L I D And Policy February 2010

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A presentation I was asked to make to the LEED, LID, and Policy Seminar Students at NCSU. This focuses on the barriers to LID Implementation and offers some resources.

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L I D And Policy February 2010

  1. 1. LID and Policy: Sustainable Development Practices What is Stopping Us? Jon Barsanti Jr.
  2. 2. Who Developers Policy Makers Designers Decision Makers (Municipal/County)
  3. 3. Why Competitive Advantage (Others are not Doing it) It is good for the economy, good for the community, and good for the environment Others are Doing It; Can do It Better Others are doing it and if I/We don’t adopt/adapt I/We will lose out to other communities/developers
  4. 4. Why Not Don’t want to learn new way of doing business Want to do it; Have designer to do it; Have planners on board; Meeting resistance from elected officials Want to do it; Don’t have a designer to show how Want to do it; Have a designer who knows how to do it; Having a difficult time getting approved
  5. 5. LID All Development Occurs in a Watershed Need to change thinking from Water as Waste to Water as Resource All Land Uses Have a Water Profile Water Quality and Water Quantity will improve
  6. 6. All Development Occurs in a Watershed Three Parts of a Watershed Watershed Critical Areas Watershed Protected Areas Remainder of the Watershed <ul><li>Barriers: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Highest and Best Use of the Land;” </li></ul><ul><li>One person’s/community’s out-flow is another’s intake </li></ul>
  7. 7. All Development Occurs in a Watershed Wetlands are nature’s filtration system Wetlands manage volume and sediment load Wetlands are key to wildlife habitat preservation Barrier: Wetland is undevelopable; Can fill and replace, although manufactured is not as good as natural
  8. 8. All Development Occurs in a Watershed Stream Buffers protect encroachment on ecosystem by development Stream Buffers Protect development from encroachment by ecosystem (e.g. floods.) Barriers: Inconsistent setbacks between communities; Vertical versus Horizontal Setbacks
  9. 9. LID All Development Occurs in a Watershed Need to change thinking from Water as Waste to Water as Resource All Land Uses Have a Water Profile Water Quality and Water Quantity will improve
  10. 10. All Land Uses have a Water Profile From Kimberly Brewer’s Presentation to the TJCOG Smart Growth Committee ftp://ftp.tjcog.org/pub/tjcog/regplan/smrtgrow/devwq.pdf Volume of water flow Nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Suspended Solids) Temperature of water flowing off the land Toxins (Oil, antifreeze, other chemicals) Bacteria (Pet Waste, etc.)
  11. 11. All Land Uses have a Water Profile Data from A Nutrient Credit Trading Framework for the Jordan Lake Watershed: Using Market-Based Mechanisms to Make Watershed Restoration More Cost-Effective http://www.cfra-nc.org/documents/FinalReport-FullReport_000.pdf 16% 7% 6% Other 6% 9% 3% Commercial/ Industrial 15% 19% 56% Forest 51% 36% 20% Agriculture 1% Residential (MF) 12% 29% 14% Residential (SF) Contribution to P Load Contribution to N Load Land-Use Sources
  12. 12. All BMPs have a Volume/Pollutant Profile STORMWATER FLOW AND QUALITY, AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NON-PROPRIETARY STORMWATER TREATMENT MEASURES — A REVIEW AND GAP ANALYSIS (2004) Monash University (Australia) http://www.catchment.crc.org.au/pdfs/technical200408.pdf Volume of water flow Suspended Solids Nitrogen Phosphorus
  13. 13. All Land Uses have a Water Profile STORMWATER FLOW AND QUALITY, AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NON-PROPRIETARY STORMWATER TREATMENT MEASURES — A REVIEW AND GAP ANALYSIS (2004) Monash University (Australia) http://www.catchment.crc.org.au/pdfs/technical200408.pdf Barriers: It takes time and money to measure predevelopment conditions and post-development conditions
  14. 14. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity How we develop Where we develop (and where we do not) What we do with the Run-off (Pipe or Percolate)
  15. 15. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_resource.htm http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_density.htm
  16. 16. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.jordancove.uconn.edu/jordan_cove/publications/final_report.pdf <ul><li>Impacts on Land Start At the Grading Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers can have an impact on water quality, even in LID Neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Volume and Peak Flows were kept at predevelopment levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Control Compaction, Minimize Soil Disturbance, and have on-site supervision. </li></ul>
  17. 17. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentID=112936 <ul><li>Development Impacts Water Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Alters Stormwater and Wastewater Flows </li></ul><ul><li>Negatively Impacts water-related ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts water Quality through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of Impervious Surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Position of Development relative to natural features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of Contaminants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts Wastewater through consumption of water and the Stormwater it generates </li></ul>
  18. 18. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentID=112936 National Association of Home-Builders has a large amount of information regarding costs and benefits of Low Impact Development Perceived Barrier: It costs more and does not provide a benefit to the builder Actual Barrier: Educating the entire community to the value versus costs of LID (Lower Stormwater Costs, more land can be developed; cost savings to the community, etc.)
  19. 19. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf <ul><li>… (In) the vast majority of cases, </li></ul><ul><li>significant savings were realized due to: </li></ul><ul><li>reduced costs for site grading and preparation, </li></ul><ul><li>stormwater infrastructure, site paving, and landscaping. </li></ul><ul><li>Total capital cost savings ranged from 15 </li></ul><ul><li>to 80 percent when LID methods were used... </li></ul>
  20. 20. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf
  21. 21. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/documents/reducingstormwatercosts.pdf
  22. 22. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity Managing stormwater in Pierce County: Kensington Estates case study sheds light on low impact development http://www.djc.com/news/en/11135654.html <ul><li>Site Design was 103 Lots on 24 Acres </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Site Design required 270,000 Cu Ft of Stormwater Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>LID Required 55,000 cu ft of stormwater facilities </li></ul><ul><li>62% of land was saved as open space </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Savings of 20% to the Developer </li></ul><ul><li>10% More units were able to be built than conventional design would have allowed. </li></ul>
  23. 23. LID Can Improve Water Quality & Water Quantity Barrier(s): How each is defined varies by community/county Undevelopable area excluded More than 50% Less than 50% Conservation Open Space can be undevelopable 50% or More 50% or less Open Space No Fragmented Could Be entire site Cluster No Yes – may be yard Could be entire site Low Density (e.g. 1 unit/2a) Conserved Space Open Space Disturbed Space Type of Residential Development
  24. 24. Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. http://waterparadigm.org/indexen.php?web=./home/homeen.html http://www.onthecommons.org/media/pdf/original/OurWaterComonsOctober2008English.pdf Barrier: Need to change the way we think about water
  25. 25. Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. http://www.clemson.edu/restoration/events/past_events/sc_water_resources/t4_proceedings_presentations/t4_zip/zimmer.pdf http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUMENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf Barrier: We cannot solve our problems at the same level of thinking that created them We need a new way of looking at our water quality and water quantity problems
  26. 26. Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUMENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf “ An urban area is an ecological system wherein humans, habitat, transportation and water infrastructure, and terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna exist in symbiosis and interdependence. Urban fresh waters are the lifeline for ecological and economical sustainability, yet the fresh water resources are being impaired to a point that the integrity of urban waters has been damaged by excessive development and overuse….”
  27. 27. Need to Change thinking from stormwater as waste to stormwater as resource. http://www.coe.neu.edu/environment/DOCUMENTS/Wingspread%20Final%20Report.pdf <ul><li>The concept of the Cities of the Future, the fifth paradigm of urbanization… is a paradigm of integration </li></ul><ul><li>Future, and existing, urban developments will accommodate landscape, drainage, transportation and habitat infrastructure systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cities will be resilient to extreme </li></ul><ul><li>hydrological events and pollution </li></ul><ul><li>There will be adequate amounts of clean water for sustaining healthy human, terrestrial and aquatic lives </li></ul><ul><li>There will be an optimal balance between recreation, navigation and other economic uses of water. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>All Development Impacts Water Quality (Discharge, Consumption, Compaction of Soil) (Includes 10% Impervious Surface and above – as well as 10% Compacted Surfaces and above. </li></ul><ul><li>Highest Use of the land versus the Best Use of the land </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Change the way we think (Paradigm Shift) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wetlands and streams are undervalued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Community’s Outflow is another Community’s Intake </li></ul></ul>Barriers to Implementing LID Across the Region
  29. 29. Barriers to Implementing LID Across the Region <ul><li>Need to look at Decentralized solution for a decentralized problem </li></ul><ul><li>Our ordinances hold us back (e.g. State law now requires communities to allow the use of cisterns and to not prohibit their use; Definitions of Conservation Subdivisions; Transfer of Development Rights) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Everybody knows….” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Conclusion http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/agecon/WECO/lid/documents/NC_LID_Guidebook.pdf We have a new resource We can ‘sing from the same songbook.’ We can customize our solutions to meet the requirements of our communities and our region. We can have a Win-Win-Win for the consumer, the developer, and the community.

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