Theme 3- spain and portugal


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Theme 3- spain and portugal

  1. 1. The Portuguese Empire History 140 By Ryan Babers
  2. 2. History of Portugal  Dates back to early Middle Ages  Roman name- Portus Cale, and early settlement located at the mouth of the Duro River  2000 B.C. Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the 2nd Punic Wars. Renamed Portus Cale (Port of Cale)  The name would eventually evolve into Portugal  Almost all of the peninsula was annexed to the Roman Empire  The Carthaginians were expelled from their coastal colonies  Rome installed a colonial regime, and Lusitania Grew in prosperity and many of modern day Portugal’s cities were founded  15th & 16th century Portugal Ascended to world power status during European Age of Discovery  Military decline with battle of Alcacer Wuibir in Morocco 1578 and Spain’s aborted attempt to conquer England in 1588
  3. 3. Portuguese history cont. Early 5th century Germanic tribes, the Suevi & Buri invaded the Iberian peninsula and colonized Gallaecia (Modern Northern Portugal and Galicia) The Buri settled in the region Terras de Boiro (Lands of the Buri) In 711 A.D. the Islamic Moors (Berbers & Arabs) from North Africa invaded the peninsula and destroyed the Visigothic kingdom War broke out after the Moors kicked the Goths out and they fought to reclaim land. Known as war of Reconquest In 1065 Portugal gained it’s independence under rule of Garcia II due to Feudal power struggles, Portuguese and Garcian nobles rebelled The country rejoined under Garcia II’s brother, Alfonso VI of Leon On June 24, 1128, Portugal officially declares its national origin with the battle of Sao Mamede Alfonso proclaimed himself first prince of Portugal and eventually first King of Portugal In 1249 to 1250 the Algarve (Southernmost Region) was reconquered from the Moors Portugal advanced in maritime, geographic, mathematical technology
  4. 4. The Portuguese Empire  Also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or Portuguese Colonial Empire  Was the first global empire in history  Longest-lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost 6 centuries  With recent gains in science and technology, Portuguese sailors started to explore the coast of Africa in 149 to find a sea route to the valuable Asian spice trade market  In 1500, Pedro Alvares accidentally discovers Brazil  A string of outposts or “padroes” were created along African, Middle Eastern, and Asian coastlines  Between 1580 & 1640 Portugal partnered with Spain but ruled separately  Portugal became subject of attacks by France, Britain, and the Netherlands due to new partnership with Spain which also began the decline for Portugal
  5. 5.  During the 17th century, Portuguese trade monopoly collapsed in the Indian Ocean with losses to the Dutch in Portuguese India and Southeast Asia Brazil had become Portugal’s prized possession until Brazil broke away in 1822 Portuguese empire was reduced to colonies on the African coastline
  6. 6. Colonial Brazil  In 1500 Pedro Alvares Carbal landed in Brazil and made claim under King Manuel I of Portugal  Portuguese extracted brazil wood from the rainforest for it’s value and red dye  The Treaty of Tordesillas signed in 1494 created the Tordestillas Meridian, dividing the world between the Kings of Portugal & Castile (Spain)  All Land discovered or to be discovered east of the meridian was to be property of Portugal, west of it Spain  Treaty was most likely the most decisive event in Brazilian history  The Treaty of Madrid likewise mapped out Brazil’s coastline  In 1534, King John III divided land into 15 captavies of Brazil which were given to Portuguese noblemen  Only Pernambuco and San Vicente prospered  Most captaincies failed due to the resilience of indigenous peoples, shipwrecks, and internal disputes, between the colonies  City of Olinda prospered from sugarcane mills which sugar was very valuable to Europe empires at the time
  7. 7. Colonial Brazil Sao Vincente profited more traffic of indigenous slaves A large fleet led by Tome de Sousa set sail to Brazil to establish a government in the colony Tome became the first Governor-General of Brazil He established the capital City, Sulvador da Bahia (Northeastern Brazil) During the establishment of the government much of the inhabitants rebelled and resisted In 1763, the capital was moved to Rio de Janeiro Governor Tome brought over the first Jesuits who also helped in the founding of Rio de Janeiro Most Jesuits were successful at converting the natives due to the understanding of their culture During 1530-1700, Brazil profited from it’s sugarcane industry as well as its cotton and tobacco but declined with competition from the French and Dutch
  8. 8. The Spanish Empire
  9. 9. The History of Spain Rome in the 4th century much like the Portuguese ruled  In 1492 Christopher Columbus had been authorized to most of present day Spain in the Iberian Peninsula (known explore the “New World” and was the first European to do as Hispania) so After the Roman empire had collapsed from invading Germanic tribes, the Iberian Peninsula was controlled  Isabella had strategize for long-term political stability by mostly by the Visigoths arranging special marriages for her five children Some of the late Roman empire’s influence remained with  A vast majority of Jews and Muslims from former Islam the Visigothic empire rule and Jewish settlement were given an ultimatum to convert to Christianity or face expulsion from Spain With the arrival of the Moors in the 8th century, they had begun to control much of the Iberian Peninsula  Gypsies who also inhabited the area also shared the same fate or were ordered for execution The Battle of Covadonga had signified a Muslim defeat and under King Pelagrus of Asturias a monarchy was created being one of the first stages of the Reconquista The spread of Christianity had rivaled Islam rule in the area and drove out many Muslims however, they had influence the peninsula with their technology, culture, and society During the reconquista, new Christian kingdoms arose The Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Aragon had become most important kingdoms The Catholic monarchs, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married in 1469 laying down the foundation for the Kingdom of Spain
  10. 10. Habsburg Spain  Hapsburg Spain is the history of Spain over 16th & 17th centuries (1506-1700) where Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Hapsburg dynasty under Charles V and Philip II of Spain  Spain had reached its peak under Hapsburg rule and began to decline near the end of the 17th century  The Spanish Habsburg had created the first de facto unified state in the Iberian Peninsula with the inclusion of Portugal  Through several political changes, Spain eventually was united under a single ruler, Ferdinand II of Aragon  Before Ferdinand II’s rise to power a confederacy was in place if kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre  In 1516m Ferdinand II died which led to the ascension of the young Charles to the throne as Charles I of castile and Aragon which founded the monarchy of Spain  Charles had inherited all of the new world claimed by Spain  With territorial Habsburg acquisitions, Charles eventually would become Emperor Charles V
  11. 11. Hapsburg Spain France facing being surrounded by Habsburg territories invaded Spain’s territories mostly in Italy and Navarre (2nd Franco-Spanish conflict) France was easily defeated and forced to abandon Milan again After the death of Charles in 1558, Philip II came to power and repelled the French once more Spain relied heavily on it’s assets overseas It’s most important colonial city establishment in the new world was Mexico city in 1524 which served as an administrative HQ in the region
  12. 12. The Spanish Empire The Spanish empire was one of the first modern global empires and one of the largest in world history Religion played a very strong role in the spread of the Spanish empire The ideology that Spain could bring Christianity to the new world played a strong role in the expansion of Spain’s empire Spanish sea exploration and expansion opened up trade routes across the Atlantic to the Americas and across the Pacific between East Asia and Mexico through the Philippines After arrival, Spanish conquistadors had disintegrated the Aztec, Inca, and Mayan governments Spain was dominating the seas and hit a cultural golden age in the 16th & 17th centuries Disease had wiped out much of the natives in Spain’s new territories who were seen as potential growth to their economy Spain experienced a golden age in the 17th century which was a period of arts and letter in the Spanish empire coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs A Greek artist El Greco settled in Spain and infused Spanish art with Italian renaissance styles and helped create a unique Spanish style of painting Spanish literature was also in the spotlight that showcased the famous work of Miguel de Cervantes and Lope de Vega
  13. 13.  Hernan Cortez had achieved Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire in 1519-521 The new territory would become Viceroyalty of New Spain or present day Mexico The conquest of the Incas by Francisco Pizarro was of equal significance as well (Viceroyalty of Peru) In the Pacific (1565), the Spanish made its first Spanish settlement in the Philippines founded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the service of Manila galleons was instituted The galleons shipped goods from all over Asia across the Pacific to the Mexican coast Goods would then be shipped to Spanish treasure fleets for shipment to Spain The Spanish post of Manila was established for trade in 1572 The islands of Guam, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, and Palau followed
  14. 14. Struggle & Survival in Colonial America:The people of the Portuguese and Spanish Colonies in America
  15. 15. (Por) Damiana da Cunha  (Female) , Tribal group: Caiapo  Origin: Goias, Brazil  Luis da Cunha is the godfather of Damiana  Damiana is the Indian heroine of Goias- granddaughter of Angrai-oxa  Was a teacher, missionary, mediator, frontierswoman, and expedition leader  Was baptized and given the Christian name, Damiana in honor of her godfather  In her teenage years she went to live in the new village of Maria Primera as a hostage in the governor’s household to be raised in European fashion as an ambassador of (Caiapo)  She may have possibly attended a domestic school in spinning cotton and weaving on wooden looms where she had received extensive training from non-white women  Her 1st husband from Portugal left but she remarried to a Brazilian Manuel Pereira da Cruz, a civilian, former militiaPresent day Goias, Brazil corporal, and poor Mulatto peasant
  16. 16. Damiana continued Damiana lived in the context of the late colonial aldeia, the secular descendant of the old frontier mission-station of earlier times Her ideals regarding the conditions of Indian life were developed there She had distinguished herself as a communal leader Supporter of the church and mediator between inhabitants and colonial and Brazilian state Principal Indian leader of the community She Died in 1831
  17. 17. (Por) Catarina de Monte Sinay  Female, Nun and Entrepreneur  Desterro Convent of Bahia Brazil  Became Madre Catarina de Monte Sinay (Nun)  Vowed to God, the Virgin, Saint Francis, and Saint Clare she would forever honor her sacred promise to live in poverty, chastity, and obedience  Signified a spiritual wedding; “Bride of Christ”  For 6 years she lived as a pupil and secular ward of the nuns  Bahia was the leading sugar producer but lost it’s edge to British, French, and Dutch Islands emerging as sugar producers in the Caribbean and pacific  Bahia was left in a state of depression
  18. 18. Catarina continued  The church had been so well integrated with the natural order in Bahia which was known as the Bay of All Saints and All Sinners  Catarina felt her relationship with God was direct and immediate because of her passion for the lord  She had been drawn to the faith by the procession, the colors, the rhythm of movement and sound  She also felt purified by performing such rituals and believed the convent life was satisfying. She had participated in elaborate rituals  The convent life provided her with companionship of her sister and other friends  Catarina felt the humility within taking much interest in her intelligence and skill at business and financial dealings  She had accumulated an immense amount of wealth from her father and herself which she had made profits from making sweets  Most of her wealth she had given away
  19. 19. (Esp.) Diego Vasicuio  Male, Native priest of Peru  Mission was to convert Indians of Peru into sincere, observant Catholics  He and others were influential member(s) of Indian communities, and worked through individual, informal contacts with their neighbors to hand down Gods and gospels from one generation of believers to another  Was taught to recite proper prayers and perform the specific ceremonies of the cult  Diego and other had been key elements to converting the Indians of Peru  He had defended the Sormina Cult from a parish priest who wanted to eradicate them  Diego was over 90 years at the time he had testified to the parish priest  He had left his home to serve in the militia or to find a praying job to meet tribute obligations
  20. 20. Diego continued  Due to heavy deaths in the mita mines, he had to serve in the mita more frequently than hoped  The working conditions had been brutal for many Indians who made up majority of the workers  The mid 17th century saw the cult flourishing again
  21. 21. (Esp.) Isabel Moctezuma  Aztec female, Mexico-New Spain  (Donas Isabel (Tecuichpo Ixcaxochitzin)- daughter of Moctezuma II  Daughter of Emperor and Cathololic queen of Spain  Devout Catholic and Hispanicized woman who bridged the worlds of Spanish and Indian together  Was a symbol of great legal and sociological importance to the Hispanization and Christianization of Mexico  Awarded encomienda of Tacuba by Hernan Cortes  Encomienda would provide her with a suitable dowry for marriage which was seem as a signifier to the evangelization of Mexico  Mix of races in New Spain was to be founded on principle of the legitimate grounds of holy matrimony, providing a solid matrix for a new society  Isabel was thought to hasten evangelization of the country  Had become wife of Cortes (as mistress)
  22. 22. Isabel continued
  23. 23. (Esp.) Miguel Hernandez  Male, free mulatto (mixed black/white ancestry)  Born in Mexico city  Lived a good, full life in the 16th century  Married with kids, his wife a Mexican Indian (Aztec)  Miguel faced racism, at the time life was difficult for people of mixed blood  Very average man who wasn’t spiritual or adventurous  Has a distinct signature, was literate, and wrote out worlds  Unusual for mulattos, blacks, and Indians  Legitimate son of Pedro & Ana Hernandez  2nd generation Mexican
  24. 24. Miguel continued  Was a muleteer- A person who drives mules  Moved to the provinces for opportunities to avoid harsh racism in city  The town of Queretaro promoted economic growth that generated social opportunities  Miguel became one of the leading mulatto citizens (due to his skills and traits)  He had become friends with commoners and higher class citizens, whites  Defied stereotypes  Constructed own freighting business  Many of his friends had lived next to him
  25. 25. (Esp.) Micaeia Angela Carrillo  Female, Mexico-New Spain  Labored fields, manufactured pulque, a intoxicating drink, proded, rode horseback  Her daughter Maria Antonia also participated in same work  Prior to her death Micaeia provided her kids with property and training in a craft  Lived in Nuestra Senora de Asucron Amozoque, a predominantly Indian village near Puebla de los Angeles  Puebla was in a good location for commercial trade between the colonial capital and its principal port
  26. 26. Micaeia continued  Puebla was in a good location for commercial trade between the colonial capital and its principal port  Amozoque was comprised of Spaniards, mestizos, and malattoes, and also some local Indians  Dona Micaela and her family rented and owned lands within Indian Amozoque  Micaela had purchased land worth more than 1000 pesos  She married a cacique, Juan Tapia y Luna and increased her nobility in the town  They occupied a halfway position between Indian and Spanish society. They embraced the privileges of the Indian nobility  Her husband died in 1730 and had begun to rent maguey plants on other people’s land  The plants sap had helped Micaeia raise her kids and supported her with wealth