The origin of Instructional Design (ID)
dates back to the U.S. military during World War II in the
early 1940’s. The materials were based in the principles
of instruction, learning and human behavior. The
primary purposes were to assist in the
selection of candidates for the armed forces and to
train large numbers of troops. The focus of the
design was to meet the needs of learners through
the uses of:
• Before launching in, recognize the
model’s as interconnected in nature.
Each model has built upon the
structure and idealism of the
• Making connections between past
models will allow you to better
understand the previous and current
structure of instructional design.
• It will also help in the conception of
upcoming movements in HIED today.
Edgar Dale- Cone of Experience
• A hierarchy of instructional methods and their
effectiveness in learner achievement.
Benjamin Bloom- Blooms Taxonomy
• A classification of the objectives that educators set for
students divided into three
"domains": cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is
dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge
and skills at lower levels.
• The following slide will discuss the revised version of
Bloom’s Taxonomy commonly used today.
Original Domain New Domain
• Lorin Anderson, a former student of
Bloom, and David Krathwohl
revisited the cognitive domain in the
mid-nineties and made some
changes. Changing the names in the
six categories from noun to verb
forms rearranging them and creating
a processes and levels of knowledge
Blooms Revised Taxonomy
Benjamin Bloom- Blooms Taxonomy
Robert Gagné - 9 Events for Instruction
• A series of events which follow a systematic instructional
design process that share the behaviorist approach to
learning (focuses on the outcomes or behaviors of instruction
9 Events for Instruction
Dick & Carey-Instructional Design
• A systems view of instruction as opposed to
viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts. The
model addresses instruction as an entire system,
focusing on the interrelationship between context,
content, learning and instruction.
Instructional Design Model
The ADDIE Model
• Most current ID models are variations of this model or
incorporate it’s structure/ideas.
• Developed in 1975 at Florida State
University for the United States
• In 1997, J. J. G. Van Merrienboer
connected the idea that the ADDIE
model components can “plug and
play” with various other ID models.
• Because the model was designed through a
university a summative approach was infused in
order to evaluate the validity of the
• Instructional Designers using this model are
typically more concerned with actually
producing, leading to a
more formative approach in order to refine
goals and evolve strategies.
This form of instructional design works backwards by
focusing on the learning outcomes and desired end
result as the first approach. After identifying an end goal
the process moves to identify how the instructor can
recognize student learning and finally how to create the
instructional experiences to engage students within the
• The Quality Matters Rubric has become the most widely used
set of standards for the design of online and blended courses
at the college level.
• It is important to note; one rubric type is not better than
another. Instead, both serve unique purposes in education
development and assessment.
• The following two slides will demonstrate the two concepts.
Rubrics that identify and
assess components of a
Holistic- Rubrics that
assess student work as a
What’s the Difference?
AccessibilityWhen considering course design accessibility for all students needs to be considered.
• Equivalent alternatives to auditory
and visual content
• Inclusion of screen reader or
• Videos without
transcripts or captions
• Design can’t rely on color alone to
• The user needs to have control of
time sensitive content
• Accessibility of embedded user
interfaces (tab key vs. mouseclicks)
• Formal education does not fully inform
the entire population because it can’t
be accessed by all.
• OER’s are evolutionary technologies
that use the web to share and spread
educational content. They do not
require printed materials to access
Equal access technology= Equal opportunities in life