet waste.<br />Pet Waste Management<br />
  79. 79. 4. Craft and Send Message<br />Visual design by Frause<br />
  80. 80. Focus Groups, May 2009<br />A “problem-solution-hope approach” is strongest<br />Humor a positive addition to messaging<br />Children motivate by triggering ideas of legacy<br />
  81. 81. Kitsap Stormwater Hotline Focus Groups<br />
  82. 82. Messaging mediums<br />Website<br />Video clips<br />Social media<br />Facebook, twitter, flickr<br />Boilerplate text<br />Posters<br />Ready made PowerPoint slides<br />
  83. 83.
  84. 84.
  85. 85.
  86. 86.
  87. 87.
  88. 88.
  89. 89. Pugetsoundstartshere.org<br />
  90. 90.
  91. 91.
  92. 92. So Far…<br />Campaign launched September 16 2009<br />60,000 PSSH toolkits distributed around Puget Sound<br />Video clips distributed to 16 TV stations,<br />Viewers projected to have seen PSAs 15x, for 53 million views and 99% coverage of Puget Sound population by end of 2009.<br />
  93. 93. 5. Evaluation<br />Plan to use:<br />King County Environmental Behavior Index<br />“Independent quantitative study”<br />custom research design to measure behavior change due to the PSSH campaign<br />Will use social media as a distribution mechanism<br />Web metrics<br />
  94. 94. You may have noticed some skipped steps, there.<br />What’s missing?<br />
  95. 95. Targeting the general public is not audience segmentation.<br />Audience segmentation<br />
  96. 96. The only barrier addressed is financial.<br />The only place it is addressed is the website.<br />Identifying barriers and benefits<br />
  97. 97. “Custom designed independent <br />quantitative research” sounds good.<br />Distribution via social media may be unrealistic. <br />Realistic evaluation tools<br />
  98. 98. Puget Sound Partnership, STORM & Ecology are all public sector governmental entities.<br />Stakeholder involvement<br />
  99. 99. Stakeholder involvement<br />Puget Sound Partnership press release<br />
  100. 100. 300+ members of ECO Net – but not all initially excited about Puget Sound Starts Here.<br />Stakeholder involvement<br />
  101. 101. Stakeholder involvement<br />People for Puget Sound blog post<br />
  102. 102. Stakeholder involvement<br />“It’s not obvious that there is really much for us “to move.””<br />
  103. 103. It’s not too late to fill these gaps.<br />PSSH was initially funded through 2011, <br />and funding has since doubled.<br />
  104. 104. <ul><li>Where does $2M in funding go?</li></li></ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PSSH<br />Become a full social marketing intervention, not an “inspired by social marketing” campaign.<br />Take a more comprehensive view of what can be used to influence behavior.<br />Address segmented audiences.<br />Work with ECO Net members as partners, not audience/clients on further development of campaign.<br />
  105. 105. Recommendations for further Research<br />Follow PSSH as it continues to develop over the next year (or longer).<br />Compare with other social marketing interventions focused on pollution prevention.<br />Investigate the dynamics of a campaign created by a coalition, and how 60+, or 300+ stakeholders can effectively participate.<br />
  106. 106. Bonnie Loshbaugh<br />Queen of Social Marketing<br />Master of Marine Affairs<br />Social Media Ecologist<br />Martial Artist & Knitter<br />alaskalainen@gmail.com<br />@alaskalainen<br />http://www.linkedin.com/in/bloshb<br />Social Marketing<br />Phillip Kotler and GeralZaltman. “Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change”. Social Marketing Quarterly. Summer 1997. Vol 3, No. 3/4.<br />Kotler, Phillip & Nancy Lee, 2008. Social marketing: influencing behaviors for good. Los Angeles: Sage Publications<br /> Social Marketing Quarterly<br />“Use of Social Marketing Concepts to Evaluate Ocean Sustainability Campaigns,” Cynthia H. Bates, Social Marketing Quarterly 16(1) Spring 2010<br />Maibach, Edward W., Connie Roser-Renouf, Anthony Leiserowitz. Communication and Marketing As Climate Change–Intervention Assets: A Public Health Perspective. Am J Prev Med 2008;35(5), 488-500.<br />Puget Sound Starts Here<br />Puget Sound Starts Here Strategic Communications Plan. August 2009. http://www.psp.wa.gov/downloads/PSSH_Toolkit/documents/Puget%20Sound%20Starts%20Here%20commmunications%20plan,%20August%202009.pdf<br />Elway Research, 2009. “Water Pollution in Puget Sound: The View from the Back Yard.” Elway Research, Inc. February 2009<br />STORM. “2009 Summary of Activities.” 2009. http://www.duvallwa.gov/departments/publicworks/2009_STORM%20annual%20report.pdf<br />Contact info and Selected References<br />

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