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Involving citizens in assessing dilemmas of privacy and security


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Involving citizens in assessing dilemmas of privacy and security

  1. 1. Involving citizens in assessing dilemmas of privacy and security Dr Ian Brown
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Privacy as a key social and political value </li></ul><ul><li>Limits of opinion polling and focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions and reality of security </li></ul><ul><li>Experts and citizens in privacy standards-setting </li></ul>
  3. 3. EU data privacy concerns Source: Eurobarometer #225 Data Protection in the EU, Feb. 2008 p.8
  4. 4. EU Charter of Fundamental Rights <ul><li>Art. 7: Everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>national security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the economic well-being of the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the prevention of disorder or crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the protection of health or morals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the protection of the rights and freedoms of others </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Surveillance of personal data Source: Eurobarometer #225 Data Protection in the EU, Feb. 2008 p.48
  6. 6. UK support for ID cards Data: ICM polling for No2ID, 2005-2007
  7. 7. In-depth consultation required <ul><li>High-quality opinion polls can give snapshots of public opinion … </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group problems </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen juries, scenarios, participatory design and careful qualitative and quantitative measurement of behaviour are better long-term guides </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy Impact Assessments </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transparency <ul><li>Transparency critical to trust (Sasse) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical for democratic legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing future function creep - designing technologies to enforce purpose specification </li></ul>
  9. 9. Political honesty required <ul><li>Justifications for UK Identity Scheme: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social security fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity fraud (£1.7bn pa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of community </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Efficacy of Identity Scheme <ul><li>“ If you ask me whether ID cards or any other measure would have stopped [the London bombings], I can't identify any measure which would have just stopped it like that.” -Charles Clarke MP, former Home Secretary </li></ul><ul><li>“ Benefit fraud that relies on false identity was, at most, 1 or 2 per cent of the total.” -Peter Lilley MP, former Social Security Secretary </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Home Office's definition of ID fraud doesn't match our definition. We class it as a more serious crime that involves a great deal more hassle than just having your card stolen and having to phone up the bank to cancel it” -APACS </li></ul>
  11. 11. Efficacy of Identity Scheme <ul><li>&quot;If stop and search is anything to go by, for Black people our ID card is really the colour of our skin.” Karen Chouhan, 1990 Trust </li></ul><ul><li>“ Terrorists rarely conceal their identity, only their intention - as was apparent in the case of those involved in the 9/11 tragedy, and in Madrid and in Constantinople.” -Peter Lilley MP </li></ul>
  12. 12. Security: reality vs theatre <ul><li>Supports all security measures against terrorist risks in aviation that are realistically designed to minimise the risk and are not disproportionate; </li></ul><ul><li>Points out that controls of liquids in hand luggage by X-ray equipment cannot detect explosives in liquids, and calls upon the Commission and the Member States to intensify their efforts in supporting research studies to find effective tools for the detection of explosives in liquids; </li></ul><ul><li>Considers that the provisions of Commission Regulation (EC) No 1546/2006 have not been implemented uniformly and consistently at all airports within the European Union and asks that this implementation be carried out; </li></ul><ul><li>Notes the increased costs to airports and operators of implementing this regulation; </li></ul><ul><li>Notes in addition, whilst appreciating the need for high-quality security, the costs to aviation passengers resulting from the confiscation of private property as a result of the implementation of the regulation; </li></ul><ul><li>Recognises the substantial inconvenience and disruption caused to passengers, especially transit passengers, and operators by the regulation; </li></ul><ul><li>Is concerned that the costs engendered by the regulation may not be proportionate to the added value of the regulation in terms of additional security provisions obtained through its implementation; </li></ul><ul><li>Calls upon the Commission to review urgently and on an ongoing basis Regulation (EC) No 1546/2006 (introduction of liquids onto aircraft); </li></ul>
  13. 13. Privacy standards-setting <ul><li>Citizens: involvement through consultation and participatory design </li></ul><ul><li>Experts - legal/constitutional and technical </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>Citizens must be carefully consulted in design of new security technologies… </li></ul><ul><li>… but so must constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Security and privacy are too important to be left to vested interests within government and industry </li></ul>