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Instructional Design


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A presentation discussing the theories used in instructional design, models and the considerations of creating instructional materials.

Published in: Education, Technology
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Instructional Design

  1. 1. Efficiency & Effectiveness The origin of Instructional Design (ID) dates back to the U.S. military during World War II in the early 1940’s. The materials were based in the principles of instruction, learning and human behavior. The primary purposes were to assist in the selection of candidates for the armed forces and to train large numbers of troops. The focus of the design was to meet the needs of learners through the uses of: • Analysis • Design • Evaluation
  2. 2. • Before launching in, recognize the model’s as interconnected in nature. Each model has built upon the structure and idealism of the predecessor. • Making connections between past models will allow you to better understand the previous and current structure of instructional design. • It will also help in the conception of upcoming movements in HIED today.
  3. 3. 1940’s ConeofExperience Edgar Dale- Cone of Experience • A hierarchy of instructional methods and their effectiveness in learner achievement.
  4. 4. 1950’s Benjamin Bloom- Blooms Taxonomy • A classification of the objectives that educators set for students divided into three "domains": cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels. • The following slide will discuss the revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy commonly used today. BloomsTaxonomy
  5. 5. Original Domain New Domain • Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, and David Krathwohl revisited the cognitive domain in the mid-nineties and made some changes. Changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms rearranging them and creating a processes and levels of knowledge matrix. 1990’s Blooms Revised Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom- Blooms Taxonomy
  6. 6. 1960’s Robert Gagné - 9 Events for Instruction • A series of events which follow a systematic instructional design process that share the behaviorist approach to learning (focuses on the outcomes or behaviors of instruction or training). 9 Events for Instruction
  7. 7. Dick & Carey-Instructional Design Model • A systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts. The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction. 1970’s Instructional Design Model
  8. 8. The ADDIE Model • Most current ID models are variations of this model or incorporate it’s structure/ideas. • Developed in 1975 at Florida State University for the United States Army. • In 1997, J. J. G. Van Merrienboer connected the idea that the ADDIE model components can “plug and play” with various other ID models. • Because the model was designed through a university a summative approach was infused in order to evaluate the validity of the learning/training theory. • Instructional Designers using this model are typically more concerned with actually producing, leading to a more formative approach in order to refine goals and evolve strategies.
  9. 9. Backwards Design This form of instructional design works backwards by focusing on the learning outcomes and desired end result as the first approach. After identifying an end goal the process moves to identify how the instructor can recognize student learning and finally how to create the instructional experiences to engage students within the learning.
  10. 10. Quality Matters (hyperlink) • The Quality Matters Rubric has become the most widely used set of standards for the design of online and blended courses at the college level. • It is important to note; one rubric type is not better than another. Instead, both serve unique purposes in education development and assessment. • The following two slides will demonstrate the two concepts. Analytic- Rubrics that identify and assess components of a finished product. Holistic- Rubrics that assess student work as a whole. What’s the Difference?
  11. 11. Analytic Rubric
  12. 12. AccessibilityWhen considering course design accessibility for all students needs to be considered. Visual/Hearing • Equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content • Inclusion of screen reader or subtitle technologies Biggest Barriers • Inaccessible documents • Videos without transcripts or captions Visual • Design can’t rely on color alone to convey information. Cognitive/Eyesight • The user needs to have control of time sensitive content Mobility • Accessibility of embedded user interfaces (tab key vs. mouseclicks)
  13. 13. • Formal education does not fully inform the entire population because it can’t be accessed by all. • OER’s are evolutionary technologies that use the web to share and spread educational content. They do not require printed materials to access information. Equal access technology= Equal opportunities in life (Hyperlink)
  14. 14. Resources