Classroom Management and Positive Behavior Supports


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Established to prepare future educators to become fluent in comprehension and application of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS). The McDowell Institute is focused on cultivating excellence in future educators by strategically infusing a MTSS framework reflecting the principles and associated practices of Positive Behavior Support within pre-service educators’ coursework and practicum experiences.

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Classroom Management and Positive Behavior Supports

  1. 1. Kate Nichols, PhD, BCBA-DDirector, McDowell InstituteBloomsburg University of PAMay 22, 2013
  2. 2. ▪ Preventing Behavior Problems▪ Functions of Behavior▪ Responding to Behavior Problems
  3. 3. ▪  Focus on teaching appropriate behavior▪  Create safe, consistent environment that allows all students to be successfulacademically, behaviorally, and socially▪  Associated with higher academic achievement ▪  Attributed to greater sense of efficacy by teachers
  4. 4. Positive Classroom Climate
  5. 5. ▪ 3-5 Positively-Stated Expectations for Behavior – Describe what students SHOULD be doing– Rules need to be taught throughout the school year– Students need to be acknowledged when they are exhibitingexpected behaviors
  6. 6. ▪ Behavior Management Environment–  Post reminders of rules, procedures, and reinforcement systems, and beconsistent in implementing and enforcing all of these–  Teach the consequences for rule violations and review as needed–  Respond to rule violations consistently, following predetermined consequences–  Refrain from arguing with students about rule violations
  7. 7. ▪ Behavior Management Environment–  Ensure that students earn reinforcement regularly and consistently–  Engage in systematic problem-solving process if students are not successfully earning reinforcers–  Listen carefully to students and acknowledge student concerns and complaints–  Ensure a safe, positive, learning climate–  Learn early warning signs for behavioral problems and intervene early and quickly when problemsarise to prevent escalation
  8. 8. ▪ Provide a choice of how or when a task will be completed –  Explain 3 activities. Allow the student(s) to pick the activity they wish to start with;student has to complete all 3 tasks, but in what ever order he/she chooses–  Allow choice of the medium with which students work (e.g., paper/pencil vs. computer)–  Let the group vote on which activity to do first
  9. 9. ▪ Before a Task–  When they will do a task–  What to do after assignment iscompleted–  How long to work before taking abreak–  Which materials to use (e.g., pencil orpen, paper or computer)▪ During the Task–  Order to complete multiple tasks–  Which peers to work with–  How to get teacher’s attention whileworking–  Where to complete task (desk, floor,table)–  Manner in which to complete task(last question first, top to bottom)
  10. 10. ▪ Chunking Instruction–  Provide shorter periods rather than one long period of instruction or assignments.–  Students meet the expectations, just in a modified manner and experience morefrequent success
  11. 11. ▪ High Probability Requests–  Reduces the likelihood of noncompliance by generating behavioral momentum bymixing easier, known, mastered, or shorter tasks amongst more difficult, unknown, orlonger tasks–  Start with 2-3 activities that students are 70% likely comply with and reinforceeach instance of compliance –  The difficult request should be delivered within 5 seconds of the last successful highprobability request–  Vary the high probability requests (i.e., develop a pool of requests)
  12. 12. Reinforcement
  13. 13. Reinforcement  ▪  Increases the likelihood of abehavior occurring again▪  Teaches students that they areperforming as desired▪  Can result in long-term learningand changePunishment▪  Used to stop a highly disruptivebehavior▪  Does not teach students how toexhibit desired behaviors▪  Will not result in change in behaviorunless an acceptable behavior istaught and reinforced▪  Prevent students from participatingin learning activities▪  May be actually reinforcing themisbehavior
  14. 14. ▪ Praise (Catch Students Being “Good”)– We spend a lot of time responding to students’inappropriate behaviors and not their appropriate behaviors.▪ Even the “worst” students do something appropriate throughout theday– Constantly look for students’ appropriate behavior, thenacknowledge their efforts by applying positive attention (e.g.,Provide a description of the appropriate behaviors)▪  4 to 1 ratio, four positive statements for each redirection provided to astudent
  15. 15. • Privileges• Praise  needs  to  be  tied  with  some  sort  of  tangible  reinforcement  to  be  effective  for  most  students  •  Rather  than  handing  out  prizes,  identify  privileges  students  can  earn    
  16. 16. Functions of Behavior
  17. 17. ▪  All behavior is a form of communication▪  All behavior serves a purpose (function of the behavior)▪  In order to change a behavior, a person must learn a newbehavior that fulfills a similar purpose as the undesirable behavior▪  Gain access to or escape from …–  Peer/Adult Attention (can be negative or positive)–  Activities/Tasks▪  Student sits in hallway and does not have to read aloud▪  Student goes to the office and principal lets her run errands–  Tangibles▪  Student gets his pencil back from another student▪  Student does not have to eat her peas–  Sensory▪  Student sits in hallway & leaves the bright light in the classroom▪  Student gets to sleep while in time-out
  18. 18. Gain Access ▪  Classmates laugh when studentmakes noises▪  Teacher talks to student when hemisbehaves▪  Student says something negative toanother student to get a response▪  Student constantly raising hand andasking for help▪  Student hits peer to get a reactionEscape/Avoid▪  Student plays by himself at recess▪  Student screams when classmate sitsnear her▪  Student won’t make eye contact withadult while being reprimanded
  19. 19. Gain Access ▪  Take markers off teacher’s desk▪  Snatch a toy from classmate▪  Cut in line▪  Cry, beg, repeatedly ask for apreferred item▪  Student goes to the office andprincipal lets her run errandsEscape/Avoid▪  Student plays by himself at recess▪  Student says she has a stomachache▪  Student refuses to line up for Musicclass ▪  Student sits in hallway and does nothave to read aloud
  20. 20. Gain Access ▪  Pencil Tapping▪  Humming to self▪  Biting nails/chewing pencil▪  Repetitive movements (rocking,flicking objects/fingers)Escape/Avoid▪  Covering ears▪  Putting head down▪  SquintingSome behaviors do not depend on the action of others to provide an outcomebecause they produce their own reinforcement (automatic R+). In other words, itfeels good.
  21. 21. ▪  When a student is engaging in a chronic misbehavior, identify an appropriatereplacement behavior that meets the same need (i.e., seeking attention, avoidingwork)▪  Create a plan to be implemented by all staff to increase demonstration of appropriatebehavior rather than focusing on decreasing inappropriate behaviorTarget Behavior: Tearing up assignment when frustratedReplacementBehavior:Request assistance by raising hand using “I need help signal” and wait appropriatelyuntil an adult can come over and helpConsequencefor ReplacementBehavior:Respond promptly to student employing “I need help signal.” Praise student forrequesting help appropriately and waiting. Assist student with continuing withassignment and check on student periodically to ensure on-task behaviors
  22. 22. ▪ Proximity– Use your presence as a signal to students to keep on task▪ Become a wandering social reinforcer▪ Research demonstrates that teacher proximity is inversely related to studentmisbehavior▪ Systematic Supervision–  Actively supervise classroom and non-classroom settings•  Scanning, moving, interacting with students
  23. 23. ▪ Creating a Transition Routine– Problematic transition behaviors can take away valuableinstruction time– The use of instructional visual cues is effective inincreasing appropriate transition behavior– Provide precorrection for common issues
  24. 24. ▪ Providing Rule Reminders – Prior to students enter a setting or begin to engage in an activity that mayhave an increase in problem behaviors▪ Verbal prompts: rule reminders or descriptions of the desired behavior▪ Nonverbal prompts: gestures or demonstrations of the appropriate behavior▪ Verbal and visual reminders of rewards available
  25. 25. Be Non-emotional & Avoid Coercion•  QTIP: Quit Taking It Personally•  Coercion is when you try to restrain,repress, compel, or enforce someone. ▪  Questioning, Arguing▪  Sarcasm/teasing, Force (verbal & physical)▪  Threats, Criticism▪  Despair, Logic▪  Telling on them to others, One-ups-manship▪  Silent treatmentPower StruggleStudent  Gets  Attention  for  Inappropriate  Behavior  Student  Tries  to  Avoid  Coercion  Student  Tries  to  Get  Even  Student  Tries  to  Escape  the  Situation  
  26. 26. ▪ Pivoting Attention–  Carefully ignore the inappropriate behavior/junk behavior of one student while reinforcingthe appropriate behavior of another student ▪  Don’t say anything about the junk behavior (“Stop that now!” or “Quit that!”) or do anything differentlywhen the junk behavior happens (react, roll eyes, stomp out of room, cross your arms, stare, etc.). –  Immediately reinforce or give a positive consequence for an appropriate behavior of studentnear misbehaving student(praise, touch, item/thing, privilege)–  Teaches the first student what behaviors (appropriate) will get your attention–  As soon as misbehaving student corrects behavior, give immediate praise for appropriatebehavior
  27. 27. ▪ Even if a student shows some junk behavior while acting appropriately, ignorethe junk behavior and provide positive consequences for the appropriatebehavior. ▪ Always focus on the positive. (“I really like the way you sit quietly.” versus “I’mglad you stopped making so much noise.”)– If you state the junk behavior, they know you weren’t ignoring it.▪ You do not have to continue giving positive consequences for the appropriatebehavior of the second student while waiting for the junk behavior of the firststudent to stop.
  28. 28. ▪ Extinction Burst–  Some  behavior  gets  worse  for  a  short  while,  before  it  gets  better    –  Student  is  testing  your  commitment  to  not  responding  to  misbehavior  –  If  you  simply  ignore  junk  behavior,  it  will  not  necessarily  go  away.    You  MUST  ignore  junk  and  give  a  positive  consequence  to  the  more  appropriate  behavior.  ▪  If  you  do  this,  then  the  extinction  burst  may  be  very  brief  or  not  happen  at  all.    The  key  to  this  is  providing  more  attention  for  appropriate  behaviors  than  you  did  before  you  started  ignoring.      
  29. 29. ▪ De-escalation–  If you see a student’s behavior begin to escalate to a more serious and potentially dangerousbehavior▪  Interrupt the behavior chain (warning signs that the student is going to “explode”) and intervene by redirectingor helping the student complete the taskExample: Jaime gets frustrated when doing math work. He will begin to whine, mutter under hisbreath, then tear up the paper and finally begin throwing things in the room▪  Intervene during the whining. Prompt him to request help, sit near him, initiate “I do, we do, you do.” PraiseJaime for beginning independent work, maintain proximity with him while supervising class and provide frequentpositive feedback.
  30. 30. ▪ Students are Off-task–  Precorrection: remind group about large group procedures–  Call on student sitting near inattentive student(s) to draw their attention–  Walk around classroom while instructing (systematic supervision)–  Proximity control: Stand near off task student without giving them attention–  Ensure student(s) have the necessary pre-requisite skills
  31. 31. ▪ Students are off task–  Reinforce on task students (pivot attention)–  Preteach procedures for obtaining teacher assistance, what to do when task is completed,where to get additional materials, etc.–  Ensure tasks are those that the students have already demonstrated 80% accuracy duringinitial instruction ▪ Students are loud working together–  Teach appropriate volume and movement while in small groups–  Reinforce quiet working and on-task behavior
  32. 32. ▪  Student refuses to work or interferes with other students’ learning–  Review independent work procedures–  Reinforce appropriate behaviors–  Schedule brief review session before beginning work–  Check student progress and accuracy▪  Student rushes through work making mistakes–  Reinforce completing the task accurately–  Make sure the student has pre-requisite skills▪  Student does not ask for help or asks for help too often–  Teach student when and how to ask for help–  Increase attention for on task behavior–  Reinforce students for appropriately asking for help
  33. 33.    Presentation and materials are available at